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Book 2 



This book is due at the LOUIS R. WILSON LIBRARY on the 
last date stamped under "Date Due." If not on hold it may be 
renewed by bringing it to the library. 






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MACMILLAN & CO., Limited 














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All rights reserved 

Copyright, 1910, 

Set up and electrotyped Published April, 19x0. Reprinted 
August, October, December, 1910; June, 1911; June, 1912; 
March, August, 1913 ; April, August, 1914; May, August, 1915; 
January, 1916. 

Ifprtoooo ^tesss 

J. 8. Cushlng Oo. — Berwick & Smith Co. 

Norwood, Mass., U.S.A. 


Place of General Geography in this 
Volume. — The most difficult part of 
common school geography is that deal- 
ing with the motions of the earth, lati- 
tude and longitude, winds, rainfall, 
ocean currents, and temperature. Yet 
these subjects are almost universally 
placed at the beginning of the advanced 
book, so that their treatment follows 
immediately upon Primary Geography. 
This arrangement requires children to 
move abruptly from a meager study of 
the simplest facts in geography to its 
broadest abstractions, which is thor- 
oughly bad and unnecessary. 

In this volume only two chapters at 
the beginning of the book precede the 
intensive treatment of the United States. 
The first is a physiographic history of 
the continent, showing how its principal 
mountain ranges and valleys came into 
existence ; how its coal beds were formed ; 
what were the effects of the great Ice 
Age ; and what have been the more 
recent changes in the coast line, with 
their results. Then comes a chapter 
on the Plants, Animals, and Peoples of 
North America ; and the two chapters 
occupy only 26 pages. Whatever further 
facts in regard to winds, rainfall, tem- 
perature, etc., are needed in the study 
of North America have been plainly 
stated, when wanted, just as other con- 
crete facts have been. After our conti- 
nent is finished, and a fair number of 
concrete data, bearing on these matters, 

has been presented, these are treated as 
general topics in some detail. By this 
arrangement, the study of these difficult 
subjects has been postponed at least one 
year, and so many of the facts that are 
necessary to their appreciation have been 
presented concretely that they are then 
approached somewhat inductively. The 
authors regard this as one of the most 
important among the distinguishing fea- 
tures of this volume. 

The general principles in regard to 
industries, distribution of inhabitants, 
mutual relation of city and country, 
and dependence of various sections upon 
one another, form another subject which, 
contrary to custom, is treated in the 
middle and latter parts of the volume. 
One reason for this is that these broad 
truths approach abstractions in their 
nature, and are, consequently, too diffi- 
cult to be earlier appreciated by children. 
They are, moreover, to a large extent, 
a summary of what has preceded, and, 
therefore, naturally come last when a 
more inductive approach is possible. 

Prominence of Review and Comparison. 
— A common defect in the teaching of 
geography is that pupils are allowed to 
forget about one country while studying 
the next ; and the result is that, by the 
time Australia is reached, most of what 
has previously been learned about the 
United States, as well as other countries, 
has faded from memory. Yet the rela- 
tion between North America and the 



other continents is so marked that this 
defect is quite unnecessary. For ex- 
ample, most of the industries and basal 
principles of physiography and climate 
have received the attention of a child 
when he has completed a general study 
of the United States. Foreign lands 
illustrate the same great ideas under 
different conditions. This means that 
the comprehension of foreign countries 
may best be gained by our children, if 
they use their previous knowledge of 
the United States as a basis of compari- 
son. If, then, this old related knowl- 
edge is carefully called to mind when 
the physiography, climate, and industries 
of a foreign land are approached, our 
pupils will not only secure a fuller 
appreciation of that region, but will also 
keep their knowledge of the United 
States fresh by bringing it into use. 

The above has been a controlling idea 
in preparing this volume. Accordingly 
in approaching the physiography of 
South America (p. 236), the physi- 
ography and climate of Europe (pp. 257, 
264), etc., the authors have reproduced 
the corresponding situations in our own 
country at some length. Besides this, 
they have included in the text scores 
of brief comparisons with the United 
States. By this means incidental re- 
views are continually provided, which 
are especially attractive to both teachers 
and pupils. 

To supplement this kind of review 
several sets of questions, which call for 
still different comparisons with the 
United States, are included in the book, 
one series being found at the close of 
the treatment of each continent. These 
are likewise rich in motive, inasmuch as 

they recall leading facts in regard to the 
United States from varying points of 
view. It should be kept in mind, also, 
that each set at the same time reviews 
another continent from a new point of 

Many of the facts in regard to the 
United States which these questions call 
for are not directly presented in the text 
which treats of the various continents, 
and answers for a few of them are not 
indicated in the maps. Also pupils may 
have forgotten some of the important 
information about the United States. 
For these reasons Section VII, covering 
17 pages, is an organized review of 
North America alone. It includes the 
principal facts about our continent which 
every pupil should know on completing 
the grades. 

The title of the last section, " Review 
of the United States and Comparisons 
with Other Countries," indicates provi- 
sion for still further review. It has 
seemed to the authors an anticlimax to 
close several years' study of geography 
with the Islands of the Pacific, lands 
farthest away from us and of least in- 
terest to us. On the other hand, it has 
been deemed highly important that, after 
all the countries of the world have been 
treated, the closing chapter should sum- 
marize the situation and show the rank 
of our own land and its relation to 
others. This secures a final reconsid- 
eration of the principal facts in our 
geography, while at the same time it 
brings them into proper relation and 

On the whole, the authors are of the 
opinion that reviews should occupy a 
large part of the time of instruction; 



and, by the plan followed, pupils will 
have a fairly complete knowledge of the 
United States and the rest of the world 
in their possession, not only when they 
finish the grades, but in years to follow. 

Physiographic Basis and Causal Se- 
quence. — The authors believe that ra- 
tional geography must rest upon a 
physiographic foundation. Physiographic 
conditions most often furnish the reasons 
for the location of human industries, 
the development of transportation routes, 
the situation of cities, etc. In other 
words, when the physiographic facts 
about a, given region are clearly grasped, 
most of the other geographic facts easily 
arrange themselves as links in a causal 
chain. Thus the many details touching 
a certain locality are taught in relation 
with one another, so that they approach 
the form of a narrative, rather than that 
of a mere list of statements. 

Physiography has, therefore, been in- 
troduced freely ; but under two limita- 
tions. First, only such physical facts 
are included as are shown really to 
function in man's relation to the earth. 
Physiography that is clearly shown to 
have a real bearing upon man greatly 
enriches geography; it is the unused 
physical geography that is a stumbling 
block. Second, these physical facts are 
presented in connection with their use, 
not entirely apart from it and in a dif- 
ferent part of the book. 

Abundance of Detail. — The interest 
of a geography text, as of any other 
text, must depend in large measure upon 
the amount of detail included. One 
characteristic of this volume is that it 
deals with its subject in unusual detail. 
Particularly in the treatment of many 

of the fundamental ideas of geography 
is this apparent. As was suggested in 
the Preface of the First Book, the basal 
units for the study of geography, although 
constantly in use, are seldom adequately 
presented in the text-books. This ap- 
plies strikingly, for example, to such 
topics as farm, cattle ranch, irrigation, 
lumber camp, and factory. In order to 
remedy this defect, as far as possible, 
each subject of such a kind is presented 
in these books with as much detail as 
space permits, and in connection with 
that section of country in which it seems 
most prominent. 

For example, lumbering, fishing, and 
the manufacture of cloth, boots, and 
shoes receive their most detailed treat- 
ment in connection with New England ; 
the mining of coal and iron ore and the 
manufacture of iron goods are discussed 
in connection with the Middle Atlantic 
States ; and gold mining, irrigation, and 
grazing are naturally included under 
the ^Yestern States. 

The industries and objects thus de- 
scribed, being fairly typical of industries 
and objects found elsewhere, are on that 
account worthy of being called types. 
Through the careful presentation of such 
types, vivid pictures and an appreciation 
on the part of the pupils are assured. 

The study of the United States has, 
as suggested above, furnisbed occasion 
for detailed treatment of most geo- 
graphic types. Some important fea- 
tures and occupations, however, are not 
found in the United States, but to these 
the authors have endeavored to give the 
same careful consideration. For in- 
stance, so far as space permits, the Bra- 
zilian forest is presented as a type of 



tropical forests (page 243). Other illus- 
trations may be found in the treatment 
of the linen industry on page 270, and 
of the silk industry on page 286. The 
object is to continue to acquaint the 
learner properly with the basal units of 
geography, as well as to make geography 

Organization of Subject-matter. — In 
advanced geography, perhaps even more 
than in the primary book, there is a 
tendency to offer subject-matter in the 
form of disconnected facts. The greater 
amount of detail in the more advanced 
volume no doubt makes it especially 
difficult to avoid such looseness of organ- 
ization. The most flagrant example of 
this evil is the treatment of the United 
States by individual states, which we 
have discarded. To be sure, there is a 
call for a knowledge of our own country 
by states, and an endeavor has been 
made to meet it by several sets of ques- 
tions which require a careful state re- 
view. But when the geography of the 
United States is presented primarily by 
states, the child is oppressed and con- 
fused by the great number of individual 
facts which have apparently the same 
rank. Even an adult cannot easily 
escape a feeling of confusion on reading 
a few pages from a geography that 
divides the subject into such small 

Where this particular defect is avoided, 
it is often difficult to distinguish the 
principal from the subordinate facts and 
to carry the outline of the whole easily 
in mind. The remedy must be found 
first, in the treatment of each country 
or other large subject under only a few 
headings ; and second, in bringing to- 

gether all details that bear upon a par- 
ticular topic, and excluding all else. 
Thus, in the treatment of the Western 
States in this volume, farming by irriga- 
tion is only once extensively treated. 
A whole page is devoted to a discussion 
of the subject, including the manner in 
which irrigation is planned in the vicinity 
of Denver, its cost, and its influence on 
the value of land. These many details 
are associated as parts of one story ; and 
as there are only a few such topics in 
the entire chapter on the Western States, 
it is not difficult to keep in mind the 
leading points. The use of the type 
idea elsewhere accomplishes the same 

The frequent comparisons provided 
for at the close of the chapters likewise 
do much to preserve perspective, for 
they lift the more important thoughts 
into prominence while neglecting non- 
essentials. Similarly the two review 
chapters, one a Review and Comparison 
of our states, the other a Comparison of 
the United States with other countries, 
distinguish in a prominent way the lead- 
ing from the minor facts. But, above 
all, throughout this volume the subject- 
matter in each chapter is presented 
under so few headings that the learner 
is likely to be impressed with the sim- 
plicity of the situation. The authors, 
at least, cherish the hope that the 
pupil will see the outline clearly even 
in the midst of the necessary mass of 

Probably the most important improve- 
ment of this volume over the former 
Tarr and McMurry " Advanced Geogra- 
ph}" " consists in its better organization. 
The marginal headings have been se- 



lected with great care ; also a large 
amount of energy has been consumed 
in bringing into one place all the details 
that bear on a single question, and in 
rigidly excluding all irrelevant matter 
from among them. 

Extent of Changes in this Revision. — 
In bringing the facts in this volume 
down to date, and in reorganizing them 
in the manner above indicated, approxi- 
mately one half of the entire text has 
been rewritten, while much of the re- 
mainder has been modified to some 
extent. These changes, together with 
entirely new maps and many new illus- 
trations, make the book a radical im- 
provement over the original volume, 
while preserving any peculiar merits 
that that book may have possessed. 

The increased quantity of subject- 
matter made it necessary either to widen 
the old style page — of one column — 
or to adopt a new form. Since the 
length of line in the former case would 
have been quite unjustifiable, it seemed 
best to follow the latter plan. 

Maps, Illustrations, and Acknowledg- 
ments. — The maps for this volume have 
been entirely remade and their number 
increased. A feature of especial note 
is the introduction of a series of colored 
physical maps, so that each continent 
is represented by three maps — a politi- 
cal map, a relief map, and a physical 

Many of the drawings of the old book, 
notably those made by Mr. C. W. Fur- 
long, the Avell-known artist, are used 
again in this volume ; we have also 
made use of some of the better half- 
tones in the old book. Many new illus- 
trations are introduced, however, but 

in no case merely for the sake of having 
something new ; change has been made 
only when distinct improvement has 
been possible. The half-tones and other 
illustrations are introduced not merely 
as pictures, but as part of the fund of 
information offered; and it is expected 
that they will be studied in connection 
with the text which they illustrate, 
amplify, or explain. 

We are indebted to Mr. Philip Em- 
erson of the Cobbett School, Lynn, 
Massachusetts, and to Professor R. H. 
Whitbeck of the University of Wisconsin, 
for assistance in the preparation of the 
original volume as acknowledged in its 
preface, and Professor Whitbeck has 
given further aid in this revision, espe- 
cially in the selection of illustrations. 
Valuable assistance in preparation of 
statistics and lists of books of reference 
has been rendered by Mr. Irvine Per- 
rine and Miss Kathryn Kyser of Cornell 
University. Naturally we are indebted 
to many sources for the material mak- 
ing up the text in this volume, but 
among; them Mills' " International Geoa;- 
raphy," " The Statesman's Year Book," 
The United States Census Report, and 
Ratzel's " History of Mankind " call for 
special mention. 

As for illustrations, aside from those 
made by Mr. Furlong, already acknowl- 
edged, we are especially indebted to 
William Ran of Philadelphia, from whose 
extensive collection of photographs we 
have selected a large proportion of the 
photographs from which our half-tones 
are made. To other photographers 
whose pictures we have used — a list 
far too large to incorporate here — and 
to other sources acknowledged in the 


preface of the "Complete Geography" 
we are also indebted. Special men- 
tion should be made of the assistance 
rendered by the Philadelphia Com- 
mercial Museum in supplying us with 

a series of world product maps, and 
in giving us permission to reproduce 
some of their photographs. The relief 
maps were made by E. E. Howell of 











The Story of odr Continent . 

Plants, Animals, and Peoples of 
Xorth America 
Plants and Animals 
Peoples . 

Thf. United States 
General Facts 
Xew England 
Middle Atlantic States 
Southern States 
Central States 
Western States 

Territories and Dependencies of 
the United States 
Alaska ..... 
Porto Rico and Cuba . 
Panama Canal Zone 
The Hawaiian Islands . 
Other Small Island Possessions 
The Philippine Islands . 

Countries Xorth of the United 
States .... 
Canada and Newfoundland . 
Greenland .... 

Countries South of the United 
Mexico . 
Central America 
The West Indies 
The Bermudas 

Review of Xorth America 

The United States 

Other Countries of Xorth America 

Relation of United States to Other 
Countries ...... 

Value of Steam and Electricity in De- 
velopment of Xorth America . 












I. The Earth 

II. Latitude. Longitude, and Standard 


Latitude and Longitude 

Standard Time . . . . . 


III. Winds and Rain 206 

Winds 206 

Rain 210 

IV. Ocean Movements, and their 

Effects; also Distribution of 
Temperature .... 218 

Ocean Movements, and their Effects . 218 
Distribution of Temperature . . 223 
V. Plants, Animals, and Peoples of 

the Earth 227 

Plants and Animals .... 227 
Peoples 231 


I. General Facts 236 

II. Brazil 243 

III. Argentina 245 

IV. Uruguay and Paraguay . . . 247 
V. The Guianas and Venezuela . . 248 

VI. Tropical Andean Countries . . 248 

ATI. Chile 254 

VIII. Islands near the Continent . . 255 


I. General Facts 257 

II. The British Isles .... 263 

III. The Xetherlands, Belgium, and 

Luxemburg 277 

The Xetherlands (Holland) . . 277 

Belgium 280 

Luxemburg ...... 283 

IV. France 283 

V. Spain and Portugal .... 290 

VI. Norway, Sweden, and Denmark . 295 

VII. Russia 302 

VIII. German Empire 308 

IX. Switzerland 319 

X. Italy 323 

XL Austria-Hungary .... 330 

XII. The Balkan Peninsula . . . 334 


2lil I. Asia 341 

201 j General Facts 342 

205 | The Turkish, or Ottoman, Empire . 347 






Arabia, Persia, and Afghanistan . . 350 
Russia in Asia ..... 352 

The Indian Empire and Ceylon . . 354 
Indo-China and the Malay Peninsula . 360 
Republic of China ..... 361 
The Japanese Empire and Korea . . 367 

Africa 373 

General Facts 373 

Northern Africa 377 

Southern Africa ..... 384 

Central Africa . - . . . . 386 

Islands near Africa .... 389 


III. Australia and Island Groups . . 390 

Australia 390 

Island Groups 396 


Review op United States and Comparison 
with Other Countries . 

Appendix . . . . - . 

References to Books and Articles 
Tables of Area, Population, etc. . 



. 400 

. 415 
. 415 
. 424 

. 433 




1. The Eastern and Western Hemispheres . 1 

2. Mercator Chart of the World ... 1 
9. North America, Political Map ... 4 

10. North America, Physical Map ... 4 
38. Countries claiming the Central Part of 

North America in 1760 ... 24 

40. United States. Political Map ... 26 

41. United States, Physical Map ... 27 
45. New England, Political Map . . .'31 
64. Middle Atlantic States, Political Map . 48 
89. Map to show the Location of New York 

City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore . 66 

94. Southern States, Political Map . . 71 

125. Central States, Political Map ... 92 
160. Western States, Political Map . . .118 
199. Alaska, Political Map . . . .149 
205. West Indies with Special Map of Cuba 

and Porto Rico, Political Map . . 152 
214. United States' Dependencies in Pacific, 

Political Map 158 

219. Dominion of Canada, Political Map . 161 
232. Mexico and Central America, Political 

Map 171 

265. Forest Map of the United States . .187 
303. Mean Annual Rainfall of the United 

States 214 


325. Distribution of Animal Regions of World 231 

326. Races of Man 231 

333. South America, Political Map . . . 236 

334. South America, Physical Map . . . 236 

358. Europe, Political Map .... 257 

359. Europe, Physical Map .... 257 
366. British Isles, Political Map . . . 263 

381. The British Empire 275 

390. Western Europe, Political Map . . 283 

416. Central Europe, Political Map . . 308 

417. Possessions of United States, German}', 

France, and The Netherlands . . 308 

455. Asia, Political Map . .' . . .311 

456. Asia, Physical Map ..... 341 
465. Holy Land, Political Map . . . 348 

496. Africa, Political Map . . . .373 

497. Africa, Physical Map .... 373 

518. Australia and Islands of the Pacific, Po- 

litical Map 390 

519. Australia and Islands of the Pacific, 

Physical Map 390 

533. Distribution of People in the World . 400 
563. Transportation Routes and Telegraph 

Lines 412 




FN : I" It 



North America 



Western States 


Great Ice Sheet in the United States 



South America 


United States 





New England 



Asia . 


Middle Atlantic Stales 





Southern States .... 



Australia . 


Central States ..... 







Gl. Boston, Providence, Portland, and Wor- 
cester . . . . . . .11 

86. Buffalo, Rochester, and Albany . . 64 

■Si). New York. Philadelphia, and Baltimore 

{Colored) .... facing 66 

92. Baltimore, Washington, and Philadel- 
phia ....... 08 

1 16. New Orleans, Memphis, Birmingham, and 

Atlanta 84 

150. Chicago and Milwaukee .... 109 

154. Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Cincinnati, 

and Pittsburg 112 

157. St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, Minne- 
apolis, and St. Paul . . . .114 
187. San Francisco, Portland, Tacoma, and 

Seattle 138 

228. Montreal and Quebec . . . .108 
357. London arid Liverpool .... 271 
304. Paris and Surrounding Country . . 287 
425. Berlin and Vicinity . . . . .315 



285. The Zones 

293. Wind Belts of Earth .... 

204. Wind Belts in Summer .... 

295. Wind Belts in Winter .... 

296. Winds and Rainfall, South America 

297. Winds and Rainfall, Northwestern North 

America ...... 

298. Winds and Rainfall, Africa 

299. Mean Annual Rainfall of the World 

300. Winds and Rainfall, Australia 

301. Winds and Rainfall, South America and 

Africa, February ..... 

302. Winds and Rainfall, South America and 

Africa, June 


























Mean Annual Rainfall, United States 

{Colored) .... facing 214 

Weather Map, United States . . . 215 
Weather Map, United States . . .210 

Summer Monsoons, India . . . 217 

Winter Monsoons, India .... 218 
Isothermal Chart, United States, for 

January 224 

Isothermal Chart, United States, for July 224 

Isothermal Chart of the World for July . 225 

Isothermal Chart of the World for January 226 

Rainfall Map of Europe .... 262 

Rainfall Map of British Isles . . . 264 

Influence of Climate on Vegetation, Africa 374 








Distribution of Population, United States, 

Distribution of Cities, United States 
Corn Production, United States 
Wheat Regions, United States . 
Cotton-producing States, United States 
Tobacco-producing States, United States 
Fruitgrowing Region, United States 
Irrigation in United States 
Forest Map, United States {Colored) 

Distribution of Fish, North America 
Distribution of Coal and Iron, United 

States ....... 

Mineral Regions, United States 
Manufacturing Districts, United States 
Navigable Interior Water Routes, United 


Railroads of United States 

Trunk Line Railroads, Eastern United 









Fir. u p.i 







Growth of Territory of United States 
Coal Fields of Europe 
Coal Distribution in British Isles 
Geographic Distribution of Indiai 

Corn ...... 

Geographic Distribution of Wheat . 
Geographic Distribution of Sugar . 
Geographic Distribution of Rice 
Geographic Distribution of Coffee . 
Geographic Distribution of Tea am 

Cocoa ...... 

Geographic Distribution of Sheep . 
Geographic Distribution of Cotton . 
Geographic Distribution of Silk 
Geographic Distribution of Coal 
Geographic Distribution of Rubber and 

Petroleum ..... 
Geographic Distribution of Iron Ores 
Geographic Distribution of Gold Ores 
Geographic Distribution of Silver Ores 
Geographic Distribution of Manufactures 










43. Distribution of Population in United 

States in 1790 

44. Density of Population in North America 
342. Density of Population in South America 
364. Density of Population of Europe 











Density of Population of Asia . . . 346 

Density of Population of Africa . . 376 

Density of Population of Australia . . 394 
Distribution of People in the World 

(Colored) . . 400 


66. The Fall Line 

80. The Erie Canal . 

113. Cotton Manufacturing in the South 

2S7. The Globe, with Circles of Latitude 

288. The Earth, with Meridians 

289. The Northern Hemisphere 

290. Standard Time, United States . 




. 49 


Ocean Currents of the World . 

. 220 

. 60 


Ocean Currents of the North Atlantic 

. 221 

. 82 


Religions of the World 

. 234 

. 202 


The Ice Sheet of Europe . 

. 260 



Portion of The Netherlands below 



. 277 



The Lower Nile .... 

. 379 



FIG. 1. 

The Eastern and Western Hemispheres. 


I. The Story of our Continent 

There are a hundred and twenty-five 
million persons in North America at the pres- 
Our continent ent time, although a century 
not always as ago there were scarcely one 
it now is tenth f that number. This 

wonderful growth has been largely due to 
the valuable mineral products of the earth ; 
to the soil and climate, which 
have allowed the forests and 
the many different kinds of 
plants and animals to thrive; 
and to the rivers, waterfalls, 
lakes, and harbors, which 
have made manufacturing 
and shipping easy. 

Yet these valuable things 
were not always here, as we 
now find them. Each has 
had a long history. For, as 
it takes time to build a house, 
and to prepare the boards 
from trees, the nails from 
iron ore, and the bricks from 
clay, so it takes time for the 
formation of minerals and 
rocks, and for the building of a continent. 
In fact, millions of years have been re- 
quired for all that work. 

The story of the growth of North Amer- 
Where the * ca ^ as ^ een learned by a care- 
story of its ful study of the rocks ; and, 
growth has although many questions may 
been learned be asked that no maQ ig yet 

able to answer, we are prepared to tell a 
part of that story. 

At one time the earth was probably a 

Its birth 

white-hot sphere, like the sun, but in time 
the outside cooled to a crust 
of solid rock. The interior, 
still heated, continued to shrink and grow 
smaller, as most substances do when cool- 
ing. This caused the solid crust to settle 
and wrinkle, much as the skin of an apple 
wrinkles when the fruit is drying. Water 
collected in the lower portions, making the 


A part of the relief map of North America showing the West Indian 
chain of mountains rising from the bed of the sea. 

oceans, while the higher portions formed 
dry land. Thus North America and the 
other continents were born. 

In its early history the central part of the 
continent was still a broad sea, but the 
eastern and western parts its early 
doubtless resembled the West history 
Indies of to-day, which you will find on the 
map of North America (Fig. 10). Those 
islands are the highest parts of a great 
mountain chain. They seem to be separated 


merely because the ridges upon which they 
rest do not extend above the water (Fig. 3). 

Fig. 4. — Trunks of trees, in the solid rock, standing 
where they grew when these rocks were being de- 
posited as sediment in the Coal Period. 

Although in early times North America 

consisted of mountain crests that formed 

chains of islands, many changes 

Its later life „ ,, , T ,, r 

followed. In the course of 

ages, the mountains rose higher, forming a 
continuous range in the East, and several 
ranges in the West. Then the plains be- 
tween the mountains were slowly raised 
above the ocean, and a large part of the 
continent came into view. 

Ages after the beginning, a pe- 
riod arrived when the climate was 
The Coal much warmer in the 

Period northern part of 

North America than now, and the 
rains were far heavier. During 
that period our coal was formed 
out of the remains of plants. 

There is a good proof that the 
coal used in our stoves and fur- 

1. What coal mlCeS is made ° f 

is made of, plant remains, 
with proof Roots Q f plantg may 

still be seen in the old soil, now 
changed to rock, that lies beneath 
the coal beds ; and stems of plants, 
and even trunks of trees (Fig. 4) 
changed to coal, are found in the coal beds 

even with the naked eye, one can see that 
coal is made of bits of plants pressed closely 
together. Sometimes the full form of a 
fern or leaf, called a fossil, may be seen 
(Fig. 5). 

As the crust of the earth slowly shrank 
and wrinkled, the land was raised and 
lowered. Even now it is 2 Howcoal 
slowly moving in some places, beds were 
and it was doing the same dur- formed 
ing the Coal Period. At that time parts of 
the old sea bottom were raised above the 
water, forming extensive plains in the east- 
ern part of North America. Those plains 
were so low and level that vast swamps 
were produced (Fig. 6), on which a rank 
vegetation grew, as in a tropical jungle. 

The swamps were, no doubt, somewhat 
like those which may now be seen in many 
parts of the earth. Possibly the vegetation 
grew far more thickly than now, perhaps 
even more thickly than it now grows in the 
forests of the Amazon or the everglades of 
Florida. The plants of the Coal Period 
were different from those of the present 
(Fig. 7); indeed, none of the many kinds 
of trees that we now know grew in those 
ancient forests. 

Fig. 5. 

Besides, with a microscope, or at times 

The print of a fern in a rock that was formed during the 
Coal Period. 

After the plants had grown in those 
swamps for hundreds of years, the plains 


sank beneath the sea, and layers of mud, 
sand, and gravel collected over them. 
These have since been hardened into layers 
of rock, and the vegetation beneath them has 
been changed into coal. 
After another long period the 
sea bottom was raised once 
more, and dense swamp veg- 
etation again grew; but these 
plants had their roots in the 
ocean mud that had buried 
the earlier swamp. After 
many more years the plains 
again sank, and the swamp 
vegetation was covered over, 
as before. This rising and 
sinking of the land continued 
for ages, one set of layers of 
mud, sand, gravel, and veg- 
etation being covered up by 
another, until many such sets 

water, making a woody matting which did 
not fully decay, because the 3. The different 
water prevented air from reach- kinds of coal 
ing it. If it could then have been dug up 

were formed, producing many 

The vegetation gathered in some of the 
swamps to a depth of many feet ; but, 
when this was covered by the layers of 
mud, sand, and gravel, it was pressed more 
tightly together. As the number of these 
layers increased, the pressure became very 
great, and thus the vegetable matter was 
pressed so closely together that it made 
beds of coal. These are usually only two 

Fig. 0. — A view showing how the forests of the Coal Period prohahly looked. 

beds of 

Fig. 7. — Trees of the present day in a swamp in Arkansas. Notice how ver 
different these trees are from those in the swamp of the Coal Period (Fig. ijj 

or three feet thick, but some are as much 
as ten or fifteen feet in thickness. 

When the plants died, they fell into the 

and dried, it would have made good fuel. 
Indeed, in Ireland, Norway, and other cool, 
moist lands, it is now the custom to dig 
such woody matter out of the swamps and 
dry it for burning (Fig. 8). Such fuel, 
called peat, is much used for cooking and 
heating. Some of the poorer coals, known 
as lignite, are little more than peat beds 
partly changed to mineral coal. 

Other beds, having far more pressure 
upon them, have been changed to harder 
coal. One kind of coal, 
called anthracite, found in 
the mountains of Pennsyl- 
vania, has been so greatly 
changed that it is as hard 
as some rocks, and is 
known as hard coal. But 
most of the coal, like that 
of western Pennsylvania and 
the Central States, — al- 
though a real mineral, and 
harder than lignite, — is not 
so hard as anthracite. This 
is called soft, or bituminous, coal. 

All this time, and at other periods during 
the formation of the continent, iron, copper, 


The deposit of gold, silver, building stones, 
other minerals an( j ot ]_ ler m i ne ral substances 

that we use every day, were also slowly 
being made. Many of them, such as gold, 
silver, and copper ores, were deposited in 
cracks in the mountain rock. They were 
brought and left there by hot water, form- 
ing what are called mineral veins. Iron ore 
also has been deposited in beds and veins, 
though not always by hot water. 

Fig. 8. 

water, and thus lowered so that they are 
now neither very high nor very rugged. 
Still, they have some peaks which reach 
more than a mile above sea level. 

It should be understood, however, that it is not a 
mile from the base to the summit of such moun- 
tains ; for mountains usually rest upon a platform, or 
table-land. The table-land, or plateau, upon which 
the Appalachians rest, for instance, is over a quarter 
of a mile above sea level. When we say that the 
mountains are a mile high, therefore, we mean that 
their summit is a mile above the 
level of the ocean, which may be 
many miles from the mountain base. 

The western mountains, or 
Cordillera, are younger and 
therefore less (2) ^ Cor _ 
worn down than auiera and 

the Appalachi- surrounding 

F, i ■ plateaus 
or this 

reason they are much more 
rugged, with many deep 
canyons and lofty peaks, 
some of which rise three miles 
and more above sea level. 
This includes the broad plat- 
eau at their base, which it- 
self is more than a mile in 
height, or as high as the 
mountain peaks of the East. 
Some of these mountains are 

-A scene in Ireland, showing the digging of peat from the bogs. It still growing, and now and 
es out of the bog wet, and is then wheeled away and spread out then an earthquake is caused 

in the sun to dry. 

During the millions of years that the con- 
Other great tinent was slowly growing, 
changes mountain systems and plateaus 

1. Formation of were forming in both the East 

mountains and , ,, , TT ri-., 

plateaus ano - the West. Ihese were 

(1) Appala- caused by the shrinking and 
chian Moun- wrinkling of the earth's crust. 

tains and m, , -, , . 

surrounding The y were to have a g reat ln " 

piateaus fluence upon our climate, and 

therefore upon our crops, our animals, and 

The eastern mountains, called the Appa- 
lachians (Fig. 10), were raised above the 
sea in early ages. Since then they have 
been slowly worn away by weather and 

as the mountain rocks snap 
and move under the great strain. 

While the Appalachians and Cordillera have been 

caused by the shrinking and wrinkling of the earth's 

crust, hundreds of mountain peaks , 

■ ,, ,r ! i i c j i ■ (8) Volcanoes 

in the West have been formed in a 

different way. They are called volcanoes, and are 
built of molten rock, or lain, that has been forced 
to the surface from within the earth. Though no 
longer active, these peaks are known to be volcanoes 
because of their cone shape ; the hollows, or craters, 
in their tops; and the lava and volcanic ash, or 
blown-up lava, of which they are made. 

Hundreds of thousands of square miles of the 
western part of the United States are covered by 
lava. Much of the soil produced by the decay of the 
lava is very fertile, and that is one of the chief rea- 
sons why the central and eastern part of the state of 

itudc Went H'O 1 (.Jn-einviuh 

FIG. 9. 

FIG. 10. 


Fig. 11. — Relief map of North America. 

Washington, which is largely covered with such 
a soil, has become noted for wheat. 

From the mountain systems of the East 

2. Formation of and West < the land slo P eS 

the trough be- gently toward the Mississippi 
tweentheAppa- River (fig. 14). These slopes 

lacnians and the . i • , r i 

Cordillera form a kind ot trough, through 

the lowest part of which this river flows. 
It was by the uplift of the mountains on its 
two sides that this broad trough was formed. 
Measure its width on the map of the United 
States (Fig. 41). 

Like the mountains, this extensive low- 
land, called the plains of the 31ississippi 



Valley (Fig. 15), has had a long history. 
In the early ages so much of it was under 
(l) its earlier water that a sea extended from 
history what is now the Gulf of Mexico, 

all the way to the Arctic Ocean. In the 


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Fig. 12.- 

■ A view in the Western Cordillera showing the rugged mountains 
of that region. 

rock layers that lie beneath the soil of the 
lowland are found many remains, or fossils 
(Fig. 16), of shells, corals, and fish that 
lived in this ancient sea. Upon dying and 
dropping to the bottom, these animals were 
buried in the beds of sand, 
clay, and gravel that have 
since been hardened into rock. 
After a time most of this 
ancient sea bottom was raised 

(2) How it t0 form dl 7 land > 

reached its although a part 

present form of it _ f rom the 

Gulf of Mexico to the southern 
part of Illinois — remained 
under water for a long time 
afterward. Into this sea the 
Mississippi discharged its 
floods, and dropped its load 
of sediment, swept from the 
plains and distant mountains. 

As time went on, the river sediment en- 
tirely filled up this sea, and formed deltas 
and flood plains which — raised by a slight 
uplift — are among the most fertile lands 
of our country. And now the river seems 
bent on filling up the Gulf of 
Mexico itself. Already it has 
built its delta far out into the 
Gulf, as you can see. 

One might not at first think 
that it made much difference 

how the moun- 

i , The great im- 

tains and low- „„,+ * „* 
portance of 

lands happened this arrange- 
to be placed dur- rnent of moun- 

ine the formation tains and 
j, . . , lowlands 

ot our continent; 

but it is, in fact, a matter of 

the greatest importance. 

The Mississippi Valley has 

become the home of many 

millions of people ; and the 

climate in whicli they live, 

together with the crops that 

they raise, depend in large part 

on the direction and height 

of the mountain systems. 

The Cordilleran Highland, for instance, 

has a great influence on the rainfall in this 

valley. In all but the southern part of the 

Mississippi Valley, the winds blow much 

more often from the west than from any other 

Fig. 13.- 

Oopyrighl, 1906, by A. II. Barnes. 

Mount Rainier, in Washington, one of the volcanic cones of 
the West. 


direction. Coming from the Pacific Ocean, 
well laden with moisture, these winds are 
forced to drop more and more of it as they 

carry their warmth and moisture so far 
north. Neither could the cold north winds 
reach so far south. Perhaps you can tell 

Fig. 14. — A section across the central part of the United States to show the relief and the principal slopes. 

pass over one lofty mountain range after 
another. When they finally descend east 
of the Rocky Mountains, therefore, they 
have little dampness left. This leaves the 
plains and plateaus of the 
Northwest dry, or arid. 

The Appalachians, heing 
much lower, allow winds to 
carry more moisture over 
them. Since there are no 
mountains on the south, 
winds from that direction 
can bring in vapor freely. 
Winds do, now and then, 
blow from the Atlantic and from the Gulf 
of Mexico, and for that reason the eastern, 
central, and southern portions of the great 
valley are well watered. 

some of the changes that would follow if 
there were such mountains. 

Long after the coal beds were formed, 
and the great highlands and valleys were 

Fig. 15. — A wheat farm on the level plu 

tral United States 

Ice Age 

1. The vast 
sheet of ice, 

Fio. 16.- 

■Shells or fossils in the rock that was deposited in the ancient 
sea that once covered central United States. 

How different the climate would be if a 
lofty system of mountains extended east 
and west across the Mississippi Valley ! 
Then the warm south winds could not 

made, there came another very important 

event in the preparation of T 

this continent for our home. 

It became far colder than it 
now is, just as dur- 
ing the Coal Period orgIacier 
the climate was much warmer. 
Indeed, it became so cold that a 
sheet of ice, or glacier, was formed, 
so great that it covered a large 
part of northern North America. 
No one is able to say why it came, 
or why it went away ; but all 
who have studied the subject are 
certain that it was here, and 
that it remained even thousands 
of years before melting away. 

An ice sheet similar to that 
ancient one may still be seen in 
Greenland (Fig-. „ . . ., 

v ° 2. A similar 
17). Except along glacier now in 
the very coast, the Greenland 

island of Greenland is now 
buried beneath a glacier which is as large 
as fifteen states the size of New York 




The Greenland glacier has been made 
of snow that has fallen in immense quan- 
tities on the high interior. You know 
that you can change a snowball into ice 
by pressing it in your hands. In a similar 
way, the pressure of the great 
mass of snow in Greenland has 
changed the lower layers into 
ice. As the snow collects and 
becomes ice, it spreads out, or 
flows, from the interior toward 
the coast, much as a piece of 
wax may spread if a weight is 
placed upon it. Moving to- 
ward the sea, this glacier drags 
away the soil, tears off frag- 
ments of the rock, and scours 
the rock "layers, as if it were a 
mighty sandpaper. The move- 
ment is very slow, yet the ice is 
always pushing onward to the 
sea, where enormous icebergs 
are constantly breaking off and floating 
away (Fig. 17). 

The glacier which formerly 

3. Extent of , ° o J 

the Great spread over a part of our con- 

Giacier tinent was likewise made of 

snow that had changed to ice. It covered 
most of the northeastern part of North 
America, reaching as far south as New 
York City and the Ohio River; but as 
you can see from the map (Fig. 18), 

Fig. 17. — A view of a part of the great ice sheet that covers Greenland. 
Here it reaches the sea and discharges huge icebergs into it. 

it did not reach as far south in the North- 

Being over a mile deep in its thickest 
part, and therefore very heavy, 4 Changes1:hat 
the glacier swept away the soil the glacier made 

The Great Ice Sheet 

Model by E. E. IloweU. 
Fig. 18. — A map to show the extent of the Great Ice Sheet in the United States during the Great Ice Age. 



that covered the land. Not only did it do 
this, but, by the help of rock fragments 
held fast in its bottom, it scraped off pieces 
of the solid rock and carried them forward. 
As it slowly moved over the surface, it also 
ground bowlders and pebbles together, and 
rubbed them against the 
solid rock, scratching 
and grooving it (Fig. 
19). Scratches thus 
made may still be seen 
pointing northward, 
toward the place from 
which the glacier moved. 

The rock and soil that 
the glacier carried along 
were finally left in vari- 
ous places. Great heaps 
of clay and gravel, called moraines (Fig. 
20), were deposited along the outer margin, 
where the ice melted because of the warmer 
climate there. The moraine hills, or hum- 
mocks, are sometimes one or two hundred 
feet high. 

After standing for a while, and building a 
moraine in one place, the glacier front 
sometimes ad- 
vanced to the 
south, or per- 
haps melted 
away toward 
the north; and 
each time that 
it halted it 
built up new 
along its front. 
During the 
thousands of 
years that the 
Great Ice 

Sheet lasted, it carried millions of tons of 
clay and rock from one place to another, 
and built many low moraine hills. 

The work of rasping, digging, carrying, 
and dumping which was done by the glacier 
has caused it to be likened to a combined 
file, plow, and dump cart of enormous size. 

and in New 

Fig. V.K — Grooves on the rock, made by tbe Great 
lee Sheet as it dragged bowlders along with it. 

It was this glacier which caused the 
great number of lakes and ponds in the 
northeastern part of North c _„ . ... 

-.,. 5. Effects of the 

America. Minnesota alone is glacier's work ' 
said to have ten thousand, (1) Upon our 
England also lakes 

there are many thou- 
sands (Figs. 21 and 
88). Most of the states 
outside of the region 
covered by the ice sheet 
have very few lakes. 

The manner in which these 
lakes were formed is as fol- 
lows: The load of clay and 
bowlders, or drift, as it is 
called, was not dumped 
evenly over the land. There 
were hollows and ridges left, and after the ice 
melted, water filled the hollows, forming ponds 
and lakes. In other cases the drift partly filled 
valleys and thus built dams, behind which ponds 
and lakes collected. Still a third way in which lake 
basins were formed, was by the glacier digging, or 
plowing, directly into the rock. 

Even our Great Lakes did not exist before the 
coming of the glacier. Their basins occupy broad 

river valleys 
which have been 
blocked by dams 
of drift, and 
deepened by the 
plowing of the 
Great Ice Sheet. 

20. — Hil 

ravel left by the Great lee Sheet where its front 
stood for a while. 

The glacier 
had an im- 
portant influ- 
ence upon our 
ing, also. The 
deposit of drift 
in valleys 
often so filled them that, after (2 ) upon our 
the ice was gone, the streams manufacturing 
were forced to seek new courses. These 
courses sometimes lay down steep slopes, or 
across buried ledges, over which the water 
now tumbles in many rapids and falls (Fig. 
22). Even the great cataract of Niagara 



Fig. 21. — Lake Winnipesaukee, 

in New Hampshire, one of the many lakes of New Euj 
made by the Great Ice Sheet. 

laud caused by the deposits 

(Fig. 68) was caused in this way, and the 
same is true of many of the falls and rapids 
of hilly New England and New York. The 

Flo. 22.- 

■ Enfield Falls, near Ithaca, New York. One of the many 
waterfalls caused by the Great Ice Sheet. 

many lakes act as storehouses to. keep the 
noisy falls and rapids well supplied with 
water. In this way New England and New 
York came to have the abun- 
dant water power which has 
helped to make them impor- 
tant manufacturing centers. 
In sections of our country 
not reached by the glacier, 
rapids and falls are much 
less common. Did the glacier 
cover the land on which you 
live? (See Fig. 18.) 

A third important influence 
of the glacier was upon the 
soil, and there- (3) upon our 

fore upon our farming 

farming. In most parts of 
the country the soil has been 
made by the decay of rock ; 
but in the region which the 
glacier covered, the decayed 
rock was swept away, and 
drift brought by the glacier 
was left in its place. This 
soil was made by the grind- 
ing of rocks together, much 
as flour is made by grinding 
wheat ; in fact, glacier soil is 
sometimes called rock flour. 
In some places the laj'er of 



drift that the glacier left is several hundred 
feet deep. 

The bits of ground-up rock left by the glacier have 
had an important effect upon the soil. Since they 
were gathered from many places, and from many 
different kinds of rock, they some- 
times cause a fertile soil in places 
where the decay of the rocks would 
naturally have formed a sterile soil. 
The constant rusting, or decaying, 
of these rock fragments is also of 
use in keeping the soil supplied 
with plant food. 

On the other hand, in some places 
the glacier failed to grind the rock 
into tiny bits. Instead of that, it 
left many pebbles, and even large 
bowlders, to cover the ground 'and 
hinder the farmer (Fig. 23). In 
other places, the great quantities of 
water supplied by the melting ice 
washed away much of the rock flour. 
This left extensive sand and gravel 
plains that are by no means fertile. 

become evident. For instance, the land 
along the coast of New Jersey is sinking at 
the rate of about two feet a century, while 
that around Hudson Bay is rising. 

Some of the recent changes in the level 

Fig. 23. — A view in New England where tbe jrliieier left great numbers 
nf bowlders in the soil, from which these stone walls have been made. 

In studying about the Mississippi Valley 
and the formation of coal, we saw that the 
Formation of sea bottom, and even the dry 
the coast line land, are not fixed and alwa3"S 
the same. On the contrary, they often 
slowly rise or sink. 

of the land have had an important effect. 
This is shown on our north- 2 Effects of 
eastern coast, where the land sinking of our 
has recently sunk several hun- northern c ° as t 
dred feet. By this sinking the ocean water 
has been allowed to enter the valleys, leaving 

Fig. 24. — A view iu the harbor of Sitka, Alaska. Here the land has been lowered, and only the tops of the hills rise 

above the water, forming many islands. 

Such changes in the level of the land are 
1 Recent even now in progress in many 

movements of places, though the process is 
the land so s j ow that usually years, and 

even centuries, must pass before the changes 

the higher land to form peninsulas, capes, 
and islands, while the valleys have become 
harbors, bays, and straits (Fig. 45). 

The peninsulas of Labrador and Nova 
Scotia, and the hundreds of islands along 



the northeastern coast, including Newfound- 
land, have been formed by this sinking of 
the land. The irregular Pacific coast, from 
Puget Sound northward (Fig. 24), was 
caused in the same way. 

Many good harbors were made by this 
sinking of the land, the best being where 
rivers enter the sea. When the land was 
higher, the streams carved out broad val- 
leys; but as the land sank, the sea entered, 
forming extensive bays and fine harbors. 
In this way the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
was formed ; also New York, Delaware, 
Chesapeake, and San Francisco bays, as 

Fig. 25. 

- A view on the level coastal plain — once a sea bottom — which 
borders the coast south of New York. 

well as many excellent harbors on the east 
and west coasts. What rivers carved out 
the bays mentioned? (See Figs. 41 and 

One reason for so few good harbors along 
the coast of the Southern States is that the 
3 Effects of land in that section has been 
rising of our rising. Just off the coast is a 
southern coast broad oce anbottom plain, called 
the continental shelf, where the water is 
shallow (Figs. 11 and 95). If the con- 
tinental shelf were raised, it would form -a 

That part of the Southern States which 
borders the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic 
Ocean was once a portion of this continental 
shelf, but it has been raised until it is now 
a low plain (Fig. 25). The continental 

shelf is so level that when a part of it was 
lifted above the water there were few places 
for deep inlets, bays, and harbors. After 
the plain was raised, however, the coast was 
slightly lowered ; but the bays thus formed 
are still shallow, and most of the harbors 
poor. The Florida peninsula is also a sea- 
bottom that has been slightly lifted above 
the ocean. 

After changing during millions of years, 
owing to the rising and sinking of the land, 
North America is now third in p resen t s j ze 
size among the six continents shape, and 
of the earth. Which are position of 

larger? Which <™ continent 
are smaller? (See Appendix, 
p. 421.) The continent has 
the form of a triangle, with 
the broadest portion in the 
north. Draw the triangle. 
Compare its shape with that 
of South America (Fig. 1). 
Of Africa (Fig. 1). 

The northern part is so 
wide that Alaska extends to 
within fifty miles of Asia, a 
distance so short that the 
early ancestors of our Indians 
and Eskimos probably first 
reached North America by 
that route. Labrador, the part of the con- 
tinent that extends farthest east, is over 
two thousand miles from Europe. On 
account of the great distance across the 
Atlantic, Europeans for a long time knew 
nothing of North America. It is certain, 
however, that the Norsemen from Scandi- 
navia visited our shores nearly five hundred 
years before Columbus discovered the con- 

Most of the inhabitants of North America 
live far to the south of Alaska and Labra- 
dor, and here the oceans are importance of 
much broader. Thus the in- this position 
habited portion of the continent is a long 
distance from Europe on the east, and a 
still Qfreater distance from Asia on the west. 
This wide separation from other continents 



has had great influence upon the develop- 
ment of the people of North America. It 
helps to explain, for instance, why the 
Spanish colonies were able to win their 
independence from Spain, and the United 
States their independence from England ; 
for the distance across the sea was too great 
to send large armies, and the supplies neces- 
sary for their support. 

Our distance from other continents helps 
also to explain the growth of our industries. 
At first the colonies imported even bricks, 
doors, and timber from Europe. But it 
proved so troublesome and expensive to 
carry such goods so far, that our settlers 
soon learned to produce for themselves 
most of the articles they needed. 

Now that men have learned the use of 
steam, the distance from other countries is 
not so serious a drawback. Sailing vessels 
were very slow, and always at the mere}' 
of winds and storms. Steamships, on the 
other hand, are easily controlled, and may 
go as far in one day as the old-fashioned 
sailing vessels traveled in a week. With 
the use of steam, therefore, immigrants 
from Europe have found their way here by 
millions; and trade with the countries of 
Europe, South America, Asia, and other 
parts of the world has rapidly developed. 
Steam has made the ocean an excellent 
highway for reaching distant points. Thus 
our separation from other continents has 
helped in many ways to make us indepen- 
dent, without bringing serious disadvan- 

1. How has the story of the growth of our conti- 
nent been learned ? 2. Describe the birth and early 
„ . history of the continent. 3. From 

Questions wIiat is coal made? Give proof. 

4. How have the coal beds been 
formed? 5. Name the different kinds of coal and 
give reasons for the difference. 6. What about 
the making of other minerals ? 7. How were the 
mountains and plateaus formed? 8. What can 
you tell about the formation of the Appalachian 
Mountains and surrounding plateaus? 9. About 
the formation of the Cordillera and surrounding 
plateaus ? 10. How were the volcanoes formed ? 
State other facts about them. 11. How was the 

trough formed between the Appalachians and the 
Cordillera? 12. Show how this arrangement of 
mountains and lowlands is of great importance. 

13. Describe the glacier now found in Greenland. 

14. What was the extent of the Great Ice Sheet on 
our continent? 10. What changes did it make? 
16. What were the effects of the glacier's work upon 
our lakes? 17. Upon our manufacturing? IS. Upon 
our farming ? 19. What have been some of the 
effects of the sinking of our northern coast? 
20. Of the rising of our southern coast? 21. What 
is the present size, shape, and position of our conti- 
nent? 22. Explain the importance of this position. 

1. Make a collection of different kinds of coal. 

2. Examine some pieces of soft coal closely, to see 

if vou can discover plant remains. „ 

•3 V.i <- • * i t- • Suggestions 

3. Obtain some peat. 4. Lxamnie 

layers of rock in your neighborhood, to see if they 
contain fossils. 5. Make a drawing similar to Figure 
14. 6. Make a model of a volcano out of sand or 
clay. 7. What becomes of the Greenland icebergs ? 
8. Make a sketch map showing the extent of the 
Great American Ice Sheet. 9. What signs of the 
glacier, if any, can you find in your neighborhood ? 
10. Draw an outline map of the northeastern coast, 
and another of the southern coast, to see how they 
differ. 11. How many days long is the voyage, on 
a fast steamer, from New York to Liverpool? How 
many miles is the distance? 

II. Plants, Animals, and Peoples 
of North America 

i. Plants and Animals 

One of the most important things to 
know about a region is its climate, that is, 
its temperature and rainfall. i n fl uence f 
Where these are favorable, climate on 
plants usually flourish ; and plants and 
since plants furnish food to ammals 
animals, animal life thrives wherever vege- 
tation is abundant. Because North Amer- 
ica extends far north and south, and has 
lofty mountain ranges and inclosed pla- 
teaus, it has many different kinds of cli- 
mate. Therefore it has a great variety of 
plant and animal life. 

The northern part of our continent is 
bitterly cold ; and over a vast area the soil 
is always frozen, except at the plants of the 
very surface, where it thaws Far North 
out for a few weeks in summer. On ac- 



count of the frost, trees, such as we know, 
cannot grow there, for their roots are un- 
able to push through the frozen ground and 
find the necessary plant food. There are 
some willows, birches, and a few other 
woody plants ; but instead of growing to a 
good height, as our willows and birches do, 
these creep along the surface like vines, 
and rise but a few inches above the ground. 
Only by hugging the earth can they find 
protection beneath the snow, and thus es- 
cape the fierce blasts of winter. 

A few grasses and 
small flowering plants 
grow rapidly, produce 
flowers, even close by 
the edge of snow banks 
(Fig. 26), and then die, 
all within the few short 
weeks of summer. Some 
of these plants develop 
berries, which, after 
ripening, are preserved 
by the snows, so that 
when the birds arrive 
in the spring, they find 
food ready for them. 

The growth of in- 
sects in summer is 
Animals of the rapid, 
Far North like the 

1. Insects growth 
of plants. As the 
snow melts, and the 

soil thaws at the surface, the ground be- 
comes wet and swampy, and millions of in- 
sects appear. Among them the most com- 
mon is, perhaps, the mosquito. There are 
few parts of the world where this creature 
is a worse pest than on the barrens, or tun- 
dras, as these treeless, frozen lands of north- 
ern North America, Europe, and Asia, are 

Few large land animals thrive in so cold 
a climate, where there is such a scarcity of 

2. Larger ani- plant food ; and the cold- 
mais on land blooded animals, or reptiles, 
cannot live there. The reindeer, or cari- 
bou, the musk-ox, and polar bear are the 

largest four-footed land animals (Fig. 27) ; 
and the crow, sparrow, and ptarmigan are 
the most common land birds. 

The plumage of the ptarmigan changes to white 
in winter, and other animals, such as the fox, polar 
bear, baby seal, and hare, are also 
white. This helps them, in that 3. Color pro- 
land of snow and ice, to hide from tection, and 

food of these 

their enemies, or to steal upon their 
prey unawares. The small white fox 
feeds upon birds and other animal food, and the polar 
bear lives mainly by hunting the seal. His white fur 
makes him almost invisible, and he steals noiselessly 
upon his prey, asleep 
upon the ice ; or, he 
patiently watches until 
his victim swims within 
reach, and then seizes 
him with his powerful 
claws (Fig. 314). 

The other land ani- 
mals live upon plants, 
such as berries, grass, 
and moss. The caribou 
eats the plant called 
" reindeer moss," which 
grows upon the rocks. 
If it were not for this, 
he would be unable to 
live through the long 
winter. To find this 
moss and other plants, 
he often has to scrape 
away the snow which 
covers the ground. 

Fig. 26. — An Arctic poppy in blossom, although growing 
on the edge of a snow bank. 

Many more ani- 
mals have their 
homes in the sea than upon 
the land, because there, except 4 ' Sea animal3 
at the very surface, the temperature never 
goes below the freezing point. Therefore 
there are plenty of sea animals of all sizes, 
from those so small that they cannot be 
seen without a microscojje, to the whale, 
the largest of all animals. 

Sea birds exist by tens of thousands, 
building their nests upon the rocky cliffs 
(Fig. 27). Indeed, they are so numerous 
that, when suddenly frightened by the firing 
of a gun, they rise in a dense cloud that 
hides the sun ; and with their cries they 
produce a din that is almost deafening. 


& ■ 



THE. M.N.Co^ Buffalo. 

Fig. 27. — Some of the birds and four-footed animals of the Far North. 



Fig. 28. — Walrus on the ice that is ever present in 
the Arctic Ocean. 

Seals (Fig. 225) and walruses (Fig. 28) 
live in the water, the former being so valu- 
able for their oil and skins, that men go on 
long voyages to obtain them. The oil comes 
from a layer of fat, or " blubber," just be- 
neath the skin, that serves to keep out the 
cold. The seal is the most common of the 
larger Arctic sea animals, and is the prin- 
cipal food of the Eskimo, as well as of the 
polar bear. 

During the winter the surface of the sea freezes 

over. Then many of the animals of the Far North 

migrate southward. Even the huge 

4.!. lgra j 10n walrus (Fig. 28) moves clumsily to- 
southward 11" ™ i. , 
in winter ward a warmer climate. ihe birds 

go farthest, especially the geese, 
ducks, and gulls, which fly to Labrador, New Eng- 
land, North Carolina, and even farther south. 

A large area in the western part of the 
United States and in Mexico has a very 
slight rainfall, although the 
temperature is agreeable. This 
arid area includes most of the 
territory in which the rainfall 
is twenty inches or less dur- 
ing one year (Fig. 303). In 
some places, as near the Pa- 
cific coast and upon the high 
plateaus and mountain tops, there is rain 
enough for forests ; but in most parts of the 

Plants and 
animals of the 

1. In the arid 

(1) Plants of 
this region 

Far West the climate is so dry that there 
are no trees whatsoever. Indeed, some por- 
tions are true deserts. 

One common plant in the arid lands is 
the bunch grass, so called because it grows 
in little tufts, or bunches, having a dozen 
or more blades. The sagebrush (Fig. 29), 
a plant with a pale green leaf, named be- 
cause of its_ sagelike odor, is found through- 
out most of this arid region. Other com- 
mon plants are the mesquite ; the century 
plant, with its sharp-pointed leaves ; and 
the cactus, with its numerous thorns. 

On account of the dry climate, these plants have 
a severe struggle to live, and they protect themselves 
in peculiar ways. For example, the 
cactus, unlike most plants, has no ^ How these 
true leaves. Thus it exposes little '' .. " " 

surface to the air for evaporation. 
In its great, fleshy stem, it stores water for use 
through the long, dry seasons, while its needle-like 
spines protect it from animals in search of food. 

The mesquite also protects itself by spines, and, 
in addition, it has such large roots that the part of the 
plant underground is often greater than that above. 
The roots of this plant furnish much wood for fuel. 
Some of these plants, like the sagebrush, have such 

Copyright, 1899, by I 

Fio. 29. — A. view in the desert of Southern California- 
The low plants are sagebrush; the higher ones, with 
spiny branches, are Yucca. 



a disagreeable taste that animals will not eat them. 
Thus they are further protected. 

At one time the most common animal in 
much of this arid section was the bison, or 
(3) Animals of buffalo (Fig. 30), whose home 
this region was ou the prairies and arid 

plains east of the Rocky Mountains. Thou- 
sands upon thousands of bison were slaugh : 
tered for their hides and tongues alone, and 
their bones left to whiten upon the plains. 
There are now no wild bison in the United 

National Park, many of these animals are seen there. 
Deer and elk are common ; also black, cinnamon, 
and grizzly bears, which are so tame that at night 
they come close to the hotels to feed upon the 

Between the frigid and torrid zones, and 
both east and west of the arid 2 In other 
region, is a temperate belt of parts of tem- 
moderate rainfall. The climate ? erate North 
is warm in the south, cool in „, _, 

., - , , , ' , . (1) Plants of 

the central part, and cold in ( /,; s region 

Fig. ;50. — A herd of bison, which ouce roamed over central United States. 

States, except a few in the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park of Wyoming, where they are 
protected by the government (Fig. 196). 

The graceful antelope, the cowardly prairie wolf, 
01 coyote, and the rabbit, upon which the coyote feeds, 
are still to be seen (Fig. 31). Among the rabbits 
is the long-legged jack rabbit, which leaps across the 
plains with astonishing speed. 

The fierce puma, or mountain lion, and the ugly 
cinnamon and grizzly bears (Fig. 31) still live 
among the mountains, though they are now rare and 
difficult to find. Deer and' elk inhabit the forest- 
covered mountains of southern Canada and the north- 
western part of the United States ; and among the 
higher peaks a few mountain goats and sheep are 
still to be found (Fig. 31). 

Since no hunting is allowed in the Yellowstone 

the north. Here both the plants and ani- 
mals differ from those of the arid regions. 

In the warm southern part, the plant and 
animal life is abundant, and of many kinds. 
Both plants and animals become less nu- 
merous and less varied toward the north, 
until, near the Arctic zone, they are scarce 
and few in kind. The pines and oaks of 
the United States give place to the spruce, 
balsam fir, and maple in Canada ; farther 
north these gradually become stunted and 
disappear ; and finally the treeless barrens 
are reached. 

Some persons believe that at one time 
most of the eastern part of the United States 




The M,N. Co., Buffalo. 


Fig. 31. — Some of the animals of the Far West. 



was wooded, including the fertile prairies of 
the Mississippi Valley. They think that 
the trees were burned from the prairies by 
fires set by the Indians. Others believe 
that the prairies were always treeless, being 
too level and swampy for trees to grow. 

When America was first visited by Euro- 
peans, our woods abounded in deer (Fig. 
(2) Animals of 32), moose, caribou, wolves, 
this ret/hn an( i f oxes (Fig. 33). Beavers 

built dams across the streams ; the mink 
and otter fished in 
the waters; and 
bears roamed at will. 
Among the birds, the 
eagle was common 
(Fig. 33), and wild 
pigeons and turkeys 
were so abundant 
that they were one 
of the principal foods 
of the early settlers. 

Now most of these 
animals have been 
destroyed, although 
some still live in the 
forest and mountain 
region. Some of 

them, like the deer, are now carefully pro- 
tected by state laws, which prohibit shooting 
them except at certain seasons, and then 
only in small numbers. In the forests of 
Canada and in Alaska, many wild animals 
are still left. 

It might seem that the native plants and 
animals of temperate North America would 
3. Native plants soon disappear. For the white 
and animals man has come into possession 

that will remain of fche landj aml h;ls cut down 

much of the forest, and plowed the prairies, 
so that where trees once stood, and game 
was plenty, there are now fertile farms and 
thriving cities. Not all will be destroyed, 
however, for some of the forests will remain, 
and many wild plants will grow in the 
uncultivated spots. The birds and some of 
the smaller animals will be able to survive ; 
and in the forests larger animals, protected 


""* i 



< ? 

^, Mte* ' *J^B 

1 1 4H 



to some extent by law, will continue to 
roam about freely. In addition, a few of 
the animals and plants, which man has 
found useful, have been domesticated, and 
these will continue to thrive. 

Our domesticated plants and animals well 
illustrate how man has learned to make use 
of nature. At one time, every variety of 
plant that we now cultivate was wild ; and 
our domesticated animals have all come from 
wild stock. Most of these have been found 
in Europe and Asia, 
but America has 
added some to the 
list. The Indian 
corn, or maize, the 
tobacco, tomato, 
pumpkin, and potato 
were unknown to 
the Old World until 
America was dis- 
covered. The same 
is true of the turkey, 
and perhaps, in a 
hundred years, the 
bison may be in- 
cluded among the 
domesticated ani- 
mals, for a few small herds are now being 
carefully reared on the cattle ranches of 
the West. 

In the torrid zone, the climate is warm or 
hot, and in most parts the rainfall is so 

heavy that the conditions are „, , 

J . Plants and 

favorable tor dense vegetation, animals in the 

Indeed, the tangle of growth torrid zone 
in the forests is so great that 1. The plants 
it is often impossible to pass * this region 
through it without hewing one's way. Be- 
sides trees and underbrush, there are quanti- 
ties of ferns, vines, and flowers, many of 
which hang from the trees with their roots 
in the air instead of in the ground. They 
are able to live in this way on account of 
the moisture in the air. Among the trees 
are the valuable rosewood, mahogany, ebony, 
and rubber tree, and among the flowers are 
the beautiful orchids. On account of the 

• A wild deer on the edge of the forest. 



Fiu. 'So. — Some ol the animals of uortlieasteru Uuited States aud southeastern Cauada. 




Fig. 31. — Some of the animals that live iu the tropical part of North America 



continual warmth and dampness, many 
plants, such as the banana, bear fruit 
throughout the year. 

In the midst of such luxuriant vegetation, 
animal life is wonderfully varied and abun- 
2. The animals dant. There are the tapir, 
in this region monkey, and jaguar (Fig. 34) ; 
brilliantly colored birds, such as parrots 
and humming birds; and there are mil- 
lions of insects. Scorpions and centipeds 
abound, and ants exist in countless numbers, 
some in the ground, others in decayed 
vegetation. Serpents, some of which are 
poisonous, are common in the forests ; and 
in the rivers are fish and alligators, the 
latter being found as far north as Florida 
and Louisiana. 

2. Peoples 

America was inhabited for thousands of 
years before it was discovered by white 
men. To the natives in the 
southern part Columbus gave 
the name Indians, in the belief that he had 
reached India. Those in the Far North, who 
live on meat, are called Eskimos, a word 

The Eskimos 

Fig. 35. — An Eskimo mother and her children. The very 
young children are carried on the hack in a sealskin 

Fig. 30. — An Indian woman and child. 

meaning flesh-eaters (Fig. 35). What do 
you recall about their manner of life from 
your study of the First Book ? 

Indians were at first scattered over most 
of the country south of the Arctic Circle. 
That this was so is suggested The Indians 
by the many places that bear i. Their dis- 
Indian names, such as Narra- tribution 
gansett, Erie, Niagara, Huron, Ottawa, 
Illinois, Dakota, Pueblo, and Sioux City. 

Some of the tribes were true savages; 
others, not so savage, may be classed as 
barbarians. The barbarians 2. Thejr civ- 
raised "Indian corn," pump- Nation 
kins, and tobacco; they baked pottery ; 
used tools and weapons made of stone; and 
lived in villages. 

The Indians that were most nearly civi- 
lized lived in the southwestern part of what 
is now the United States, in Mexico, and in 
Central America. Much of that region is 
arid, but the Indians raised crops by irri- 
gation, and built houses of stone and sun- 
dried brick (Fig. 37). These houses, called 



An Indian Pueblo in Xew Mexico, called the Taos Pueblo. It is made of adobe, or sun-dried brick, 
and to enter the rooms the Indians must first elirnb a ladder. 

pueblos, were used partly as homes for pro- 
tection from the neighboring savages, and 
partly as storehouses for grain. 

The most noted among these Indians 
were the Aztecs, who lived in and near the 
region where the City of Mexico now 
stands. They had a much better govern- 
ment than the barbarous and savage tribes; 
they mined gold and silver, and made 
various articles out of these metals; they 
wove blankets, and ornamented their pot- 
tery and their buildings in an artistic 
manner. Living the quiet life of the 
farmer, the Aztecs preferred peace to war, 
and a settled home to the nomadic life of 
the hunter. 

Although some tribes thus approached 
civilization, the Indians, as a race, never 
3. Why they became a powerful people, 
never became There are several reasons for 

more powerful fUS- 

In the first place, there were never very 
many Indians. There are probably nearly 
as many now living in the United States as 

ever lived here. Yet all of them together 
number only a little over a (1) Because of 
quarter of a million, or about their small 
the number of persons now nWllber 
living in Washington, the capital of our 

Again, instead of forming a union, and 
living at peace with one another, they were 
divided into many independ- (2) ndr divi _ 
ent tribes. Each tribe had a sion into many 
certain section over which it independent 


could roam and hunt, but if 
it went beyond this, war might follow. 
War did follow very often, and thus they 
were constantly weakened by fighting. 

The level nature of a large part of the 
country greatly increased this danger of 
war, and prevented any one (3) The level 
tribe from advancing in civi- nature of the 
lization much beyond its neigh- counlr y 
bors. Had the surface of North America 
been very mountainous, there might have 
been some places where a tribe would be 
protected by surrounding mountain walls. 



Then those Indians might have dared to 
devote themselves to other work than war; 
and they might even have collected wealth 
and developed important industries. 

But the vast plains of the Mississippi 
Valley, and the extensive plains and low 
mountains of the East, afforded little pro- 
tection. If any one tribe had built good 
homes in this section, and collected treasures 
within them, the neighboring Indians would 
surely have attacked them. The Aztecs 
were constantly in danger from this cause. 
However, the fact that they were partly 
protected by mountains and deserts, was 
one of the reasons why they became more 
civilized than the Indians of the Northeast. 

The fact that the Indians had no domestic 
animals for use in agriculture, was another 

(4) Absence of reason why they did not make 
domestic more progress. The horse, 
animals cow, ass, sheep, goat, and hog 
are of great service in supplying food and 
materials for clothing, or for helping in 
farm work. Without them farm work be- 
comes the worst drudgery, because it is 
then necessary to do all the work by hand. 
Since the Indians had none of these animals 
to help them, they could do little farming. 

Still another reason was lack of food. Al- 
though there was much game, the supply 
was never sufficient to support 

(5) Lack of food a denge population for a long 

period. Even the scattered Indian popula- 
tion was obliged to wander about in search 
of it. This prevented them from living 
quietly in one place, and finding time for 

All these facts helped to prevent the 
Indians from becoming civilized. On the 
other hand, the fact that they were not 
better civilized was a great advantage to 
the white men ; for that made it easier to 
obtain possession of the New World. 

The astonishment of Europe was great 

when it was proved that there were vast 

territories on this side of the 

e pamar s ^ l | an (-j c j le ij only by savages. 

America was pictured as containing all sorts 

of treasures, and European nations outdid 
one another in fitting out expeditions to 
take possession of them. 

The Spaniards naturally led, for at that 
time they were one of the most powerful 
nations of Europe; and besides, 1 Sectionof 
they had sent Columbus on his the continent 
voyage of discovery. Colum- taken by them 
bus sailed from Palos, in Spain, on his first 
voyage, and his ships were carried by the 
winds southwestward to the West Indies, 
a point much farther south than Spain 
itself. On a globe find the point on our 
coast that is about -as far north as Madrid. 

The section reached by the Spaniards had 
a climate somewhat like that of their own 
country, and they easily made themselves 
at home there. Soon they came into pos- 
session of most of South America, Central 
America, Mexico, and the southwestern 
part of the United States (Fig. 38). The 
Spaniards had one advantage over the Eng- 
lish and French, who settled farther north ; 
the portion of the continent that they dis- 
covered is so narrow that they easily crossed 
it. Thus they were able to explore both 
the Atlantic and the Pacific coast. It was 
largely because of this fact that the Spanish 
settled the western coast as far north as 
San Francisco. 

While robbing the Aztecs of immense 
quantities of gold and silver, 2 Theirtreat . 
the Spaniards introduced many ment of the 
Spanish laws and customs ; natives 
in addition they cruelly mistreated the na- 
tives, killing many and enslaving others, 
forcing them to work in the mines and fields. 

Although Spanish-speaking people still 
occupy Mexico and Central 
America, Spain herself has Spaniards have 

now lost all hold upon this not held their 

continent. Her last American em ory 
colonies, Cuba and Porto Rico, were re- 
cently given up. 

One of the reasons why the Spaniards 
have not been more successful is the climate 
of the section which they settled. In hot 
countries so little energy is required to pro- 




vide food and shelter that the people do not 
need to exert themselves ; and hence they 
do not do so. With but slight effort the 
Central American can find bananas, or other 
nourishing food, at almost any season of the. 
year ; why then should he work ? The 
people, therefore, become too lazy to im- 
prove their condition. A large part of the 
region settled by the Spaniards is too warm 
to produce people of energy. 

Another reason why the Spaniards did not 
have better success is found in their relation 
to the Indians. Although robbing and 
enslaving them, they intermarried with 

Fig. 30. — Mexican two-wheeled cart with wooden wheels 
ward people might use. 

them freely, so that a large portion of the 
people are now half-breeds. These half- 
breeds are an ignorant class, far inferior to 
the Spaniards themselves, and so backward 
(Fig. 39) that they still follow many of the 
customs of the Aztecs. 

The French began their settlements in a 
very different quarter, being 
early attracted to our coast by 
the excellent fishing on the Newfoundland 
Banks. Soon the fur trade with the Indians 
proved j)rofitable, and the 
French took possession of 
ments, with Nova Scotia and the region 

reasons al(mg thfl g t _ Lluvrence River 

and the Great Lakes. 

The value of the fur trade, together 
with a desire to convert the Indians to 
Christianity, led the French as far west as 

The French 

1. Location of 
their settle- 

Wisconsin and to the headwaters of the 
Mississippi River. Making their way 
southward to the mouth of that river, they 
took possession of the whole Mississippi 
Valley (Fig. 38), calling it Louisiana in 
honor of their king, Louis XIV. In order 
to hold this vast territory, they established 
a chain of trading posts and forts from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. 
One of the most important of these forts 
was built where Pittsburgh now stands. 
Many places in the St. Lawrence and Mis- 
sissippi valleys still have French names ; 
for example, Lake Champlain, Marquette in 
Michigan, La Salle in Illinois, 
St. Louis, and New Orleans. 
Can you name others ? 

The climate of the French 
territory was, on the whole, 
more favorable 
than that of the 
Spanish country; 
for, though rather 
severe in the St. Lawrence 
Valle}', it was neither hot 
enough to make people lazy, 
nor so cold as to discourage 
them. One of the greatest 
difficulties was that the few 
scattered settlers were unable to protect all 
of the vast territory to which the French 
laid claim. Also, the French intermarried 
with the Indians and adopted some of their 
customs, although not to so great an extent 
as the Spaniards. 

The Spanish and French left only a 
narrow strip along the Atlantic coast for 
other nations. Among those 
who made settlements there 
were the Dutch in New York, 
and the Swedes in Delaware ; 
but the English soon obtained the lead. 
The English captured New York City 
(then called New Amsterdam) from the 
Dutch, and made settlements along most of 
the coast from Florida to Nova Scotia. 

In several respects the portion that fell 
to the English seemed much less desirable 

such as a back- 

2. Some reasons 
why they have 
lost this ter- 

The English 

1. Location of 
their earlier 



than that held by the Spanish and French. 
Yet the English-speaking race has managed, 
not only to hold this, but even 
now occupied to add to it most of the posses- 
by English- sions of the other two. At 
speaking people the present time ^ the contro l 

of the entire continent, except Mexico, 
Central America, and a few small islands, 
is in the hands of either the United States 
or Great Britain. 

There are, of course, good reasons for this 
remarkable result. No doubt, differences in 
3. Reasons the characters of these three 
for this races is one cause. Yet there 

are others also, as is shown in the following 

The temperate climate of the central 
portion of North America is one of the best 
in the world for the production of people 
of energy. The warm summers allowed 
abundant harvests ; while the long, cold 
winters forced the settlers to work hard in 
order to store up supplies for the cold 
season ; but, although they had to work a 
great deal, they still had time and energy 
left for improvement. 

Again, the English were less cruel than 
the Spaniards in their treatment of the 
Indians ; but, unlike both French and 
Spanish, most of the English would not 
intermarry with savages. Thus it happened 
that, in the wars with the French, the Eng- 
lish could act with more intelligence, speed, 
and force ; for they were not hindered by 
partly civilized half-breeds. There was 
one disadvantage, however : the Indians 
became enemies of the English, and in the 
wars between the English and French most 
of them fought on the French side. 

Finally, the fact that the English were 
hemmed in by forest-covered mountains oil 
the west, and by the French and Spanish 
on the north and south, also proved an ad- 
vantage. On that account, they were kept 
close together ; and when wars arose, they 
were better able to combine their forces. 

These are some of the chief reasons why 
the English-speaking race has won its way 

on the continent against both the Spanish 
and the French. 

1. What is the influence of climate on plants and 
animals ? 2. Describe the plants of the Far North. 
3. What animals are found in the 
Far North? What can you tell Review 
about them? 4. What about the "J" 615110113 
plant life in our western arid lands? 5. Describe 
the animal life in that region. 6. Describe the 
plant life in the temperate portion of North America 
outside of the arid lands. 7. Tell about the animal 
life in the same region. 8. What native plants and 
animals are likely to continue here long in the 
future? 9. What is the condition of plant life in 
the torrid zone? 10. Of animal life? 11. What 
was the condition of the Indians who formerly lived 
here? 12. Give several reasons why they did not 
become more powerful. 13. What portion of the 
continent was taken possession of by the Spaniards ? 
14. How did they treat the natives ? 15. Give some 
reasons why they have not held their territory. 
16. What portion of the continent was taken by the 
French, and why? 17. State some reasons why 
they have lost this territory. 18. Where were the 
earlier English settlements? 19. How much of the 
continent is now in control of English-speaking 
people ? 20. Give some reasons for this remarkable 

1. Examine some century and cactus plants. 
2. Find some furniture made of mahogany or other 
tropical wood. 3. Visit a green- 
house to see orchids. 4. Collect Suggestions 
pictures of native plants and animals of North 
America. 5. Collect samples of different American 

III. The United States 

i. General Facts 

On Figure 9 we see that the United 
States occupies the central Location and 
part of North America, ex- area 
tending from ocean to ocean. 

Aside from Alaska, which belongs to us, 
the only countries on our north are Canada, 
Newfoundland, and Greenland. On our 
south are Mexico and the several small 
countries of Central America. Trace our 
boundaries on the north and south. What 
portions are artificial ? What portions 
natural ? Is the distance across the United 
States greater from east to west, or from 
north to south ? How much greater ? 



Scale or Miles' 
f>0 100 200 300 

116" I-o ngitn.lo 

West UP from 

Grocmrlch 105" 

FIG. 40. 



Fig. 42. — Relief map of the United States. 

The area of the United States is about 
3,000,000 square miles, which is more than 
four times the area of Mexico. Yet ours is 
not the largest country on the continent, for 
the area of Canada is greater than that of 
the United States and Alaska together. 

Figure 43 shows the part of the United 
States that was settled before 1790, when 
Population and George Washington was Presi- 
its distribution dent for the first time. What 
in 1790 states do you find that had no 

inhabitants other than Indians ? Which 
had only scattered settlements, such as forts 
and small villages ? Each of the cities 
shown on this map had a population of over 
5000. What are their names ? How about 
Chicago and St. Louis ? All together there 
were only a little over 3,000,000 white men 
here at that time. 

Our present population is about 
Our present 92,000,000. The present 
population population of Canada is over 
7,000,000, of Mexico about 15,000,000, and 

of Central America about 5,000,000. Not 
only have we more inhabitants than the 
other countries of North America combined, 
but we have more than all the countries of 
North and South America together. Ours 
has plainly been the favorite country for 
settlers in the New World. 

This remarkably rapid increase in popula- 
tion has, to a large extent, R easons f or 
been due to the number of this rapid 
foreigners who have come increase 
here to live. 

The early introduction of slavery has 
resulted in greatly increasing our num- 
bers. There are now over 
9,000,000 colored people in ' egroes 
the United States, which is about one tenth 
of our entire population. 

Europe and Asia have poured forth a 
steady stream of immigrants 2 Immigrants 
during the last one hundred from Europe 
years. Probably, in all, as a ndAsia 
many as 25,000,000 foreigners have come 



to our shores to 
live since 1790, 
and they are still 
coming at the rate 
of about a million 
a year. Nearly 
every foreign 
nation is repre- 
sented, and upon 
the streets of our 
larger cities the 
languages of most 
of the civilized 
peoples of the 
globe may be 

The greater 
portion of our im- 
migrants have 
come from north- 
ern Europe, 
especially from 
the British Isles, 
Germany, and the Scandinavian Peninsula ; 

Fig. 43. — Distribution of population in the United States in lTUO. 

Fig 44. — Density of population in North America at the 
present time. 

and many of them 
have settled in 
the cities. More 
recently a flood of 
immigration has 
come from south- 
ern Europe. At 
one time the 
Chinese began to 
come in great 
numbers, and laws 
preventing their 
coming had to be 
passed. We have 
laws, also, exclud- 
ing paupers, crim- 
inals, diseased 
people, and labor- 
ers brought here 
by contract. To 
others the country 
is free. 
Figure 44 shows 
the present distribution of our population. 
Where is the population most Distribution 
dense ? Note that more than of our popula- 
half of the whole country has, tlon 
on the average, not more than twenty-five 
persons for each square mile. Point out 
this portion. 

According to this map, which portion of 
North America has fewest settlers ? What 
part of Canada is most densely populated ? 
Of Mexico? Of Central America? Ob- 
serve that the coast of the United States is 
most densely settled, while the coast of 
Mexico and Central America has few people, 
compared to the interior. Can you recall 
any explanation of this ? 

It is natural that the eastern section of 
the United States should have been settled 
first, because most of the im- Reasons for 
migrants have come from 
Europe. Many of them, of 
course, have gone farther 
west, but many have re- 
mained in the great cities on the coast. 
Each large city there has its Italian quarter, 

such distribu- 

1 . Immigrants 
came first to 
the East 



its Russian quarter, its Jewish quarter, and 
so forth. 

The transportation of goods is one of the 
great industries, and this business alone has 
attracted large numbers of 
L"tat the Ple P eo P le t0 certain points. The 
best shipping best shipping points, moreover, 
and manufactur- are f ten the best manufac- 
turing centers, for people 
manufacture goods at those places where 
raw materials can easily reach them, and 
where finished articles can be shipped away 
•cheaply in all directions. The excellent 
shipping points, therefore, attract people 
because of the manufacturing as well as 
the commerce ; for these industries give 
them work to do. 

It is for these reasons that the fine har- 
bors on our two coasts, and the best ship- 
ping centers on our interior w T ater ways, 
have attracted the greatest number of 
people. On Figure 44 note the sections 
that have the densest population. Our 
eastern coast, from Boston southwest to 
Washington, has more great centers of popu- 
lation than any other equal area in North 
America. Name several of them. What 
great cities do you find along the Great 
Lakes and the Mississippi River and its 
larger tributaries ? There is a dense popula- 
tion, also, about San Francisco Bay, as there 
is around New York Bay, and for a similar 
reason. Find other centers of dense popula- 
tion on the Pacific coast and in the interior. 

The greatest industry of all is farming, 
about one third of all the men 

3. Others are „{ the T; nitecl States being en- 
attracted to the j • i 

best farming gaged in that one occupation, 
sections That fact largely explains the 

(1) Extent of presence of so many people in 

the Mississippi ., -,,. . .,,. ,, 

r a li e y the Mississippi \ alley. 

This broad trough between 
the mountain systems of the West and East 
is one of the most extensive fertile farming 
regions in the world. What is the length 
and breadth of this level region (Fig. 42)? 
There is only one mountainous section in 
this vast area, and that, called the Ozark 

Mountains in Missouri, extends also into 
Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. 

Not only is this fertile region very exten- 
sive, but the climate is favorable to many 
kinds of farm products. On (2) Its favor- 
Figure 40 find the latitude of able climate 
New Orleans. Note that it is not very far 
from the Tropic of Cancer, which marks the 
northern boundary of the torrid zone. How 
near does Florida come to that zone ? 

What is the latitude of our northern 
boundary ? Observe how very far it is 
from that line to the Arctic Circle (Fig. 9), 
which marks the southern boundary of the 
frigid zone. It is plain not only that the 
United States lies in the temperate zone, but 
that it lies almost entirely in the southern 
half of that zone. That allows an abundance 
of heat in summer, even in the northern 
part of the Mississippi Valley. Thus the 
entire Mississippi Valley has a temperature 
that is very favorable to agriculture. 

The rainfall is likewise favorable in most 
parts. Only far to the west of the Missis- 
sippi River, on the Great Western Plains 
(Fig. 42), is the quantity of rain too small 
for agriculture. From the Great Western 
Plains eastward to the Atlantic Ocean the 
rainfall is sufficient for good crops. 

While the Mississippi Valley is the most 
extensive farming section in the United 
States, there is also much farming farther 
east and in the West. The favorable cli- 
mate and good soil in the East, in the Mis- 
sissippi Valley, and in parts of the West 
have helped greatly in attracting settlers. 

Mining as well as manufacturing, com- 
merce, and farming have at- . 

' s , .4. Others, itill, 

tracted great numbers of are drawn to 
people to the eastern half of the mining and 
the United States. Most of grazing 3ec 

,,,... (1) Mining in 

our hard coal is mined among the East 
the Appalachians of Pennsyl- 
vania. Most of our soft coal and iron ore, 
and much of our copper, also, are found east 
of the Mississippi River. These kinds of 
mining, therefore, increase the population 
in the East by many hundreds of thousands. 



The mountainous section in the AVest, in 
which mining is important, is far more ex- 

(2) Mining in tensive than the Appalachians. 
the West This is the region of the Cor- 
dillera, mentioned on page 4. Beginning 
at the Pacific coast (Fig. 42), 3-011 see the 
mountains called the Coast Ranges, parts of 
which rise abruptly from the water's edge. 
Eastward from these are the Sierra Nevada 
and Cascade Ranges, in which there are 
many lofty peaks. Farther east are the 
Rocky Mountains, which extend entirely 
across the United States, into Canada and 
Alaska on the north, and far into Mexico on 
the south. Extensive plateaus, with short 
mountain ranges, lie between the Rocky 
Mountains and the Sierra Nevada-Cascade 
Ranges. Find the names of the two prin- 
cipal plateaus on Figure 42. 

There are many mines in this section, but 
they are scattered over the vast territory. 
The precious metals, and much copper and 
other metals are found there ; but far less 
coal and iron ore are mined in the West 
than in the Appalachians. The mining 
industry, therefore, has brought a much 
smaller and more scattered population to 
the Cordillera. 

In much of the western half of the United 
States grazing is the leading industry. 

(3) Grazing That calls for a very small 
in the West population, for reasons that 
you can give. Over wide areas grazing is 
the only industry, because much of the land 
is arid or desert. Find the Great Basin 
(Fig. 42), which is mainly desert. The 
reason for so dry a climate is that the prin- 
cipal winds for this region blow from the 
Pacific ; and, since they lose most of their 
moisture on the high mountains, the low- 
lands and plateaus between the mountain 
ranges suffer from drought. 

Figure 44 shows most of the western half 
of our country to be very thinly settled, 
but there are several places that have a 
dense population. Point them out. The 
special reasons why so many people have 
settled at these points you will learn later. 

Our country is so large that it is necessary 
to divide it into sections in order to study it 
in proper detail. Accordingly, Reason for 
the states have been grouped studying the 
into five sections, of which United States 
the first is the New England in secti ° n s 
Group. The others, in their order, are the 
Middle Atlantic States, the Southern 
States, the Central States, and the Western 

As you study each of these sections, a 
very important point to notice is the scale 
upon which each map is drawn. Importance of 
For example, in Figure 45, an watching the 
inch and a half represents scale of ma P s 
about one hundred miles. According to that 
scale, how long is the state of Connecticut ? 
Find what the scale is on the map, Figure 
64. Using that scale, find the distance from 
New York to Buffalo. Using both maps, 
find the distance from Philadelphia to Bos- 
ton, by way of New York. When studying 
a map, whether in this book, on the wall, or 
in an atlas, it is always important to first 
observe its scale. 

1. State the location and area of the United 
States. 2. What was our population and its distri- 
bution in 1790? 3. What is our _ . 

present population, and how does it _ 

. Questions 

compare with that of other countries 

in the New World ? 4. How many colored people 
are there in the United States'? 5. What immi- 
grants are allowed to come here ? How many have 
come, in all ? 6. What is the present distribution 
of the population of North America ? 7. Show why 
the place where the immigrants land is one reason 
for so great a population on our eastern coast. 
8. Explain the influence of our best shipping and 
manufacturing points on the distribution of our 
people. 9. What farming sections have attracted 
great numbers of people ? Give reasons. 10. How 
has mining affected the population in the East ? 
11. Why is the western half of the United States so 
thinly settled? 12. Show, by an example, that it is 
important when studying maps to observe the scale. 
1. Can you tell why Florida is so thinly settled ? 
2. Show the dangers that we run, in receiving so 

many immigrants. 3. What reasons _ . . 

' .j- j- 1 ■ ,j- /-,, • Suggestions 

can you give tor forbidding (. Innese 

immigration? 4. What objection do you see to al- 
lowing an Italian quarter, a Chinese quarter, etc., in 
our large cities ? 

FIG. 45. 

E N G L. A IS D 

Modeled by Edwin E.Howell 

Flo. 46. — Relief map of Xew Englaud. 



2. New England 

1. Name the states of this group. 2. What is the 

capital of each? 3. Where are the mountains? 

4. Into what bay does the Penobscot 
Map Study River flow ? 5 What ]arge isUmd 

lies just east of it? 6. Find three large lakes. In 
which state is each ? 7. Name and locate several of 
the largest cities. 8. What cape is about twenty- 
five miles north of Boston? 9. What cape is south- 
east of Boston ? 10. Find Massachusetts Bay. 
11. Find Cape Cod Bay. 12. What two large islands 
lie southeast of Massachusetts? 13. What two bays 
are near them ? 14. What large island lies south of 
Connecticut? 15. In what state is it (Fig. 64)? 

16. What waters separate it from Connecticut? 

17. Name the three largest rivers of Maine ; the 
largest one in New Hampshire ; the two largest in 
Connecticut. Trace the course of each. 

Since the Appalachian Mountains extend 
across New England, most of its surface 
is either hilly or mountainous. 
Near the coast the hills are 
low, but the land gradually 
rises toward the interior until 
it becomes a low plateau. This 
plateau is crossed by river valleys that cut 
into it in every direction. The valleys are 
usually several hundred feet deep, with 
steep sides, so that the surface there is very 

In the western and northern parts of New 
England, the surface becomes quite nioun- 

Reasons for 
its irregular 

1 . The moun- 

tainous (Fig. 47). There are some peaks, 
like Mount Monadnock in southern New 
Hampshire, that rise singly above the pla- 
teau upland ; but others are found in 
groups, or clusters, as the White Mountains 
of northern New Hampshire, for example. 
Still other mountains are grouped in irregu- 
lar ranges, of which the Green Mountains 
of Vermont, and the Taconic Mountains 
and Berkshire Hills of western Massachu- 
setts, are examples. 

Many of the mountain peaks rise three 
or four thousand feet above sea level ; but 
Mount Washington, in the White Moun- 
tains, has an elevation of over a mile, and 
Mount Katahdin, in Maine, is nearly as high. 
In Figure 45 find the various mountain 
peaks and ranges named. 

On page 7 you learned that the Great 
Glacier made many changes in our country. 
This glacier extended over the 2. The Great 
whole of New England, and for Glacier 
a long time its front rested on the islands 
just south of this group of states. Indeed, 
Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, 
and Long Island are made in part of 
moraine hills and sandy plains that were 
built in front of the vast ice sheet. 

As the ice melted away toward the north, 
it left moraines and other deposits farther 
north. Some of these dammed up the 

Fig. 47. —A view of the White Mountains of New Hampshire. 



streams and formed the many lakes that 
dot the surface of New England. Others 
turned the streams from their courses, and 
caused their waters to tumble in many 
rapids and falls. Besides this, the glacier 
plowed away the soil from many lull slopes, 
leaving bare rock ledges. It also carried 
much rock into the valleys and on to the 
lower hilly land. It was in this way that 
much of the farm land became strewn with 
bowlders, as shown in Figure 23. 

The sinking of the coast has given New 
England a very irregular outline. What 
3. The sinking have you already learned about 
of the coast this (p. 11) ? Name some of 
the larger capes, bays, and islands that were 
thus formed. 

The mountain rocks of New England 
are mostly hard, including many granites. 
Where the sinking of the land has lowered 
these into the sea, the beating of the waves 
has removed the soil and exposed the bare 
rock. This is why so much of the irregular 
coast is rock bound, and has such grand 

Maine does not reach quite so far north 

as do several of our Western States. Name 

them (Fig. 40). Yet this sec- 
The climate ,. ,> a £ , ,, 

tion lies tar enough north to 

have a rather severe climate ; and a cold 
ocean current near the coast makes the cli- 
mate somewhat cooler than it would other- 
wise be. This is called the Labrador cur- 
rent, because it flows past the Labrador 
coast. It is a slowly moving stream of 
ocean water, many miles wide, that begins 
in the Arctic Ocean and flows southward 
along the coast of Nova Scotia and New 
England as far as Cape Cod (p. 222). 

On the other hand, there is a current of 
warm water that makes the southern portion 
of New England warmer than it would 
otherwise be. This current, called the 
Gulf Stream, comes from the Gulf of Mexico 
and flows northeast, out into the Atlantic 
Ocean (Fig. 312). East of New England 
it is much farther from land than the Lab- 
rador current. 

The prevailing winds in New England 
blow from the west. Every few days, 
however, the direction of the wind changes 
to the east or south, and the air then comes 
from the ocean, often bringing rain. The 
winds that blow from the east and north- 
east are cool in summer and very chilly in 
winter, since they are cooled in passing 
over the Labrador current. They often 
cause heavy snows in winter, and rain and 
fog iu summer. Those winds that blow 
from the south, on the other hand, are 
warmed in passing over the Gulf Stream. 
Largely for that reason, the southern part 
of New England is much warmer, and has 
little snow in winter. 

In the days of the early settlers, most of 
New England was covered with forests, and 
one of the first products sent Lumbering 
back to England was lumber, i. Extent of 
Now the woods have been tne forests 
cleared away from much of the land, but 
where it is too steep or rocky for farming, 
large tracts of forest still remain. 

For instance, there are large tracts of 
land in northern Maine, New Hampshire 
(Fig. 48), and Vermont, as well as in 
parts of the three southern states, that are 
still covered with timber. Standing on the 
summit of Mount Katahdin, one sees only 
a vast wilderness of trees in all directions. 
The nearest cultivated land is twenty-five 
miles to the east, while the unbroken forest 
stretches much farther away to the north 
and west. 

Winter is the busy season for cutting 
timber in this wilderness, for the swamps, 
which are numerous, and in 2. Cutting of 
summer impassable, are then the timber 
frozen. At that season, also, the snows 
have covered the bowlders and fallen trees, 
and made the surface level enough for 
sleds, loaded with logs, to be drawn through 
the woods. 

Usually fifty or more men are necessary 
to a logging camp. With axes in hand, 
they go through the woods chopping down 
all the trees that are large and sound enough 



3. Floating 
the logs to the 

for good lumber. The limbs are then 

chopped off, and the logs are dragged by 

horses to the banks of the 

nearest stream (Fig. 49). 
When the snow melts in 

the spring, the cutting is 
over and another 
busy season be- 
gins. The ice 

on the rivers breaks up, the 

streams are swollen by the 

melting snows, and the logs 

are whirled off downstream 

in the swift current. Fre- 
quently, however, even this 

flood of water is not sufficient 

to carry them. In such cases, 

in order to provide more 

water, dams are placed across 

the streams, or at the outlet 

of lakes. When more water 

is needed, the dams are 

opened, and a flood is poured 

into the stream. In this way 

immense numbers of logs are floated, or 

" driven " downstream, forming what the 

lumbermen call a "log drive." 

others are held back by it. If the " jam " is 
not speedily removed, the entire stream 

Fig. 49. 

- Lumbermen at work in winter, drawing the logs on sleds to the 
edge of the stream. 

The work of driving the logs is a very ex- 
citing one. The logs often run on to rocks 
and shoals ; and, as soon as one gets caught, 

Fig. 48. — A forest-covered mountain slope in the New Hampshire moun- 
tains, where a large part of the surface is still occupied by forest. 

may become blocked. Such a condition is 
called a log jam (Fig. 50), and it is the 
business of the log drivers to prevent jams 
by freeing the logs that be- 
come thus lodged. 

Some of the logs are stopped 
near waterfalls, far upstream, 
where they are sawed into 
boards, laths, shingles, etc. ; 
but most of them are carried 
to sawmills as far down the 
river as the current will take 

During the season for cutting, 

the men go forth early in the 

morning and work 

until late in the 

evening, eating and 

sleeping in log 

cabins (Fig. 51). Their beds are 

broad shelves of rough boards, 
covered with boughs from the spruce and balsam 
trees ; and the camp is often so small that they 
must lie side by side, with scarcely room to turn. 
There is much exposure, too. The men may suffer 

4. Hardships of 
the lumber- 
man's life 



Fig. 50. — A log jam in a stream in which the logs are being floated from the 
forest. The lumbermen are at work trying to start the logs moving again. 

seriously from the cold, for it is often necessary to 
work when the temperature is far below zero. 

The work of preventing log jams brings even more 
exposure, for the workmen must frequently wade into 
the icy water and ride upon the logs. One may 
often see a man carried along on a single log, cling- 
ing to it by means of the sharp spikes in his boots, 
and balancing himself with a long pole. Now and 
then he must jump from log 
to log, as a squirrel springs 
from tree to tree. In this 
way the men are often wet 
from head to foot, and may 
even be thrown into the 
water and drowned. So 
many hardships are con- 
nected with lumbering, that 
a lumberman is said to 
become an old man after a 
few years of service. 

The forests of New 
England supply much 
5. Value of 1 u m b e r, 
the forest though far 

less than formerly. 
Woods have another im- 
portant use : they pre- 
vent the rain water 

from running rapidly off 
the land. Where the forest 
has been carelessly destroyed 
by the lumbermen, or by fire, 
the streams rise rapidly after 
every rain and then quickly 
decrease in size. Often there 
is not enough water to run 
the factories that use the 
water power. Thus it be- 
comes very important to pre- 
serve the forest, and the 
government is planning to set 
aside large areas, at the head 
waters of the streams, as 
forest reservations. 

New England produces 
very little metal, and no 

coal. There are, 

i Quarrying 

however, some Y ' 6 

valuable mineral products, 

such as clays for making 

bricks, and stone used mainly 

for building. Among the building stones 

three kinds are of especial value ; namely, 

granite, marble, and slate, each of which is 

quarried in large quantities. 

Man} T of the hills, and even mountains, 
such as Mounts Washington and Katahdin, 

je v* 


Jr ^-Sjfefc 

H^'i *Jm 




^^r^ * J&S** 

. .^B^^SS 





Fig. 51. — Lumbermen and their log cabin in the woods of Maine. 



(2) Uses 

are made mainly of granite. But this is 
not often quarried, because it is too difficult 
, „ to draw the heavy stone to 

1. Granite . • , , 

(1) Where places where it is needed. 

found and The quarries have generally 

quarried been opened or developed 

either close to cities, or else near the sea, 
where the stone may be cheaply shipped. 

One of the oldest stone quarries in the 
country is at Quincy, near Boston (Fig. 45). 
Buildings made of Quincy granite over two 
hundred years ago may still be seen in Bos- 
ton. Other quarries are found in and near 
Gloucester and Milford, 
Mass.; Westerly, R.I. ; 
BARRE,Vt. ; Concord, N.H.; 
and at several points along the 
Maine coast. 

Much of the granite is used 
for paving stones in the city 
streets, where 
heavy wagons 
pass. For that purpose large 
blocks are split into smaller 
ones of the proper size. 

Many of the large blocks 
are carried by boat to Boston, 
New York, or even as far as 
New Orleans, where they are 
used for curbstones, for build- 
ing, and for other purposes. 
Some of the government build- 
ings at Washington are made of New Eng- 
land granite. Another important use of 
granite is for monuments, columns, and 
other ornamental work. The stone is well 
suited for this purpose because of its beauti- 
ful color, which varies in different quarries. 
Some granites are gray, others almost white, 
bluish, or distinctly red ; and most kinds 
will take a high polish. 

The most noted marble quarries in the 
United States are near Rutland, Vt. (Fig. 

2. Marble 52), where much of the stone 
(l) Where is white, though some of it is 
quarried streaked with blue. In other 
places in Vermont the colors of the marble 
are quite different, and often very beautiful. 

(2) Uses 

This stone is too soft for paving stones, 
but it is much used for buildings, statues, 
and monuments. Indeed, the 
Rutland marble is one of the 
most common headstones in the cemeteries 
of the Eastern States. Like granite, it 
may be given a high polish. 

Some of the most highly prized marble, mostly 
obtained from foreign countries, is so banded and 
mottled that, when polished, it makes a beautiful 
ornamental stone for interiors of churches and other 
buildings. White marble has been used for many 
centuries as building material. In fact, Ions before 

Fig. 52. — One of the marble quarries near Rutland, Vt. The stone is 
quarried out in the deep pit on the right, and the blocks are hoisted to 
the surface by the derricks. 

the time of Christ, the Greeks built the marble Par- 
thenon upon the Acropolis of Athens (Fig. 454). 
They also chiseled out marble statues, such as that 
of the Venus of Milo, which have become famous on 
account of their beauty. 

Slate rock is quarried in several parts of New 
England, as in eastern Maine and western Massa- 
chusetts and Vermont. The value 
of slate is due largely to the fact 
that it splits, or cleaves, so easily that it is readily 
broken into thin slabs with a smooth surface. In 
this way it is made into roofing slate and school 
slates; from it are also made blackboards, slabs for 
wash basins, and stone for use in the interior of 

3. Slate 

Still another raw product of New Eng- 
land is fish. When the country was first 
settled, great numbers of various kinds, 



especially mackerel, halibut, and cod, were 
found close to the shore. Such names 
Fishing as Cape Cod, Halibut Point, 

1. Former abun- Lobster Cove, and Bass Rocks, 
dance of fish given to places on the New 
England coast, indicate this. Find the 
first of these. 

Fish supplied the early settlers with one 
of their chief foods, and the fishing industry 
soon became important. You will remem- 
ber (p. 25) that it was the fishing which 
early attracted the French to the American 
coast, and they still retain the 
right to fish along the New- 
foundland shore. 

Fish are now much less 
abundant near the coast, but 

2. Centers of »»"» the y al ' e 

the fishing still found farther 

industry f rom t ] le s l lore , 

hundreds of vessels, and thou- 
sands of men, are engaged 
solely in catching them. 
Gloucester, which is a center 
for that industry, is the most 
noted fishing port in the United 
States ; but Boston, Port- 
land, and Provincetowx 
also have an important fish 
trade. Locate each. 

Most of the mackerel are 
caught in spring and summer. 
They swim to- 
gether, on the 
surface of the ocean, in such numbers, or 
schools, as fishermen say, that they may be 
easily seen from a distance. The fishermen 
who cruise about in search of the mackerel 
sail in swift, two-masted vessels, called 
schooners (Fig. 53). When they see a 
" school," they spring into their great seine 
boats, row over to the fish, drop a large net, 
or seine, into the water, and draw it around 
the "school." Then the seine is drawn in, 
forming a pocket and trapping the fish. 
In this pocket enough fish are sometimes 
caught to fill hundreds of barrels. Some 
of the fish are taken to port to be sold 

fresh, but most are salted. This method 
of fishing is similar to that which the Dis- 
ciples of Christ used in the Sea of Galilee. 

Halibut and cod cannot be caught with a 
seine, for instead of swimming at the sur- 
face, these fish live on the sea . „ ... . . 

4. Halibut and 

bottom. They are caught in codfish 
winter as well as summer, (1) Where 
mainly on the Fishing Banks cau y ,lt 
that lie off the coasts of New Ensrland and 
Newfoundland. Some of the Gloucester 
fishing vessels, however, go as far as 

3. Mackerel 

Fig. 53. — A Gloucester fiskiug schooner, just leaving port on a fishing trip. 

Greenland and Iceland for halibut and 

Halibut are very large, some weighing 
more than a man, and they are often 
caught upon single lines. Cod- ( 2> Method of 
fish may be caught in the same catching 
manner, though a trawl (Fig. 54) is more 
commonly used for cod than for halibut. 
The trawl consists of a number of hooks 
hanging from a single long line, all lowered 
into the water together and left there for 
hours. The fish swallow the bait on the 
hooks, and in this way many are caught at 
one time. 



Fig. 54. — Fishermen drawing up a trawl on the Fishing Banks of Newfoundland. The long line, with shorter ones 
hanging from it, with hooks on their ends, is lowered to the bottom. After a while it is drawn up and the fish that 
are on the hooks are taken iuto the boat. 

This kind of fishing is dangerous, because the men 

must venture out in small, flat-bottomed boats, called 

dories, to take the fish off the trawls. 

(3) Danger of yr hile th are fe filing, a storm 

may arise, or a heavy log come up, 
and prevent their return to the vessel. They are 
then left in open boats far out upon the ocean. 
Every year dozens of Gloucester fishermen are lost 
in this manner. 

As in the case of mackerel, codfish are sold either 
fresh or salt ; but most of the halibut are sold fresh, 

though some are smoked. In order 

(4) Method of tQ galt Qr c the codfish th are 

marketing ,.. , — , , , ■, . 

spli t open and cleaned, soaked in 

barrels of brine, and then dried upon the wharf. 
Very often the bones are removed, the skin stripped 
off, and the flesh torn into shreds and packed into 
boxes as boneless cod. Either the salted or boneless 
cod may be seen in almost any grocery, and much 
of it comes from Gloucester. 

Traps, or weirs, are also set for fish. They are 
placed along the shore, and many kinds of fish, such 
as shad, salmon, and bass, swim into 
them and are then unable to find 
their way out. Another kind of fish 
that is caught on the New England coast is the her- 
ring, which is smoked and canned in large quanti- 
ties at Eastport, Me. 

Lobster fishing is also carried on, especially on the 
coast of Maine. A lobster trap, made of wood and 
weighted with stone, is lowered to the bottom, 
where the lobster lives, crawling around among the 
rocks and seaweed. A fish-head for bait is inside 

5. Other ocean 

the trap, and the lobster crawls in to get it; but he 
is so stupid that he is rarely able to find his way out. 
Clams, found along many parts of the New Eng- 
land coast, live buried in the mud flats which are 
exposed to view at low tide. At such times boys 
and men dig these shellfish out, much as a farmer 
digs potatoes. Another kind of shellfish on the 
New England coast is the scallop ; and still another 
is the oyster, which thrives in the shallow water of 
the bays on the southern coast of New' England. 

So much of New England is hilly or 
mountainous, and the soil is so strewn with 
bowlders, that farming is not Agriculture 
so extensive an industry as in lm Importance 
many other parts of the coun- of this industry 
try. In some sections, where the soil is 
very poor and no market is near, farming 
has proved such a failure that many farms 
Lave been abandoned (Fig. 55). On these, 
the orchards are grown up with weeds, and 
the houses and barns are tumbling' down. 
This is especially true in the more hilly 
parts of New England. 

On the other hand, there are some sec- 
tions where there is really excellent farm 
land. This is true in the larger vallej-s, 
particularly the Connecticut Vallej', which 
has much level and fertile land. 



Each farm usually has a small orchard 
and also produces hay and grain, which are 
2. Products either fed to cattle and horses, 
from the farms c ,r sold. All the farmers keep 
some poultry, selling the chickens and eggs ; 

Where the farms are so far away from the 
cities that it is impossible to drive to mar- 
ket, dairying is common (Fig. 56). So 
much milk is needed in the large cities that 
special arrangements are made for market- 

Fig. 55. — An abandoned farm in the hilly part of New England where the soil is thin and sterile. 

and some make a business of raising poultry, 
such as hens, turke}"s, and ducks. 

A very common occupation is truck farm- 
ing. On truck farms various kinds of veg- 
etables, like tomatoes, sweet corn, potatoes, 
cucumbers, cabbages, and celery, are care- 
fully cultivated ; and these, together with 

ing it. Special cars, and even whole trains, 
carrying nothing but cans of milk, are run 
to them from far out in the country . A great 
deal of milk is made into butter and cheese, 
sometimes on the farm, but much more com- 
monly at creameries, where the work is done 
by machinery. 

Fig. 56. — A herd of dairy cows grazing in the pasture. Their milk is sent to the cities. 

milk and eggs, are sent to the nearest town 
to be sold. The farmer often takes them to 
town himself and sells them from house to 
house, thus securing higher prices than if 
he sold them to a storekeeper. Why ? 

In the Connecticut Valley, the farms 
are often of good size, having fields 
of grain and fine large gardens and 
orchards. There are also extensive fields 
of tobacco. 



Strangers traveling through New England, upon 
seeing the hilly surface and rocky soil, are often 

puzzled to understand how the farm- 
3. The market erg can earn enough to build such 
or sue pro - i ar g e houses and barns, to furnish 

their homes so well, and to have so 
many books and pictures. The reason is that the 
cities, near at hand, give an excellent market for 
farm products. There are so many people in these 
states, especially in the three southern ones, that 
only a part of the food needed can be raised in this 
section. This insures a ready and profitable mar- 
ket for whatever food the land can produce. 


1 . Extent of 
this industry, 
with reasons 

When the Puritans settled New England, 
the articles that they needed had to be 
brought across the ocean at 
great expense. At first they 
imported not only furniture 
and tools, but even wood for 
the interior of houses, and bricks for the 
walls, fireplaces, and chimneys. Even now, 
in some of the older New England houses, 
one sees doors and rafters that came from 
over the sea long ago. 

Very soon, however, the settlers began to 
make such articles as shoes, cloth, and lum- 
ber. Thus manufacturing began early, and 
the industry was greatly aided by the water 
power (Eig. 57). It was also aided by the 
many lakes. These served as reservoirs 
from which the falls and rapids were sup- 
plied with water, even during times of 
drought. Many mills and factories sprang 
up near the coast, and later in the interior. 

Thus New England soon became the prin- 
cipal manufacturing section of the whole 
country. To-day its many large cities owe 
their growth chiefly to this industry. Hun- 
dreds of articles are made, of which those 
composed of wood, cotton, wool, leather, and 
metal are the most important. 

It may seem strange that these kinds 
should be manufactured, since most of these 
raw materials are not produced in great 
quantities in New England. The reason is 
that the abundant waterfalls furnished such 
excellent power that it paid to bring the 
raw materials there to be manufactured. 
Later the people learned to manufacture so 

well, that factories were built even where 
there was no water power, as in Boston, 
where steam power is used. Since coal is 
now cheap, the location of a mill near an 
important railway, or near some other good 
shipping point, is a more important matter 
than its location near water power. 


57. — Factories iu a New England village, which have 
been built because of the water power there. 

2. Manufac- 
tures from the 

(1) Lumber, 
and articles 
made from it 

The mouths of the rivers, being good 
shipping points, are natural sites for man- 
ufacturing towns and cities. 
Many such towns in Maine are 
eno-aa;ed in lumber manufac- 
turing. The logs from the 
forest are floated to them, and 
there much work, requiring 
many men, is necessary to change these to 
lumber, and then to various useful articles. 

For example, the city of Baxgor has 
grown up where the ocean tide checks the 
river current, so that the logs can be floated 
no farther ; and vessels from the ocean can 
reach this point in order to carry off the 
lumber. The log drives of the Kennebec and 
Androscoggin rivers are stopped at the 
sawmills in several cities along their banks, 
such as Watekville, and Augusta, the 



capital of Maine ; but some are carried 
down as far as Bath, which is noted for its 
ship building. On the wharves of Port- 
land are quantities of boards ready to be 
shipped away to be made into boxes, barrels, 
doors, and hundreds of other articles. 

Another important use of the forests is 
in making paper, for much of the paper 
commonly seen, such as news- 
(2) Paper paper and wrapping paper, 

is now .made of wood. Short logs (two-foot 
lengths), after having the bark removed. 

Fig. 58. — Men and women leaving the factory at the close of the day. 
Notice how many people there are employed in this one factory. 

are placed in a steel frame and forced 
against an enormous grindstone. The 
wood pulp thus ground off is carried away 
by water, run through a sieve, deposited on 
a wide belt, and pressed into thin sheets be- 
tween rollers. When dry, it is paper. Wood 
pulp is also made by help of chemicals. We 
do not often think, when reading the news 
or wrapping a package, that the paper in 
our hands may once have been part of a live 
tree, perhaps in the woods of Maine. 

Paper mills are found at Rfmford Falls, 
East Livermore, East Millinocket, and 
Bangor in Maine. However, Holyoke, the 
greatest paper-making city in New England, 
is situated not in the forest region, but in the 
midst of busy cities in Massachusetts. There 

the pulp is generally made of rags, which 
produce a finer grade of paper. The neigh- 
boring cities furnish a large supply of the 
necessary rags. 

The forest trees supply other valuable products 

besides lumber and wood pulp. One of these is 

tannic ncid, used in tanning leather; 

it is made from the bark of the f3 ) Ta nnic 

hemlock and other trees. Another acui '•' ma P !e 

, . , sugar and sirup 

product is maple sirup and sugar. 

Among the trees in the forests of New England is 
the sugar maple, which is very common in Vermont, 
as well as in Xew York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and 
other states. Its sap, unlike that 
of most trees, is sweet ; and if a 
hole is bored through the bark in 
early spring, when the sap is mov- 
ing through the tree most rapidly, 
it will ooze forth as a watery liquid. 
This is then boiled to drive off 
some of the water, thus making 
maple sirup and maple sugar. 

There are about 400 cotton 
mills in New England, mak- 
ing: such articles 

, , 3. Textile 

as sheets, towels, manu f acturin g 
Stockings, un- (i) Extent and 
derwear, thread, variety of cotton 

. • i n manufacturing 

string, handker- J * 

chiefs, and gingham and calico 
dress goods. As many as 
1200 persons may be em- 
ployed in a single mill, per- 
haps three quarters of the number being 
women. One of these mills may consume 
from 60,000 to 70,000 pounds of cotton per 

The cotton arrives in bales, each weighing about 
500 pounds, and is made into cloth in the following 
manner : First, the dirt, small sticks, 
etc., are removed. Then the cotton @) Method of 

cotton manu- 

fibers, of various lengths, are combed 

out straight and well mixed with one 

another. After that they are pressed into thin, 

gauzelike sheets. These are gradually drawn out 

and twisted into threads, and then wound upon 

spindles and taken to the looms for weaving. All 

this work is done by machinery. 

Cotton cloths are nothing more than such threads 
woven together, those that extend lengthwise of the 
piece being called the warp, and those across it, the 
icovf. An ordinary piece of calico has a warp of 



perhaps 1200 threads, while a wide piece of cloth, such 
as a sheet for a bed, may contain as many as 2500. 
Stripes and other patterns are made by coloring the 
threads differently, and then, before the weaving 
begins, carefully arranging them according to some 

After being sheared from the sheep, the 
wool is washed and freed from burs, sticks, 

,o, , r „ ^ , etc. It is then untangled and 

(3) Method of . e 

wool manu- combed out straight, alter 
facture which it is twisted into yarn, 

much as cotton is twisted into thread. 
The yarn is woven into cloth for men's 
suits and overcoats, and also for coats, 
skirts, underwear, blankets, stockings, car- 
pets, and dozens of other articles. Most, 
if not all, of the garments that you are 
wearing are made either of wool or cotton, 
or of the two mixed together. 

Most of the cotton is brought from Texas 
and other Southern States, but some of it 

(4) Where the comes from Egypt and other 
cotton and wool foreign countries. None is 

are obtained • i • at r? l j 

raised in JSlew England. 

The wool is cut, or sheared, from sheep, 
and much of that which is manufactured 
into cloth in New England is 
obtained from Ohio and other 
states farther west. Large 
quantities are also imported 
from Australia, and a small 
amount comes from the New 
England pastures. 

The following cities are en- 
gaged extensively in the manu- 
,. „, . , facture of either 

(5) Chief cities 

engaged in tea- cotton or woolen 

tile manufac- cloth, 01' both : 

lure • t» r • ti 

in Maine, Bidde- 


and Augusta ; in New Hamp- 
shire, Manchester, Nashua, 
and Dover ; in Massachusetts, 
Lowell and Lawrence on 
the Merrimac River ; Pitts- 
field in western Massachusetts, and Eall 
River, New Bedford, and Taunton in 
the southern part ; in Rhode Island, Paw- 

tucket, Woonsocket, and Providence 
(Eig. 61), which is the second city in size 
in New England. One of the largest 
cotton factories in the world is at Man- 
chester, N.H. Locate each of these cities 
on the map. 

Boot and shoe making is carried on in a 
number of cities, though the most important 
are Lynn, Haverhill, and 
Brockton in Massachusetts, manufacturing 
Locate them. Besides boots (i) cities en- 
and shoes, leather is made into gaged in it, and 
many other articles, such as ar lc es ma e 
bookbindings, harnesses, pocketbooks, and 
bicycle saddles. Can you name others ? 

Leather is made from the hides of ani- 
mals, such as cattle, sheep, goats, horses, 
and hogs. After the hair is (2 ) How leather 
removed, the hides are taken is prepared 
to tanneries, where they are soaked in tan- 
nic acid to make them durable. 

Some of the tanneries are situated near forests, 
as in Michigan, where there are many hemlock 
trees whose bark produces the tannic acid. Others 
are in the mountains of North Carolina, where a 
kind of oak grows from which tannic acid is made. 

Fig. 51). — Workmen in a shoe factory in Lynu. 

Some of the tanneries of New England also are near 
the forest, but many, like those in and about Salem, 
are far away from the forests. To these, both the 



hides and the bark must be brought a long distance. 
In some tanneries chemicals are used in place of the 
tannic acid from hemlock or oak bark. In a single 
tannery near Boston, where sheepskins are tanned, 
from 30,000 to 40,000 skins are prepared each week. 

After being tanned, the leather is brought 
to the shoe factories and cut up, one 
,., „ . . machine cutting out soles of a 

(3) Hotc boots . ° 

and shoes are certain size, a second tops, a 
made third tongues, etc. ; these parts 

are then sewed or nailed together, and the 
shoes are soon finished. As in the case of 
cotton and woolen manufacturing, nearly all 
the work is done by machinery, each person 
caring for one or more machines, and per- 
forming the same simple task day after day. 

On account of the water power, the New 
England people early began to manufacture 
5. Metal manu- metals into various articles. 
facturing Although steam now largely 

takes the place of water power, these in- 
dustries are still very extensive, especially 
in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Con- 

Since very little coal and iron are pro- 
duced in New England, these two materials 
(1) Kind of must be shipped from other 
articles made, states. Therefore large, heavy 
with reason objects, that require much 
metal and coal, are not generally made. The 
lighter articles, like jewelry, clocks, needles, 
cutlery, tools, and firearms, that require a 

high degree of skill, are the chief articles 
manufactured from metal in New England. 

Worcester (Fig. 61), west of Boston, is 
noted for the manufacture of wire- and iron 
goods, besides envelopes, boots, (2 ) cities en- 
and shoes. Great quantities gaged in this 
of jewelry are made at Provi- mdustr y 
dence. New Haven is noted for hardware 
and firearms. Corsets, cartridges, and sew- 
ing machines are manufactured at Bridge- 
port. Firearms, cars, and bicycles are made 
at Springfield and at Hartford, which is 
situated at the head of steamboat naviga- 
tion on the Connecticut River. Fitchburg 
is also engaged in metal manufacturing. 

Near Boston, at Waltham, the American 
Watch Company has an immense factory 
(Fig. 60), where 3100 watches are made 
every day. About 4300 persons, more than 
half of whom are women, are employed there, 
receiving about $ 200,000 a month in wages. 
Great numbers of clocks and watches are 
made in Waterbury, and jewelry and 
cutlery at Meriden, Conn. In hundreds 
of smaller cities, towns, and villages in New 
England there are factories and mills of 
various sorts. Some of the cities where 
cotton and woolen goods are manufactured, 
such as Fall River, Lowell, and New 
Bedford, are also noted for the manufac- 
ture of iron and other metals. 

All this manufacturing calls for an ini- 

The Waltham Watch Factory at night. This is but one of the many large factories of New England. 




mense amount of lumber, 
cotton, wool, leather, 
metals, coal, 
and food ; 
and most of these prod- 
ucts must be brought 
from outside of New 
England. The commerce 
of New England is, there- 
fore, extensive. 

The rivers are not of 
great value for shipping 
these goods, because of 
their many rapids and 
falls. Most of them are 
also too short and shal- 
low for boats. Thus, 
while of great service in 
manufacturing, the rivers 
have helped very little in 

On the other hand, 
there are many good 
harbors along the coast. 
And although boats can- 
not ascend the rivers, 
railroads lead from the 
seaports to all parts of 
the interior. The rail- 
roads, together with the 
numerous steamship lines 
that ply between New 
England and other parts 
of the world (Fig. 61), 
furnish excellent means 
for transportation of 

The most important of 

the New England cities Fig. 61. — Boston and vicinity. Also small maps of Providence, Portland, and 
Prinrinal IS BOSTON Worcester. Notice the steamship and railway lines converging at Boston. Also 

cities the fifth 

the number of cities near Boston. 

l. Boston c ity i n size in the United 

States. It is a great manufacturing center, 
being engaged in most of the industries 
already named, and especially in making 
clothing. Its great size is largely due 
to its excellent harbor (Fig. 61), and its 
central location. 

The port of Boston is third in impor- 
tance in the United States. Great quanti- 
ties of raw materials are received here, to 
be sent to the factories of New England ; 
and the finished goods are shipped all over 
the world. Much grain and meat reach 
Boston from the West to be distributed 



among the smaller cities, or shipped abroad. 
In return, ships from foreign countries 
bring such articles as coffee, tea, chocolate, 
rubber, wool, bides, and bananas, which 
are needed in New England. 

Boston and its vicinity have been important from 
the earliest days o£ our history. There, at the be- 
ginning of the Revolutionary War, occurred the 
Boston Tea Party, Paul Revere's Ride, and the 
Battle of Bunker Hill. The vicinity of Boston 

Fig. H2. — The Washington elm at Cambridge. It was urn 
Washington first took command o£ the American army 

is also noted for its eminent men. Harvard College, 
the oldest in the United States, was founded in 1(336 
at Camuhidge, three miles from Boston. Yale 
College, at Xew Haven, was started sixty-five 
years later, in 1701. Longfellow, Lowell, Holmes, 
and Agassiz were professors at Harvard ; and Haw- 
thorne, Emerson, Thoreau, and Whittier lived not 
far from Boston. 

In the vicinity of Boston are many 
manufacturing cities and towns which also 
2. Cities near serve as places of residence for 
Boston the business men of Boston. 

Among these the largest are Cambridge 
and Someeville (Fig. 61), which have im- 

portant industries of meat packing, machine 
manufacturing, and printing. Others are 
Chelsea and Malden, each engaged in 
manufacturing rubber goods and other 

Not far distant is Salem, which in 
colonial days was even more important than 
Boston. Since its harbor is too shallow for 
the deep ships of the present time, this city 
has lost much of its commerce, which is 
now carried on in Boston. 
Notice, in Figure 43, that 
Salem was one of our large 
cities in the year 1790. 

Portland (Fig. 61), the 
largest city in Maine, has an 
excellent harbor, 3 other large 
and is the eastern cities 
terminus of the Grand Trunk 
Railway, which runs through 
Canada. In winter, when the 
St. Lawrence River is frozen 
over, it is a shipping point 
for Canadian goods. New 
Haven, the largest city in 
Connecticut, and Providence 
(Fig. 61), the largest in 
Rhode Island, are both on 
the seacoast. 

The seacoast of New Hamp- 
shire is very small, and the 
largest city, Manchester, 
lies inland near some falls in 
the Merrimac River ; but on 
the coast is the important city 
of Portsmouth. Vermont has no seacoast. 
Its largest city, Burlington, is a lake port 
on Lake Champlain. 

There is so much manufacturing and 
commerce in New England, that great num- 
bers of people dwell in the gummer 
cities ; and during most of the resorts 
year, they are closely confined 1. Why a need 
in noisy factories, or in offices of vacatlona 
and stores. To these, the wooded mountains, 
the silvery lakes (Fig. 21), the winding 
rivers, with their falls and rapids, the green 
valleys, and the rocky seacoast, offer great 

ler this tree that 
in July, 1775. 



attractions; and every summer tens of thou- 
sands leave town for a week or more, to 
enjoy their vacations at these places. 

Many go to the green slopes of the Berk- 
shire Hills and Green Mountains, or climb 
2. Where the about among the rugged peaks 
people spend of the White Mountains (Fig. 

their vacations g 3)j tQ en j Qy thfl won derful 

scenery. Others plunge into the woods 
of Maine or northern New Hampshire, to 
hunt and fish, or to canoe upon the streams 
and lakes ; and still others 
settle down at farmhouses, to 
enjoy the quiet of the country 
(Fig. 56). 

Man) r others go to the sea- 
shore, to escape the heat and 
to bathe in the salt water, or 
to sail and row. So many go 
there that a large part of the 
New England coast is dotted 
with summer cottages and 
hotels. Indeed, people come 
here from all parts of the 
United States. Thousands 
visit Bar Harbor, on Mount 
Desert Island in Maine, which 
is therefore a very busy place 
in summer. Along the coast, 
for many miles north and south 
of Boston, there are other noted 
summer resorts. Nantucket 
Island and Martha's Vineyard 
are similar resorts farther south ; while just 
west of them, on Narragansett Bay, is 
Newport, noted for its many magnificent 
summer homes. 

10. The marble? 11. The slate? 12. What about 
the former abundance of fish ? Name and locate 
the centers for the present fishing industry. 
13. What kinds of fish are now caught? 14. De- 
scribe the method of catching and marketing mack- 
erel. 15. Where are halibut and codfish caught? 

16. Describe the method of catching them. 

17. What are the dangers connected with such fish- 
ing ? 18. What is the method of marketing these 
fish? 19. What other ocean foods are found in this 
region ? 20. To what extent is agriculture impor- 
tant here ? 21. What are the principal farm prod- 
ucts? 22. Why is there a good market for such 

Fig. 63. — The 
every sum 


1. State to what extent the mountains make the 
surface of New England irregular. Name and lo- 
cate the principal mountains. 2. Ex- 
plain how the Great Glacier made 
important changes in New England. 
3. How has the sinking of the coast made the coast 
line very irregular? 4. Describe the climate. 
5. What about the extent of the forests in New 
England? 6. Tell about the cutting of timber. 

7. Describe the floating of the logs to the mills. 

8. What hardships are there in the lumberman's 
life? 9. What can you tell about the granite? 

railway up the slopes of Mount Washington, on which 
of summer visitors are taken to the top of the mountain 

products? 23. Why is manufacturing very exten- 
sive in New England? 24. Where is the manufac- 
ture of lumber carried on ? 25. Tell how paper is 
made. 26. What other forest products are obtained? 
27. What kinds of textile manufacturing are there 
in New England? 28. What is the extent of the 
cotton manufacturing? 29. Describe the method 
of manufacturing cotton and woolen goods. 

30. Where are the cotton and wool obtained? 

31. Name and locate the principal cities engaged 
in textile manufacturing. 32. What can you tell 
about leather manufacturing ? 33. What are the 
principal kinds of metal manufacturing? Why? 
34. What cities are extensively engaged in this in- 
dustry? 35. What advantages has New England 
for commerce? 36. For what is Boston important? 
37. Name other cities near Boston and tell about 
each. 38. Locate the other large cities. For what 



is each important? 39. Why is there a special need 
of vacations in New England ? 40. Where and how 
do the people spend them ? 

Maine (Me.). 1. Draw the coast line of Maine. 
2. Why is it so irregular? 3. Find the principal 
rivers. 4. What cities are situated 
Review Ques- on each ? 5. Should you expect 
tions by States much fishing along the coast? Why? 
6. What reasons can you give why so 
many people resort to the Maine coast and woods in 
summer? 7. Describe lumbering in Maine. 8. What 
cities are engaged in producing lumber ? Why those ? 
9. What stones are quarried in the state? 10. Which 
is the largest city? How does it compare in size with 
Boston and Providence? (See Appendix, pp. 427 and 
428.) 11. What other cities in Maine are mentioned 
in the text? Find them on the map. 12. Draw an out- 
line map of Maine, locating the principal rivers and 
lakes, the capital, and other leading cities. Do the 
same for each of the other states as you study about it. 

New Hampshire (N.H.). 13. What large lakes 
are found in this state? What river? 14. Name 
the cities on it. 15. For what are they important? 
16. Why are there not more cities in northern New 
Hampshire? 17. What industry should you expect 
there? 18. Find Mount Washington ; it is the high- 
est peak in New England. 19. Where should you ex- 
pect to find most farming? 20. How does the largest 
city in the state compare in size with Portland? 

Vermont (Vt.). 21. What large lake forms a 
part of the western boundary? Into what waters 
does it empty? 22. What river flows along tha east- 
ern boundary? Through what states does it flow? 
23. What is the name of the mountains? 24. Lum- 
bering is carried on, as in Maine ; into what waters 
must the lumber be floated ? 25. What other Ver- 
mont industries are mentioned in the text? 2(3. There 
is also farming in the fertile valleys, and manu- 
facturing, as at Brattleboro. Find Brattleboro. 
27. Compare the size of the largest city with that 
of Manchester, N.H. 

Massachusetts (Mass.). 28. Compare Massachu- 
setts with Vermont and Maine in area ; in popula- 
tion. (See Appendix, p. 425. J 29. Name the large 
cities near Boston (Fig. 61). 30. Find the principal 
cities mentioned in the text, and tell where each is 
located. 31. For what is each important? 32. What 
advantages do you see in the location of each? 

33. Find Plymouth, where the Pilgrims landed. 

34. Where is the mountainous portion of the state? 
Name the mountains. 35. What effect should you 
expect the mountains to have upon agriculture? 
36. State as clearly as you can the reasons why 
Boston has grown to be a large city. 37. Of what 
importance is Boston to the cities near by? 38. Of 
what importance are they to Boston? 

Rhode Island (R.I.). 39. Compare this state 
•with Massachusetts and Maine in area. It is the 

smallest state in the Union. 40. What is the name 
of the bay in this state? What cities are located on 
it? 41. What large city is in Rhode Island? How 
is it important? 42. Compare its size with that of 
Boston and Portland. 43. Should you expect much 
lumbering in Rhode Island? .Why? 44. What kind 
of farming? Why? 

Connecticut (Conn, or Ct.). 45. Where are the 
mountains in this state? 46. Locate each of the 
cities mentioned in the text. 47. Tell how each is 
important. 48. The farms of Connecticut are better 
than those of Maine. Why? 49. There is little lum- 
bering in the state. Why? 50. Compare the size of 
New Haven with that of Boston and Portland. 

51. Name the principal industries of New 
England. In which states are they carried on ? 

52. AVhich industry do you consider _ , _ . 

i.o •»!■ l i- i c General Review 

most important I Make a list ot _ ,. 

the ten largest cities (see Appendix) 

in New England, the states they are in, and the 

chief kinds of manufacturing they are engaged in. 

53. Make a drawing of the New England States, 
including the chief rivers, cities, mountains, and the 
state boundaries. 

1. Read Whittier's " Snow-Bound." 2. Read about 

lumbering in Chase and Clow's i: Stories of Industry," 

Vol. I. 3. Visit a stone-yard, or a „ 

. , i i Suggestions 

place where monuments are made, 

and collect some specimens from the chips in the 

yard. Put these in the school collection. 4. Find 

blocks of granite and of marble in buildings. 

5. Make drawings of mackerel, cod, and halibut. 
You will find pictures of them in the dictionary. 

6. Make a collection of cotton, wool, leather, and 
metals for the school ; also make a collection of 
articles manufactured from each. 7. Find the pres- 
ent price of cotton per pound. At that price how 
much would the seventy thousand pounds, that one 
mill uses in a day, be worth? 8. What is the aver- 
age wage, per hour, of the employees in the Waltham 
Watch Factory? If the working day is eight hours 
long, how many watches are made per minute? Per 

3. Middle Atlantic States 

1. Which states have mountains? 2. Which 
has none? 3. What influence do you think the 
mountains have upon the industries ? __ o+uriv 
4. What waters help to form the 
boundary of this group of states? 5. Where do 
natural boundaries separate the states? 6. Compare 
this group of states with New England in length and 
width (Fig. 45). Notice the scales of the two 
maps. 7. Which is the largest state ? Is it larger 
or smaller than Maine? (See Appendix, p. 425.) 
8. Name the three bays. Why has a city a better 
location at the head of one of these bays than at 



the entrance? 9. Name and locate the capital of 
each state. 10. Find the capital of the United States. 
Would a location nearer the center of the country 
be better? 11. Name the five largest rivers. Into 
what waters do they flow ? Through what states? 

New England, the map shows clearly that 
much of the region is mountainous. 

Just east of the mountains is a low, hilly 
plateau of hard rock, called the Piedmont 

OF TH e: 

M I D D U E 

. Modeled by 

O Zh 50 IS \OQ 
I I ' 1 ' 

Fig. 65. —Relief map of Middle Atlantic States. 

The Appalachian Mountains extend from 
northeast to southwest across these states. 
Surface Note the number of parallel 

features ranges. How great is the 

1. Extent of distance across this mountain 
the mountains system? What two mountain- 
ous sections do you find in eastern New 
York ? While the surface of a large jjortion 
of these states is more regular than that of 

Plateau (Fig. 42). This is really a worn- 
down mountain region like New England ; 
in fact, it represents the very 2. The Pied- 
roots of those mountains which mont Plateau 
rose above the sea long before the Coal 
Period (p. 2). The plateau slopes sea- 
ward, causing the streams to flow in short 
courses in the same direction. 

Nearer the seacoast the country is a low 


, , Scale- of Miles , 1 

Cities u-ith over 1.000,000 NEW YORK / " ^U 

cuica iri*ft to Baltimore gA 

cities with 100,000 to Buffalo \ \ 

Cities witli 25,000 to 100,000. NorfolkL> 

Smaller places -Danville -< 

Capitate with Iras than 23,000 DOVER "^ 

j. National Capitals @ 



plain of softer rocks, chiefly sands and clays. 
They were deposited on the sea bottom 

3. The Coastal and then raised 

Plains t0 f orm dry 

land. These plains, added 
to the country more re- 
cently, are known as the 
Coastal Plains (Fig. 41). 
From New York to Ala- 
bama the streams that flow 

4. The Fail from the Pied- 
Line and its niont Plateau 
importance tQ the Coastal 

Plains have rapids and falls 
where they cross the divid- 
ing line between these two. 
This boundary is, therefore, 
called the Fall Line (Fig. 
66). There are rapids and 
falls along this line, because 
the streams have been able 
to dig more rapidly into the 
soft layers of the Coastal Plains than into 
the harder rocks of the Piedmont Plateau, 
before white men came, the Indians 

ir 'fM:4 

f - J Ti l - 1 ^ 1 ^^;rilA S C**-E OF MILES '? 

Fig. (36. — The Fall Line. Coastal Plains 
dotted, Piedmont and other sections 
left white. Cities printed in heavy 
type are located along the Fall Line. 

Delaware Water Gap. 

placed their villages on the streams along 
this line. The early settlers also located 

their villages here, partly because of the 

water power, and partly because boats go- 
ing upstream were stopped 
by the rapids and falls. 
N ow many of these villages 
have become large cities. 
Note (Fig. 66) how many 
cities are on the Fall Line. 
Name them. 

On the western side of the 
mountains is the Allegheny 
Plateau, which 5 Theslope 
slopes gently west of the 
toward the »«»»»*«*■ 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers. 
Near the mountains, in 
West Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, the rivers have 
cut deep valleys in this 
plateau; and it is there- 
fore so rugged and rocky 
that it has attracted few 

settlers, except near the rich coal beds that 

lie buried in the rocks. 

You have already learned (p. 26) that 
the A p p a 1 a c h i an 

Moun - 6. Passage- 
tains ways across the 

were A PP alacllians 
at first a serious 
barrier to westward 
migration ; but at 
the beginning of 
the last century 
many emigrants 
pushed their way 
across them. This 
migration was 
greatly aided by 
the fact that several 
rivers, such as the 
Mohawk, Delaware 
(Fig. 67), Susque- 
hanna, Potomac, 
and James flow 
across a part or the 
mountain system. These 
gateways to the fertile 


of the 



western plains beyond the mountains. 
Describe the course of each of these rivers, 
telling through what states it flows. 

The map shows many lakes in New York, 
northern New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 

7. Effects of the There are also many waterfalls 
Great Glacier anc i rapids. Niagara (Fig. 
68), on the boundary of New York, is the 
grandest waterfall in the world; 
and two of the Great Lakes, 
which are also partly in New 
York, are among the largest 
lakes in the world. There are 
several other large lakes in this 
state. Name some of them 
(Fig. 64). As in New England, 
many of these lakes and water- 
falls were caused by the Great 
Glacier. Trace its southern 
boundary in these states (Fig. 
18). What about lakes and 
waterfalls south of that line? 

In the Middle Atlantic States, 
as in New England, the sinking 

8. Effects of the ° f the land haS 

sinking of the caused numei'ous 
coast large bays and fine 

harbors. Through these the 
tide often reaches far inland. 
In the Hudson River, for in- 
stance, it extends above Albany; 
and in the several branches of 
the Chesapeake Bay, it reaches 
nearly to the Fall Line. Most 
of the coast, unlike the rocky 
coast of New England, is low 
and sandy, with long, gently 
sloping beaches, where the bath- 
ing is excellent (Fig. 69). 

The northern part of New 

York is in 45 degrees north latitude. 

How far is that from the 

ima e equator ? From the north 

pole ? How much nearer the equator is 

the southern part of Virginia ? 

While the climate of the northern part 
of the Middle Atlantic States resembles 
that of New England, that of the southern 

portion is much warmer. Its greater 
warmth is due partly to the lower latitude, 
and partly to the ocean currents. The 
cold Labrador current does not extend 
south of Cape Cod, but the Gulf Stream 
passes very near the Virginia coast (Fig. 

The climate in Virginia is so mild that 

Fig. 68. — A view of Niagara Falls. 

sleighing and skating are rarely possible, 
while places near the entrance of Chesapeake 
Bay — such as Old Point Comfort and 
Newport News — are important winter 
resorts. Among the mountains, however, 
the climate is cooler ; and even as far south 
as Virginia and North Carolina there are 
cool summer resorts on the mountain slopes. 



Photograph supplied by Pennsylvania Railroad. 
Fig. 69. — Bathing on Cape May Beach, N.J. 

The winds of this section often blow from 
the ocean, so that there is abundant rainfall 
for crops and for the growth of dense 
forests. In most of these states, from forty 
to fifty inches of rain falls every year. 

Many of the prominent industries in the 
Middle Atlantic States are the same as those 
Lumbering of New England. There are 
and related in- extensive forests in both the 
dustries Adirondack and Appalachian 

mountains, as well as upon the Allegheny 
Plateau. In the southern part, in and near 
West Virginia, many hard-wood trees are 
found ; but in the northern portion, both 
the trees and the methods of lumbering 
resemble those in Maine. 

Williamsport, in Pennsylvania, is ex- 
tensively engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness. There are also many paper mills 
supplied from the forests, as at Water- 
town, near the Adirondack^. The sugar 
maple grows in New York and Pennsyl- 
vania ; and in most of the states tannic 
acid is obtained from the bark of the hem- 
lock or oak. , 

Over most of this section the woods have been so 
wastefully cut down that it is now necessary for the 
government to protect those that are left. In several 
of the states there are forest reservations in which 
it is forbidden to cut down the trees, or where only 
a few of the largest are cut each year. Besides this, 
some large tracts of woodland, called qame preserves, 
are carefully protected by certain citizens, for the 
purpose of fishing and hunting at the proper season. 
State laws also protect the game. 


for cod and halibut is a much 
less important industry than in New Eng- 
land. It is too far to the Fish- 
ing Banks (p. 37) for many ls l s 
vessels to go there from the Middle Atlantic 

Some vessels are engaged in catching 
mackerel, bluefish, and other ocean fish ; and 
many shad are caught in the i. Kinds of 
bays and rivers. This fish fish caught 
swims into fresh water each spring in order 
to lay its eggs, or spawn ; and the young 
remain there until they are large enough to 
venture to the sea. It is while they are on 
the way to or from the spawning grounds 
that most shad are caught. 

Oysters are found all the way from Cape 
Cod to the Rio Grande (Fig. 267) ; but one 
of the best places for them is 2. The oyster 
Chesapeake Bay, where the industry 
waters are warm, shallow, and quiet. From 
this broad, branching bay they are collected 
in great quantities, some being shipped away 
fresh in the shell, while many are canned, 
like fruit. Baltimore and Norfolk are 
especially noted for this industry. 

When young, the oysters swim freely about; but 
after reaching a certain age, they sink to the bottom, 
fasten themselves to some solid substance, like a 
stone or an oyster shell, and never afterwards move 
from that spot. They depend for food upon what is 
brought to their mouths by the tidal currents. 

Oysters live only in shallow water, and can some- 
times be picked up by hand from a boat ; but usually 
they must be dragged, or dredged, up with a long- 



handled rake. Small steamers and sailing boats are 
used for gathering them. Many men are engaged 
in the oyster industry, which is so profitable that 
there are many private oyster beds, which are care- 
fully protected. Such beds are sometimes called 
oyster farms, or plantations. Young oysters are 
often brought here and put into the water to grow, 
as seeds are planted in a garden. 

There is more good farm land in the 

Middle Atlantic States than in New England, 

. . „. and agriculture is, therefore, 

Agriculture & . . , 

a more important industry. 

1. Where the " , , , « , , t-»i • 

farms are The low, level Coastal Plains, 

located t ne gently rolling Piedmont 

Plateau, and nearly all of New York, except 
the Catskill and Adirondack regions, are 
dotted with farms. There is also much 
farm land in the broader val- 
leys of the Allegheny Pla- 
teau, west of the mountains, 
and in the valleys which lie 
between the Appalachian 
Mountain ridges. Among the 
latter by far the most im- 
portant is the Great Valley of 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, and 

Many of the farmers turn 
their attention chiefly to 
dairying ; and, 
although butter 
and cheese are made in every 
state in the Union, this work is especially 
important in New York. 

The number of cows in a dairy herd 
(Fig. 70) varies from a dozen to several 
score. In summer they are allowed to graze 
in the pastures, but during the winter they 
are kept in large barns, where hay is fed to 
them. Twice each day they are milked, 
and, as in New England (p. 39), the milk 
may be sent to a neighboring city to be 
sold by the quart, or it may be kept for 
making butter or cheese. 

Utica, on the Mohawk River, is an im- 
portant cheese market ; and small cheese 
and butter factories, or creameries, are scat- 
tered over New York. They are common 
in the other states, also. These creameries 

3. Tobacco 

furnish a ready market for the milk, and are 
therefore of great value to the farmers near 
by ; indeed, milk is even brought by train 
to some of the creameries. 

The tobacco plant, which grows to a 
height of about three and a half feet, has 
large, thick leaves (Fig. 106), 
somewhat like those of the pie- 
plant, or rhubarb. These leaves, which are 
the valuable part of the plant, are plucked 
in the fall, hung in a room to dry, and then 
are ready for market. 

The climate of most parts of New Eng- 
land and New York is too severe for this 
plant, but large quantities are raised in 
the Connecticut Valley, and in the valleys 

2. Dairying 

Fiu. 7U. — A dairy herd in New York feeding in the pasture late in the Fall, 
after the first snow has fallen. 

of southern New York, Pennsylvania, and 
states farther west (Fig. 256). Far the 
greatest amount of tobacco raised in the 
Middle Atlantic States comes from Vir- 
ginia. In the vicinity of Lynchburg and 
Danville, where much tobacco manufac- 
turing is carried on, immense quantities are 
grown ; and Richmond and Petersburg, 
on the Fall Line (Fig. 66), are among the 
leading tobacco markets of the world. 
Find these cities on the map. 

Both the soil and the climate of these 

states are well suited to the . „ . . 
. - ., , , 4- Raising of 

raising or fruits and vegeta- fruits and vege- 

bles. Nearly every farmer * able s 

raises some of each. The W Sections 

, it p important for 

sections near large bodies of those products 



water, however, have the best climate for 
fruit. This is because the presence of water 
tends to equalize the climate, thus checking 
the danger from frosts. 

One of the most noted sections for fruit 
is along the southern shores of Lake Erie 
in western New York. Here grapes in 
particular are cultivated (Fig. 71). Apples 
form another important fruit crop in New 
York, being grown in many parts of the 
state, but especially along the southern 
shores of Lake Ontario. There is so much 
fruit raising in New York that the nursery 
business, or that of raising young fruit trees, 

Fig. 71. 

-Grapes on a vine in a vineyard in western 
New York. 

vines, and bushes to sell, is a flourishing in- 
dustry. One of the principal centers for 
this business is Rochester. 

On the Coastal Plains and Piedmont 
Plateau of eastern New Jersey, Delaware, 
Maryland, and Virginia, grapes, peaches, 
strawberries, apples, and other fruits flour- 
ish. Besides fruit, such common vegetables 
as potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, beans, 
and sweet corn are grown in the Middle 
Atlantic States. 

There are so many large cities in these 
states that there is great demand for fruits 
(2) 7V market and vegetables. In the early 
/or them spring they are sent from the 

south in large quantities to the northern 
markets, being carried on fast trains, and 

often in special cars. Many kinds are eaten 
fresh during the proper season. 

The canning of fruits and vegetables for 
winter use has become an important in- 
dustry in several cities, as in Baltimore 
and Wilmington. Many farmers are en- 
gaged almost entirely in raising crops for 
this purpose. Probably as many peaches, 
berries, tomatoes, etc., are put up in cans, 
as are eaten fresh. These canned goods 
may be seen in every grocery store. The 
fruits are prepared for use in other ways 
also ; for instance, the juice of grapes is 
made into wine, and that of apples into 
cider and vinegar. 

Besides the cattle necessary for dairying, 
many horses are raised in these 5. other farm 
states. In some of the more products 
hilly sections, like western New York and 
Pennsylvania, there are many sheep. Hogs 
are raised on most of the farms ; and also 
hens, ducks, and turkeys. 

Among the most important crops of the 
Middle Atlantic States are hay and the 
grains, such as wheat, oats, corn, barley, 
rye, and buckwheat. Far more land is 
used for these crops than for those already 
mentioned. However, since the states 
farther west are even more noted for hay 
and grain, a description of this kind of 
farming will be given later, in connection 
with those states (pp. 93-97). 

There are many more kinds of mineral 
products in the Middle Atlan- 
tic States than in New Eng- ining 
land ; and they are far more valuable. 

One of these is salt, a mineral which is 
necessary to every one. In the early days 
salt springs were discovered 
at the point where Syracuse 
now stands, and that city owed its early 
growth to those springs. Little salt is now 
produced there ; but large quantities of 
soda are made of brine obtained from the 
salt beds near by. 

These beds of salt were deposited in the 
sea which covered this region before the 
Goal Period. They were later buried 

1. Salt 



beneath layers of rock, much 

as the coal beds were buried. 

In the region 

(1) Wherefound , . c 

south or Syra- 
cuse and Rochester, the salt 
beds lie deep in the earth, and 
from them salt is obtained at 
a number of places. In fact, 
New York produces more salt 
than any other state, with the 
exception of Michigan, which 
ranks first. Ohio and Kansas 
also produce large quantities. 

When in the earth, salt is hard, 
somewhat like coal, and may be 

obtained in either 

(2) How one of two 

Fig. 12. — The salt in these great piles was brought to the surface in brine 
that rose through wells bored dawn to the salt beds of central New York. 
The brine was then evaporated, leaving the salt. 

ways. By the one 
method a small hole is- bored to 
the salt, and water allowed to run down and dissolve 
it ; then the brine is pumped up and the water is 
evaporated by heat until only the salt is left (Fig. 
72). By the other method a deep hole, or shaft, 
large enough for men to pass up and down, is dug- 
down to the salt ; then lumps of salt are broken 
off and hoisted to the surface. A salt mine is a 
beautiful sight with its clear, crystal white walls 
and clean floor. 

Fid. 73. — A miner digging out bituminous coal in a tunnel, far uuderground 
near Pittsburg. The entire wall of this tunnel is solid coal. 

Although there is little water power south 
of the region that the glacier covered, there 
ismuchcoal — an excellentsub- 2. Coal 
stitute. The coal swamps, that (i) where 
existed millions of years ago (p. found 
2), stretched from the ancient Appalachian 
Mountains westward beyond the Mississippi 
River. Most of the coal now found in this 
region is soft, or bituminous, coal, and enor- 
mous quantities of it 
are mined (Fig. 73). 
In two or three places, 
however, as near 
Wilkes-Barre and 
Scrantox, there are 
beds of hard coal, or 
anthracite. It is to 
this coal that these 
cities owe their impor- 

Although much coal 
is mined in other parts of 
the country, the Middle 
Atlantic States are most 
noted for this mineral. 
About half the coal of 
the United States comes 
from Pennsylvania; 
West Virginia is second, 
and Illinois third, while 
Ohio produces a large 



(2) Hoto anthra- 
cite coal was 
formed, and its 
special value 

Anthracite coal was once soft. Had it not been 
for the folding of the mountains, it would doubtless 
now be bituminous coal, like that 
farther west, near Pittsburgh. But 
the pressure caused by the folding of 
the mountain rocks has changed it 
to hard coal. All woody matter, 
and even soft coal, contains gases ; but in the 
anthracite these gases have been mostly driven 

This has made anthracite coal harder and more 
difficult to burn ; but since it gives forth a more 
intense heat than bituminous coal, and burns with 
less smoke, anthracite is preferred for some purposes, 
such as heating and cooking. Throughout Xew 

th ra cite coal is 



Fig. 74. — A drawing to illustrate how coal is mined. There 
straight down, then tunnels extend off from it into the diffe 

England and many parts of the Middle Atlantic 
States, it is almost the only coal used for these 

In some places the coal is found close to 
the surface, though in many others it is 
(3) Method several hundred feet beneath 
<tf mining the surface. Where the coal 

lies far down in the earth, deep shafts must 
be sunk to reach it. From the sides of such 
a shaft, tunnels (Fig. 74) are dug into the 
coal beds, and from these the coal is re- 

Usually there are several beds of coal, with thick 
layers of rock between, and the shaft extends down- 
ward through them all, with tunnels reaching out 

into each of the coal beds (Fig. 74). In a large 
mine one may travel through miles and miles of 
tunnels. Since it is very dark so far underground, 
the tunnels are sometimes lighted by electricity ; but 
the workmen often furnish their own light by means 
of lamps fastened to their caps. 

The miners drill holes in the coal beds with drills 
run by steam or compressed air, and break the coal 
out by blasting ; the larger lumps are then broken 
up with picks. After this is done, the coal is placed 
in cars, drawn to the shaft by mules, or by electricity, 
aud then hoisted to the surface. The mules are 
kept underground for months, being fed and allowed 
to sleep in stables cut out of solid coal. 

Soft coal is sold in the form that it reaches the 
surface ; but anthracite must first 
be sorted so that the 
lumps of one size are (*) How an - 
together. This work 
is done in great 
buildings, called coal 
breakers, which stand close by the 
mouth of the shafts. The coal is 
hoisted to the top of the breaker, 
where the larger lumps are broken 
up. It then passes down through 
the building and is separated into 
different sizes by means of sieves 
and various kinds of machinery. 

There is much rock mixed with 
the coal, and this must be picked 
out. Some of this work is done by 
machinery ; but much of it is done 
by boys, called breaker boys, who sit 
on low wooden benches, as the coal 
passes by, watching carefully for 
pieces of rock. These they pick out 
and throw away. You can imagine 
how black they become before their 
day's work is done. 
Both the hard and the soft coal are used 
not only for heating houses and for cook- 
ing, but also in making steam 

r ! (5) Uses of coal 

tor use in running locomotives, 
steamboats, and the machinery of factories. 
Much coal is used also in smelting iron and 
other metals, and in the manufacture of 
illuminating gas for use in lighting houses. 
Coal is, indeed, the most useful of all min- 
erals. Without it, our country could not 
have prospered as it has. It is fortunate, 
therefore, that there is so much coal in the 
United States, and that it is found over so 
large an area. 

In the rocks of the plateau along the 

is a shaft going 
rent coal heds. 



western border of the Appalachian Moun- 
tains, two other fuels, oil and natural gas, 
3. Petroleum are often found. Petroleum, 
and natural gas as the oil is generally called, 

(1) where found means " rock oil," — a name 
which suggests its origin. 

Formerly no region in the world pro- 
duced so much oil as western Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia, and eastern Ohio ; but now 
this region is rivaled by California and 
a part of the Gulf region in Oklahoma and 
Texas. Outside of the United States the 
only region in the world that approaches 
either of these in the amount of oil pro- 
duced is in Russia, near the Caspian Sea. 

Ages ago, when the layers of rook were being 
deposited on the ocean floor (p. 6), countless num- 
bers of animals and plants, dying and 

(2) How formed d ,. opp ; ng to the hottom< were impris . 

oned in the sediment and deeply buried. These 
then slowly decayed, forming oil and natural gas 
which entered the crevices between the grains of 
the sandstones and other rocks. Thus these sub- 
stances have become stored deep down in the earth. 
Oil of much the same kind is now manufactured 
from fish; and nearly the same kind of gas may 
often be seen rising from swampy places, where 
plants are decaying. 

When a hole is bored down to a rock 
layer where gas is thus stored, the gas 

(3) How ob- rushes to the surface. It is 
tainedfrom then led away in pipes, often 
underground to distant places. Thousands 
of homes in Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and 
other cities are heated with natural gas ; 
and in many factories, too, the gas is used 
for fuel. 

Borings in which petroleum rises are 
called oil wells. From these the oil some- 
times spurts, or gushes out ; but frequently 
it must be pumped out. Near the oil wells 
cities have grown up, such as Braditord 
and Oil City in Pennsylvania, and Olean 
in New York. 

After being taken from the earth, the 
petroleum is stored in large tanks and then 

(4) Products refined. In its natural state it 
from the oil [ s a thick, dark yellow or red- 
dish yellow fluid ; but in the refinery it is 

changed so that a large part of it becomes 
clear, colorless kerosene oil. 

Benzine, naphtha, and gasoline are also made 
from petroleum. The thick substances that are 
left, after the refining, are used in making dyes of 
various kinds, machine oil, vaseline, and paraffin. 
The latter is used in many ways ; for example, in 
making chewing gum, and candles. 

The oil business is mainly in the hands of the 
Standard Oil Company. From the wells the oil is 
led to the refineries in pipes (Fig. 
75), sometimes hundreds of miles (») Principal 
long, and the company owns many ™™ pa ™ J t han ~ 
special tank cars for hauling the ker- 
osene, as well as steamers for shipping it to foreign 
lands. Watch for one of the tank cars, and de- 
scribe it. 

Fig. 75, — A large pipe through which petroleum is 
flowing from the oil wells to the refinery. 

Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and the 
other states mentioned enjoy a great advan- 
tage in having such an abun- . . 

i e i-i c on ore 

dance of coal, oil, and gas for ,j, where 
fuel. Iron ore is also found found, and why 
in New York, Pennsylvania, important 
Virginia, West Virginia, New Jersey, and 
some other states. Thus both the raw mate- 
rial and the fuel for manufacturing- it into 
useful articles, are found almost side by side. 
Both coal and iron are easily sent to all 
the cities of the Middle Atlantic States 
for use in the factories. This is very im- 
portant, since iron is the most useful of all 
metals for manufacturing. 

In appearance, iron ore is sometimes a 
hard, black mineral; sometimes a soft, loose, 



yellowish or reddish brown earth. It is 
not iron at all, any more than 

(2) Its apppar- , . a ... , 

ance; aim how wheat is flour; it is only iron 
formed and ore, a mineral out of which 
iron may be made by a great 
deal of work. 

Like coal, the iron ore in the earth was prepared 
long ago. though in a very different manner, as fol- 
lows: Small quantities of iron exist in many min- 
erals and rocks ; indeed, the red and yellow colors of 
many soils, and of some rocks, are due to it. As 
water slowly works its way through the rocks, it 
dissolves the iron, much as it would dissolve salt or 

and limestone than any other state in the Union. 
Pennsylvania leads all other states in the value of its 
building stone, and New York ranks third. 

To obtain iron from iron ore, two mate- 

rials, coke and limestone, are Manu f ac turi 

used. They are mixed with . „ . A 

, ,1,, i at 1- Manufacti 

the ore and heated, and the of iron g00ds 

process of getting out the iron ( i) jj ow i ron 

is called smelting. made 

Coke is obtained from soft coal by burning it in 
stone or brick furnaces, called coke ovens (Fig. 76). 
There the coal is set on fire, and the ovens are closed, 

Fig. 76. — Coke ovens near Pittsburgh. 

Each of the small doors leads to an oven where the coal is burned and 
changed to coke. 

sugar if those substances were there. Where the 
conditions have been favorable, the water has brought 
quantities of the iron to one point, and there depos- 
ited it. This has formed beds, or veins, of iron ore, 
and it is these that are now being mined. 

Sometimes the veins lie very deep, and the ore 
must be mined in much the same way as coal is 
mined (p. 55). Again the veins are so near the 
surface that the ore is taken out of great open pits, 
somewhat as stone is removed from a quarry. 

Besides these valuable substances, there are many 
other minerals found in these states. Among them 
are zinc, found in New Jersey ; 
gypsum and graphite, or black lead, 
in New York ; and a great variety of 
clays and building stones in all the states. Pennsyl- 
vania, for example, produces more slate, sandstone, 

5. Other min- 
eral products 

so that little air can enter. Indeed, so little air is let 
into the ovens that only a small part of the substances 
in the coal is burned. It is mainly the gases in the coal 
that are burned up or driven out, one of these being 
the common illuminating gas, already mentioned 
(p. 55). The solid part that is left forms very light, 
porous coke. This can then be burned and made to 
furnish intense heat, if supplied with plenty of air. 
It is this heat that is used to melt the iron ore. 

Limestone is obtained from limestone quarries. 
It is valuable because it unites with the worthless 
part of the ore, forming a substance much lighter 
than iron, called slag. This is easily separated from 
the iron, and is thrown away. 

In reducing iron ore to iron, more coke 
than ore is used, so that it is a special ad- 



vantage to have the mines of coal and iron 
ore near each other. The coke, iron ore, 
and limestone are all dumped 
together into a high, towerlike 
structure, called a blastfurnace 
(Fig. 77). It is so named 
because a blast of air is forced 
through it, to produce a strong 
draft while the coke is burning. 
The great heat melts the ore 
and limestone, and the iron, 
being heaviest, sinks to the 
bottom of the fiery hot liquid. 
The limestone, united with 
those parts of the ore that are 
not iron, rises to the surface, 
forming worthless slag, which 
is drawn off through an open- 
ing in the furnace. Through 
a lower opening, the heavy 
iron is run off into trenches, 
made of sand, on a sand floor. 

and shipped away, to be made into thousands of 
different articles. 

There is one main trench with 
many side branches, and each of 
these has still smaller branches connected with it, 
as shown in Figure 78. When the molten iron 
cools, the little bars of iron, called pig iron, are still 

Fig. 77. — A blast furnace in which iron ore is changed to iron. 

Some ii'on goods, such as stoves and the iron parts 
of your desk, are nothing more than this pig iron 
melted and cast, in molds, into the 

(2) The kinds 
of iron made 


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Fig. 78. — Interior of a blast furnace. Here the white-hot iron is running 
down a trench near where the men are standing, theu iuto side brauches 
where it cools as pig iron. 

attached to a larger one. These rough bars, which 
are small enough to be lifted, are then broken off 

shape that is desired. 
This is cast iron, 
which is so brittle that it easily 
breaks under a heavy blow. Other 
materials, such as knife blades, boiler 
plates, rails for railways, and watch 
springs are made of steel. This also 
is made of pig iron, though not until 
it has been melted again and greatly 
hardened and strengthened by an 
expensive process. Wrought iron, a 
third kind, is used where it is neces- 
sary for the metal to be tough and 
at the same time to bend easily, as 
in iron wire. 

Almost every city in the 
Middle Atlantic States is en- 
gaged in iron (3) Centers for 

WOl'k of One kind iron manufac- 

or another, some tur,n 9 
in making iron and steel out 
of ore, others in manufacturing articles 
out of iron and steel. For example, iu 



New York State, Buffalo manufactures 
car wheels, machinery, and- many other 
articles. It has several thousand factories, 
many of them making iron goods. In New 
York City, iron and steel products of al- 
most all kinds are made. Iron and steel 
goods, bicycles, etc., are manufactured in 
Syracuse ; stoves are made in Albany 
and Troy ; and there are iron foundries in 
Binghamton, Elmira, and Schenec- 

In Pennsylvania, Philadelphia manu- 
factures steel ships, cars, and hundreds of 
other iron products ; Pittsburgh, towhich 
Allegheny is now united, makes steel and 
iron goods of nearly every kind (Fig. 79); 
and Scranton, Reading, Harrisburg, 

they also need to buy clothes, shoes, etc., this one 
factory, by furnishing the money for all these pur- 
chases, helps to support farmers, storekeepers, shoe 
factories, railways, and many other industries. 
However, since it is the farmer who buys the im- 
plements, it is he who has really caused the factory 
to be built. Thus one is dependent upon the other. 

Manufactories using three other mineral 
products are especially worthy of note. 
One of these is glass, which is 

-, i t-i 2. Manufacture 

made at and near .Pittsburgh, of lasS| ot _ 
Wheeling, and other places, tery, brick, and 
especially where natural gas cement 
furnishes cheap fuel. In the (1) Glass 
vicinity of the former city, there are sands 
which, when mixed with other substances, 
and melted, make an excellent quality of 

■.:ji:LV.: . , 

Fig. 79. — Homestead Steel Works, oue of the many iron and steel manufactories in and near Pittsburgh. 

Erie, Altoona, and a score of other places, 
have furnaces, foundries, and machine 
shops for iron manufacturing. In New 
Jersey, Jersey City, Newark, Camden, 
and Hoboken manufacture iron goods. In 
Delaware, Wilmington is noted for its 
cars and steel ships. In Maryland, Balti- 
more, like Philadelphia and New York, has 
a great variety of iron manufactures. 
Wheeling in West Virginia, and Rich- 
mond and Roanoke in Virginia, are also 
engaged in such work. 

The importance of even a single manufactory is 
proved by the following facts : At the Osborne works 
in Auburn, New York, where fanning implements, 
such as mowers, rakes, reapers, and harrows are 
made, over 2700 men have been employed at one 
time, making one complete implement every forty 
seconds. In a year these men and their families 
consume about 0000 barrels of flour, 62,000 bushels 
of potatoes, 200,000 dozen eggs, 1.400,000 quarts of 
milk, 375.000 pounds of butter, and 1,300,000 pounds 
of meat, besides much coffee, tea, and sugar. Since 

glass. Pittsburgh is the greatest center in 
the country for the production of plate 

In a number of places clay is found which 
is suited to the manufacture of pottery ; but 
much clay for pottery is im- (2) pottery 
ported. A high grade of pot- and bricks 
tery is made at Trenton, N.J., where 
the pottery industry has become very 

So many bricks are used for building, 
that brick yards are found in the neighbor- 
hood of nearly all cities. Bricks are made 
of clay, which is first pressed into the brick 
shape when damp, then dried, and finally 
baked. In this process some of the grains 
melt, so that when cooled again, they cling 
together like stone. The clays near Phila- 
delphia, and the great clay beds of the 
Hudson Valley, above New York City, sup- 
ply an abundance of brick for these and 
neighboring cities. 



(3) Cement 

Portland cement has become of great im- 
portance within the last few years. It is 
made in many places, especially 
in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
and New York. To make it, limestone 
is ground fine and mixed with coal dust. 
The two are then placed in a furnace, 
where the burning coal dust gives out so 
much heat that the limestone melts. It 
comes out of the furnace as a kind of 
clinker, which is then ground into fine pow- 
der for use. This cement 
has the valuable property of 
becoming hard like rock, or 
setting, when water is added. 
It is used for sidewalks, for 
buildings, dams, bridges, and 
many other purposes, taking 
the place of wood, stone, and 

In the Middle Atlantic 
States, as in New England, 

3. Other kinds there al ' e man y 
of manufactur- Other kinds of 

ing manufacturing. 

For example, flour is made 
at Rochester; silk at 
Paterson ; shirts, collars, 
and cuffs at Troy ; starch at 
Oswego ; cotton goods at 
Utica ; boots and shoes at 
Binghamton and Roch- 
ester ; carpets and hats 
at Yonkers; and furniture at 
Jamestown. Cotton and 
woolen mills are found at a number of 
places, and the manufacture of clothing is 
of great importance in all the "large cities. 
There is some manufacturing in nearly 
every town ; and in the larger cities so 
many different kinds flourish that a score 
of pages would be required even to make 
a list of them. 

Since the Middle Atlantic States, unlike 
New England, produce great quantities of 
Commerce coal and iron, as well as many 

l. its extent other raw materials, they have 
more manufacturing, and a much greater 

population, than New England. Trade and 
transportation of goods are, therefore, much 
more extensive industries here. 

As in New England, the commerce is 
due, first of all, to the excellent harbors 
along the coast. Locate the 
three bays here : that is, New 
York Bay, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake 
Ba}'. The most noted harbor of all is on the 
first, at the mouth of the Hudson River. 
The others are also very important, for 

2. The harbors 

Map ol the 




10 20 30 40 50 CO 70 

Fig. 80. — The Erie Canal and other water routes of New York and vicinity. 

large vessels can ascend Delaware Bay as 
far as Philadelphia, and Chesapeake 
Bay to Baltimore and Washington. 
The mouth of Chesapeake Bay, as well as 
its branches, has fine harbors, such as that 
of Norfolk. Note the cities in that sec- 
tion, and observe how easy it is to reach 
Richmond, the capital of Virginia, by 

Good harbors are of little use unless they 
can be easily reached from the 3 connections 
interior. New York Bay is with the interior 
especially favored in this re- (1) By water 



spect, for it is connected b} - water with the 
very heart of the fertile country to the 
west. This water way first leads north- 
ward up the Hudson 

River, where the 

first railway train which ran out of Albany 

ocean tide rises as far as Troy, just above 
Albany. Thus, good-sized boats can go as 
far as that point. 

From near Albany, westward, the Erie 
Canal (Fig. 80) has been dug for a distance 
of three hundred and fifty miles, connecting 
the Hudson River with 
Lake Erie at Buffalo. 
The canal follows the 
route formerly taken by 
the Indians, which is 
the easiest route from 
the Eastern States to 
the central part of the 
country. From Buf- 
falo, lake boats are able 
to go to Cleveland, De- 
troit, Chicago, Duluth, 
and other ports on the 
Great Lakes. Thus by 
river, canal, and lake, 
New York harbor is 
connected by water with 
a productive, thickly 
settled country extending westward for 
more than a thousand miles. This is one 
of the most extensive and useful interior 
water wavs in the world. 

Sevoral shorter canals have been built in New 
York, as may be seen in Figure SO; point them out 
and explain their importance. The smaller lakes are 
also used for transportation. Locate some of them. 
A number of canals have been built in Pennsylvania, 
as well as in Xew York ; but 
there is no canal connecting 
Philadelphia with the Great 
Lakes, because the Appala- 
chian Mountains and Alle- 
gheny Plateau lie in the way. 

The Erie Canal is not 
nearly so important at 
present as 
it was at »*»«* 
first, though it is now 
being enlarged to a barge 
canal. It is largely be- 
cause the railways carry 
freight much faster, 
that the canal has lost 
much of its importance. When the Erie 
Canal was dug, there were no railways ; 
but when it was found that steam could 
be used for running locomotives, men be- 
gan to build railroads rapidly. 

One of the first and most important rail- 

Fig. 82. — The Empire State Express, one of the trains of the present day on the 
New York Central Railroad. This picture was taken while the train was running 
at a speed of 90 miles an hour. 

ways iii the country was built in New York 
State (Fig. 81). This line, now called the 
New York Central, extends from the very 
heart of New York City along the Hudson 



River to Albany, where it connects with 
Boston trains. From Albany westward to 
Buffalo the route is almost the same as 
that of the Erie Canal. At Buffalo the 
Central connects with railways leading to 
various points in the West. Several other 
railways connect New York with the West, 
some of them entering the city through 
tunnels under the Hudson River. 

As in the case of New York, great trunk 
lines enter Philadelphia. These connect 
it with the other cities of Pennsylvania, such 
as Harrisburg, the capital, 
and Pittsburgh, as well as 
with the cities of the North, 
South, and West. Among 
these lines are the Penn- 
sylvania Railway and the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 
Baltimore, Washington, and 
Richmond are likewise con- 
nected with the interior by 
important railways, the Penn- 
sylvania and the Baltimore 
and Ohio roads passing 
through the former two. 

The greatest of all the cities 
of the United States is New 
York, w h i c h 
contains nearly 
five million in- 
habitants, and 
is second only 
to London among the 
cities of the world. There are several 
other large cities near by, the largest being 
Jersey City, Newark, Elizabeth, 
Paterson, and Hoboken (Fig. 89), all 
west of the Hudson River in New Jersey. 
Although in another state, they are so 
closely related to New York in business 
that they may almost be considered a part 
of New York City ; so also may Yonkers, 
which lies up the Hudson just above New 
York City. Before it became a part of 
New York, the city of Brooklyn, on Long 
Island, was itself fourth among the cities 
of the country. Probably more than six 

million persons, or one fifteenth of all the 
inhabitants of the United States, live within 
twenty miles of New York harbor. 

It is, first of all, the excellent opportunity 
for shipping that has caused so great a num- 
ber of people to collect at this , 2 ) Reasons 

point. Not only can goods be for this vast 
easily sent far inland by water vopuiation 
and rail, as already explained, but they 
can also be carried on the ocean to any port 
in the world. The harbor is deep enough 
for the largest vessels, and large enough to 

Principal cities 

1. New York 
City and vicinity 

(1) Population 
near New York 

Fig. S3. — Brooklyn Bridge, connecting Brooklyn and New York. 


accommodate all that come. Thus it is the 
connecting link between the distant interior 
and distant ocean ports. More than half of 
all the foreign trade of the United States is 
carried on through this port, which is the 
leading shipping point in the New World. 

The second reason for the vast population 
here is the fact that this is the greatest 
manufacturing center in the New World. 
The place from •which goods are most easily 
shipped in all directions is, for that very 
reason, one of the best places for the location 
of factories. 

Nearly every manufactured article that men need 
is made in or near New York, but one of the most 



Fig. 8t.- 

Copyrigfited, 1903, by William II. Rau. 
The high buildings, or skyscrapers, on the end of Manhattan Island. 

extensive industries is the manufacture of clothing. 
Cotton and woolen goods are sent here from the fac- 
tories of New Eng- 
land and other sec- 
tions to be made 
into such articles as 
dresses, men's suits, 
and underclothing. 
Large buildings, in 
which hundreds of 
men and women are 
employed, are given 
up to this work 

Iron and coal are 
so near that the 
manufacture of iron 
goods is another 
great industry. The 
refining of petroleum 
is a third, the oil be- 
ing led, in pipes, from 
the oil fields of west- 
ern Pennsylvania to 
refineries in New 
Jersey, near the 
metropolis. The re- 
fining of sugar is 
another immense 
business in and near 
New York-, as at 
Jersey City and 

ping point and 
chants from all 

Being so im- 
portant a ship- 

Fig. 85. — The Flatiron building, built with this shape 
occupies the corner where two streets come together 
offices occupy every rloor in this tall building. 

manufacturing center, mer- 
parts of the United States 
come here to buy 
goods for their 
stores. This 
business, called 
the wholesale 
trade, is a third 
reason why so 
many people have 
collected around 
New York harbor. 
At the southern 
end of Manhattan 
Island, on which 
much of New 
York is built, 
there are about 
eight square miles 
of the city given 
up almost entirely 
to the wholesale 
trade. Since the 
land is very ex- 
pensive, as much 
use as possible is 
made of every 
square foot of it. 
For that reason 
the buildings are 

because it 
Stores or 



high (Fig. 84). 
office buildings 

Many of the stores and 
are thirty or forty and 
one even fifty stories in height. Goods 
manufactured in the city, together with 
those that are brought from all parts of the 
world, are collected in this part of New 
York. Merchants in Denver, Louisville, 
St. Paul, Galveston, Indianapolis, and other 
cities come here to purchase these goods, in 
order to sell them again 
in their own stores. 

columns. Others go by train in the subway, which 
extends for many miles underground, and even 
crosses under the rivers to Brooklyn, Jersey City, 
and Hoboken. 

How different all this is from the country, where 
only two or three houses may be seen at a time I 
Where sunlight and fresh air enter one's home from 
all sides of the building ! Where there is plenty of 
room to play, with green grass, large trees, and 
singing birds in the yard ! Xo wonder that people 
living in great cities are anxious to visit the country, 

(3) Life in the 
great city 

The contrast between life 
in New York City and upon 
a farm (p. 93), 
is striking. 
On some of 
the streets scarcely anything 
but stores can be seen for ten 
or twelve miles, many of them 
being small, but some occupy- 
ing enormous building's, and 
employing many hundreds of 

Families whose homes are 
in the city do not usually 
occupy a whole house, but 
often hundreds of people live 
in one building. Such a struc- 
ture, called an apartment build- 
ing, may be from six to eight 
stories high, and some are 
from fifteen to twenty. They 
are so arranged that one 
family occupies only a small 
part of one floor, called an 
apartment, or flat. Other 
families live above and be- 
low, as well as on each side, 

being separated by only a few inches of brick or 
boards. Since land is so valuable, sometimes costing 
scores of dollars a square foot, there is usually neither 
front nor back yard. 

In the poorer sections of the city the people are 
even more densely crowded. Some of the children 
have never seen the country, and scarcely any birds, 
trees, or grass, except possibly in one of the city parks. 
In these crowded sections there are many foreigners, 
from all the nations of the earth.. 

To escape such a crowded city life, tens of thou- 
sands of men live in suburban towns, or country 
homes, from ten to forty miles from their places of 
business. Every day they spend from one to three 
hours traveling back and forth. Some ride upon 
elevated railways built in the street, two, three, and 
four stories above the ground, and supported by iron 

« 1 ! J 

U'Lf, 10 ONE !■.;■? 

UIUS CCMVING «.. ti.t. 

Fig. 86. — Map showing location of Buffalo, Rochester, and Albany. 

the mountains, the lakes, and the seashore, during a 
few weeks in the summer ! 

Most of the other large cities in New 
York State are found along the water and 
rail route from New York 2 Buffalo and 
City to Lake Erie (Fig. 80). cities along the 
The most important of these ErieCanal 
is Buffalo (Fig. 86), on Lake Erie, at the 
western end of the Erie Canal. Before the 
canal was built, Philadelphia was larger 
than New York, and Buffalo was only a 
village. But both New York and Buffalo 
have had a very rapid growth since 1825, 
when the canal was completed. 



Since the canal (Fig. 87) is only seventy feet wide, 
and seven feet deep, all freight coming in lake 
steamers from the West, and bound farther by 
water, must be unloaded at or near Buffalo, and 
placed in canal boats. These clumsy looking boats 
are made with broad, flat bottoms, in order that 
they may carry heavy loads without sinking too deep 
into the water. They are drawn by horses or mules 
that walk along the toicpath at the side. 

Buffalo is a great railway center, as well 
as an important lake port. Here immense 
quantities of grain, flour, lumber, and iron 
from the West are transferred from lake 

Lockport. This electric power is carried 
by wire even as far east as Syracuse. Plow 
far is that '! 

Name other cities along the Erie Canal route 

(Fig. 80), and recall what has been said about them. 

Js'otice especially Lockport. At this point the land 

has a decided slope, so that the canal boats have to 

be raised and lowered, according to the direction they 

are going. This is done in inclosed parts of the 

canal, called lucks (hence the name of the city), into 

one of which a boat enters (Fig. 87). Then, by 

turning in more water, or allowing some to run 

out, the boat is either raised or lowered at will. 

A canal boat thus enters one lock 

after another until it is raised to the 

top of the slope if going west, or 

lowered to the base if going east. 

New York State is prominent 
in education. Columbia Uni- 
versity is located Education in 
in New York New York 
City ; and at state 
Ithaca, in the central part of 
the state, is Cornell University, 
beautifully situated on the 
hillside above Lake Cayuga 
(Fig. 88). Both of these 
should be associated with 
Princeton University in New 
Jersey, and with Harvard and 

FIG. 87.-Locks in the Erie Canal. The canal boats are drawn into one of Yale universities in New Eng- 
these spaces, which is then filled with water, raising the boat to a higher land, as among the most im- 
! then repeated until the boat is raised to the level of the portant educational institu- 
tions in the country. North 
of New York City, on the 


canal above the locks. Or, it a boat is going the other way, it is lowered 
in the locks by letting the water run out. 

vessels to railways as well as to canal boats; 
and coal and manufactured goods shipped 
westward. There is also much manufactur- 
ing of many kinds (p. 59). 

Niagara Falls (Fig. 68), which are about 
twenty miles from Buffalo, supply electric 
power for use in lighting the city and in 
running street cars and factories. Much 
use is made of this electric power near the 
Falls, as at the city of Niagara Falls, 
which has become an important manufac- 
turing center. The Niagara power is used 
for running electric cars between Buffalo 
and Niagara Falls and between Buffalo and 

Hudson River, is West Point, the place 
where the government school for the train- 
ing of army officers is located. At Pough- 
keepsie, also on the Hudson, is Vassar 
College, one of the leading colleges for 
women, like Smith and Wellesley in Massa- 
chusetts, and Biyn Mawr near Philadelphia. 
Largely on account of the enormous popu- 
lation of New York City, with its extensive 
manufacturing and great Rank of New 
wealth, New York is called the York State 
Empire State; for it ranks first in the 
Union in population, manufacturing, com- 
merce, and wealth (^Figs. 247 and 278). 



The leading cities southwest of New 
York as far as Richmond are located along 

3. Philadelphia t] \ e Fal1 Li " r e ; Name them 
and neighboring (Fig. 66). The 

cities greatest of all is 

Philadelphia (Fig- 89), 
which has over 1,500,000 in- 
habitants, and ranks third 
among the cities of the United 
States. As in the case of New 
York, other important cities 
are near by, the largest being 
Trenton and Camden, in 
New Jersey ; Chester and 
Norristown, in Pennsyl- 
vania ; and Wilmington, in 

Lines of steamships (Fig. 89) 
run from Philadelphia to the 
leading seaports of the United 
States and foreign countries, 
carrying both passengers and 
a multitude of products. Because of its 
nearness to the coal fields, Philadelphia has 
become a great shipping point for coal. 
The coal and iron have made possible the 
manufacture of cars, heavy machinery, and 

woolen goods ; there is much manufacturing 
of clothing; and in carpet manufacture this 
is the most important city in the country. 


A view of Cornell University with Lake Cayuga in the distance. 

Philadelphia is called the Quaker City, 
because it was founded by William Penn 
and other Quakers, many of whose descend- 
ants still live there. It was the home of 
Benjamin Franklin ; and at one time, be- 

■ — slIssi 

j- • ■-■'■■^W t 


Fig. 90. 

Copyright, 1S97, lixj William Rem. 
-The Battleship Iowa going at full speed. This was built in the shipyards below Philadelphia. 

steel ships (Fig. 90) at Philadelphia and 
Wilmington. Philadelphia is a great tex- 
tile manufacturing center, making especially 

fore Washington was built, it was the capi- 
tal of the United States. Independence 
Hall, in which the Declaration of Independ- 


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10 20 30 40 50 

,'6\ \*jp SCALE OF MILES 

FIG. 89. 
Map to show the location of New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. 



ence was signed, and the Constitution of 
the United States drawn up, is still standing 
there (Fig. 91). The leading educational 
institution of the city is the University of 

Pennsylvania has the city of Erie, on 
Lake Erie, corresponding to Buffalo in 
4. Other cities New York; but, while it is 
in Pennsylvania an important shipping and 
manufacturing center, it is much smaller 
than Buffalo. Two reasons for this are 

Fig. 91. — Independence Hall, in Philadelphia. 

that it lacks water connection, across Penn- 
sylvania, with the Atlantic coast, and that 
it is not close to the eastern end of the 
lake. Goods from the Great Lakes that 
are bound for the coast are naturally car- 
ried eastward by water as far as Buffalo, 
before being transferred to the railroad. 

The city in Pennsylvania which ranks 
next to Philadelphia is Pittsburgh, to 
which Allegheny is now united, making it 
the eighth city in size in the United States. 
Located at the point where the Allegheny 
and Monongahela rivers unite to form the 
Ohio River, Pittsburgh has extensive water 
connections. It is a center for the manu- 
facture of iron and steel, and articles made 

5 . Baltimore 

from them. Indeed, it is the greatest cen- 
ter for such work in the country. Other 
cities in this locality, like Wheeling in 
West Virginia, being in the midst of the 
coal and iron region, are also extensively 
engaged in manufacturing. 

At the head of Chesapeake Bay, in Mary- 
land, is Baltimore, the seventh city in size 
in the United States. It has 
a good harbor, is connected 
with the West by trunk railways (Fig. 92), 
and easily receives coal from Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and West Virginia. For these 
reasons it has become noted for manufactur- 
ing and shipping. 

Baltimore is the seat of Johns Hopkins 
Universit} r ; and a few miles south, at An- 
napolis, is the United States Naval Acad- 
emy, which prepares officers for the navy, 
as West Point prepares them for the army. 

Southwest of Baltimore, on the Potomac 
River, is the District of Columbia, where 
Washington, our national 6. District of 
capital (Fig. 92), is situated. Columbia 
This site was chosen for the capital long 
ago, when this was near the center of the 
settled part of the country. On Figure 246 
you will find a star showing where that 
center is now. The District of Columbia 
does not form a part of any state, but is 
controlled directly by the national govern- 

Washington is unlike other cities in two 
respects. In the first place, since it was 
certain that it would one day be very large, 
it was carefully planned, with wide streets 
and many parks. For that reason it is 
more beautiful than most cities. In the sec- 
ond place, the people, unlike those of other 
large cities, are not chiefly interested in 
manufacturing and commerce. Here reside 
the President and his cabinet, members of 
Congress, and the foreign ambassadors and 
other representatives of the great nations 
of the world. Besides these there are 
many thousands of men and women at 
work in the different departments of the 
government. The chief buildings, there- 


fore, are not factories and private offices, 
but government buildings (Fig. 93). 

The mouth of Chesapeake Bay has already 
been referred to as the site of important har- 
7. Cities of bors. The 
Virginia principal 

city at this point is Nor- 
folk, a manufacturing 
and shipping center for 
cotton, lumber, iron, and 
other products. It is one 
of the leading Southern 
ports, and has been ad- 
vancing very rapidly. 
Near by is Portsmouth, 
where there are ship- 
yards belonging to the 
United States. Ship- 
building is an important 
industry at Newport 
News, also. 

The winter climate in 
this section is so mild 
that many people from 
the North go there for 
the winter season. Nor- 
folk, Newport News, and 
Old Point Comfort are 
popular winter resorts. 

The largest city of 
Virginia is Richmond, 
the capital of the state, 
at the head of tide water 
on the James River. It 
is important as a tobacco 
market, and as a rapidly 
growing manufacturing 
center. Other promi- 
nent cities in the state 
are Roanoke, Lynch- 
burg, and Danville. 

slope west of the mountains? 5. What rivers have 
cut passageways across the Appalachians ? Of what 
importance are these gateways? 6. State the effects 
of the Great Glacier on this group of states. 7. The 
effects of the sinking of the coast. 8. Describe the 

(. S':-l b KT.:,t .NCH _ 

1. What mountains are 
there in the Middle Atlantic 

States, and in what parts are they? 
Review 2 w]|a( . a| . e t]]e surface f eatures 


Fig. 92. — Map to show the location of Baltimore and Washington. 

east of the mountains? 3. What 
is meant by the Fall Line, and why is it im- 
portant? 4. What facts can you give about the 

climate. 0. Tell about the lumbering and related 
industries. 10. What kinds of fishing are there? 
11. What about the oyster industry? 12. Where 
are the best farming sections? 13. What can you 
tell about the dairying? 14. About the tobacco 



industry? 15. What sections are noted for fruits 
and vegetables? 10. What about the. market for 
these products? 17. What other farm products are 
raised in these states? 18. Where is salt found? 
How is it obtained? 19. Where is coal found? 
20. How was anthracite formed, and what is its 
special value ? 21. Describe the method of mining- 
coal. 22. Of preparing it for market. 23. In what 
ways is coal used? 21. Where are oil and natural 
gas found? 25. How have these been formed? 
20. How are they obtained from underground ? 

27. What products are made from the crude oil? 

28. How is the oil handled ? 29. Where is iron ore 
found in these states, and why is it » very im- 
portant? 30. Describe it; also, tell 1 how it 
was formed and how it is mined. ,-jjj> 31. What 
other important mineral products are | j found in 

50. For what are Philadelphia and neighboring 
cities important? 51. Name and locate other cities 
in Pennsylvania. 52. State the principal facts 
about Baltimore. 53. Where is the District of 
Columbia? For what is it important? How does 
Washington differ from other large cities in the 
United States? 54. Name and locate the larger 
cities of Virginia. \Vhat can you tell about each? 
New York (X.Y.). 1. Where are the mountains? 
2. What are their names? 3. Why are forests exten- 
sive here ? Why is there little 
agriculture among the mountains? evle ^ ^" e ^" 
4. What about the surface features 
of the rest of the state? 5. What about the extent 
of agriculture ? 0. Tell about the dairying. 7. What 
fruits are important in New York, and where are 
they raised? 8. What waters form parts of the 

Fig. 93. — The National Capitol Building at Washington. 

these states? 32. How is iron made from ore? 
33. What are the kinds of iron ? 34. Name and 
locate the principal iron-manufacturing centers. 
35. What can you tell about the manufacture of 
glass? 36. Pottery? 37. Brick? 38. Cement? 

39. What other kinds of manufacturing are there? 

40. What about the extent of commerce in these 
states? 41. Where are the harbors? 42. What 
connections are there with the West by water? 
43. By rail? 41. What is the population about 
New York harbor? 45. Give several reasons for 
so great a population here. 40. Describe life in 
New York City. 47. Why are there so many cities 
along the Erie Canal ? Locate each. For what is 
each important? 48. Name and locate the lead- 
ing educational institutions in New York State. 
49. What is the rank of New York as a state? 

boundary of the state ? 9. Into what rivers do the 
lakes empty? 10. What rivers drain New York? 

11. State clearly the importance of the Erie Canal. 

12. Which cities mentioned in the text are on the 
canal? Which are on the Hudson? 13. Compare 
New York in size with all of New England. 
14. Draw a map of New York like that of Maine 
(p. 47). When studying each of the other states, 
do the same for it. 

New Jersey (N.J.). 15. Why should peaches and 
grapes grow better in New Jersey than in New Eng- 
land ? 10. Name and locate each of the cities men- 
tioned in the text. 17. For what is each important? 
18. In what ways are some of the largest cities de- 
pendent upon the products of Pennsylvania? 19. Add 
together the populations of all the cities within about 
twenty miles of New York. 



Pennsylvania (Pa. or Penn.). 20. Where would 
you look for the best farm land? 21. The principal 
forests? 22. The leading coal mines? 23. Where 
are the principal cities? Why located where they 
are ? 24. Why are there fewer lakes in Pennsylvania 
than in New York? 25. Should you expect to find 
fewer waterfalls also (p. 50) ? 26. Why, then, is 
manufacturing so important in this state ? 27. What 
kind of manufacturing is especially important? 
Why? 28. What advantage do you see in the posi- 
tion of Pittsburgh ? 29. By or through what states 
would one pass in going by boat from Pittsburgh to 
the Gulf? (See map, Fig. 40.) 30. Measure the 
length and width of Pennsylvania. Also find its 
area (Appendix, p. 426). 31. Is Pennsylvania larger 
or smaller than New York? Virginia? New Eng- 
land ? 32. Is it larger or smaller than the state you 
live in? How much ? 

Delaware (Del.). 33. Which is the principal city 
in this state? 34. For what is it noted? 35. Why 
is it especially well situated for that industry ? 
36. Compare it with Albany in size. 37. The prin- 
cipal industries of the state are fruit raising and 
farming. What two reasons can you give for this 

Maryland (Md.). 38. In which section is farming 
most important? Why? 39. What products can 
you expect from the mountains? Why? 40. Notice 
how branching Chesapeake Bay is. Why is it so ir- 
regular? 41. What influence must this have upon 
the number of oysters found there? 42. Why is 
Baltimore favorably situated for receiving coal and 
iron from Pennsylvania? 43. For canning fruit, 
vegetables, and oysters ? 44. What might be the 
effect upon the growth of Baltimore if the land 
should rise, so that Chesapeake Bay disappeared and 
the Susquehanna flowed through it? 45. Compare 
the size of Baltimore with that of Boston. 

Virginia (Va.). 46. In what other state is the 
capital the most important city? 47. Locate the fer- 
tile Great Valley that is found in Virginia (Fig. 92). 

48. What kinds of agriculture are carried on here ? 

49. What river separates Virginia from Maryland? 
What river crosses the middle of Virginia ? 50. Com- 
pare Richmond in size with Albany. 51. How 
does Virginia rank in iron production (Fig. 270) ? 
52. Of what importance are the branching bays that 
enter Virginia? 53. If goods are to be shipped 
across the ocean from Kentucky (see map, Fig 40), 
is it nearer to send them to Norfolk or to New 
York ? 

West Virginia (W. Va.). 54. What disadvantage 
is it to this state that it has no seacoast? 55. How 
could we reach the ocean by water from West Vir- 
ginia? 56. Where is the largest city ? Why there? 
57. How does this city compare in size with Pitts- 
burg? 58. Should you expect to find much forest 
in this state? Why? " 59. Much fanning? 60. Coal, 

iron, petroleum, and natural gas are found here. Of 

what value are these? 61. What mountain range 

lies on the eastern boundary? 

62. Describe the surface features of this group of 

states from the relief map (Fig. 65). 63. Describe 

the differences in climate in the dif- „ 



ferent parts. 64. State the principal 

industries of the Middle Atlantic 

States. 65. Make a list of the ten 

largest cities. Add their populations together, and 

compare the result with the ten largest in New 

England. (See Appendix, pp. 427-428.) 

1. Collect pictures of Niagara Falls. 2. Examine 
a live oyster, or clam, to see what holds the two 
parts of the shell together. What is „ 
the use of the shell? 3. Find where Su Sg estl0ns 
the canned fruits and vegetables in a neighboring 
grocery store have come from. 4. Make a collection 
of the kinds of coal for the school ; of some coke 
and iron ore. 5. In small bottles collect products 
made from petroleum. 6. Collect samples of cast 
iron, wrought iron, and steel. 7. Estimate, by 
use of the map (Fig. 40), the distance by water 
from New York City to Duluth. 8. Visit a canal 
and examine a lock. 9. Make a toy canal having a 
lock in it. 10. Give reasons why freight rates are 
cheaper on canals than on railways. 11. Can you 
give a reason why the Erie Canal should have reached 
to Lake Erie instead of to Ontario? 12. Write a 
composition, giving the reasons why one might pre- 
fer to live in a large city ; or in the country. 

13. Collect pictures of scenes in a large city ; in the 
country. 14. Make a drawing of these states, in- 
cluding the principal rivers and cities. Locate the 

4. Southern States 

1. In what three parts of this section are there 
mountains? 2. What are the names of the moun- 
tains? 3. Which states have none ? _ 
4. What are the principal tributaries 
to the largest river? 5. Through or ou the borders 
of what states would you pass in going by water 
from New Orleans to Chattanooga, in Tennessee? 
6. What natural boundaries do you find for this sec- 
tion? 7. Compare the coast with that of New Eng- 
land. Why the difference (p. 12)? 8. Why are 
there so few lakes (p. 9) ? 9. The rivers that rise 
in western Texas — as the Colorado — are often quite 
dry in the western part of their course. Why 
(p. 30)? 10. Name the states in this group. 
11. Find the capital of each. 12. Which of the 
states have a seacoast? 13. Which have none? 

14. Which border the Mississippi? 15. Which 
drain into that river? 16. What reasons can you 
suggest for the fact that the largest city is near the 
mouth of the Mississippi ? 




Modeled by 

Q tfl w too SW* *- ocl 

I II I J 1 ™\* 

Fig. 95. — Relief map of the Southern States. 

Figure 94 shows that the Appalachian 
Mountains continue southwest- 
ward as far as Alabama. In 
what states are they found ? 
These mountains are generally 
low, as they are in the Middle 
Atlantic States; but in western 
North Carolina and eastern Tennessee they 


1. Resemblance 
of northeastern 
part to the 
farther north 


Fig. 96. — Asheville, situated in a valley among the hi; 
western North Carolina. 

are much higher (Fig. 96). In fact, the 
highest peak east of the Mississippi River 
is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina. It 
rises 6711 feet, or 432 feet higher than 
Mount Washington in New Hampshire. 

East and southeast of the Appalachians 
the surface features resemble those of the 
Middle Atlantic States. First there is the 
Piedmont Plateau, which 
slopes gradually from the 
base of the mountains, where 
it is about 1000 feet above 
sea level, to the Fall Line. 
Trace this line in Figure 66. 
The Coastal Plain begins at 
the Fall Line at an elevation 
of 100 to 500 feet, and slopes 
gently toward the sea. It 
includes all of Florida, as 
well as parts of several 
other states. Name them. 
As in Pennsylvania and 
West Virginia, there is a 
rough plateau along the 
western base of the Ap- 
palachians. As in those 
states, also, this plateau is 

iht. 1908, by X. Brock 
h mountains of 



deeply cut by the river valleys, and is so 
rugged that it is still covered by extensive 
forests and has few inhabitants. It gradu- 
ally becomes lower and more regular farther 
west, until it merges into the broad and 
fertile plains of the Mississippi Valley. 

The mountains and plateaus just men- 
tioned include only a small part of the 
2. Level charac- Southern States.^ The remain- 
terofmostof der consists mainly of plains 
this region (Fig. 97). The Coastal Plain 

extends westward along the coast of the Gulf 
of Mexico, and is very level. 
So also are the delta and flood 
plains of the Mississippi River. 
These plains rise toward the 
north and west until they 
merge into the plains and 
prairies that lie between the 
Appalachian and Rocky Moun- 
tains. Toward the north they 
reach no great height, but in 
Avestern Texas they become 
high plateaus, from 4000 to 
5000 feet above the level of 
the sea. This plateau region 
is a part of the Great Plains 
of the West. 

In only a few places are 
these vast plains broken by 
mountains. In 
Arkansas, for instance, are the 
low Ozark Mountains ; and 
southwest of these is the mountainous coun- 
try of eastern Oklahoma. From here low 
mountains extend, with some breaks, to the 
central part of Texas. In the extreme 
western part of Texas, also, low spurs of the 
Rocky Mountains are found. Aside from 
the Appalachians, and these few small 
mountainous areas, the surface of the South- 
ern States is mainly made up of plains, 
which are usually very level. 

The coast is much more regular than 
that of New England. Give 
the reason for this as stated 
There are numerous bays, 

but none so large as Chesapeake Bay and 
other bays in the North. Sand, drifted 
by waves and currents, has been built 
into sand bars, which often partly shut in 
the bays, and thus make the coast more 

The irregular coast of southern Florida 
is due to the work of coral polyps, which 
live in countless millions in the warm 
waters of the Gulf Stream (Fig. 313). 
These polyps have built the limestone rock 
of which the southern part of the Florida 

3. Where the 
mountains are 

4. The coast 

on page 

Fig. 97. — A view in the Southern States. Much of the land is as level as 
this. The crop raised in this field is the peanut, which the boys and 
girls are picking from the roots of the peanut plants. 

peninsula is composed. They have also 
made the many reefs and small islands, or 
keys, that lie just south of Florida. 

The low plains of the Southern States 
lie so far south that the climate is every- 
where warm, and the damp sea „, 

. , , . . -, , . The climate 

winds bring an abundant rain- 
fall to most parts. During the cold, dis- 
agreeable Northern winter, the weather in 
the South is mild, like spring and autumn 
in the North. Flowers are in blossom and 
birds are singing, many of the birds being 
Northern species, that have migrated there 
for the winter. Large numbers of Northern 



people also go South to spend the winter. 
Among the principal winter resorts in 
Florida are Jacksonville, Tampa, and 
St. Augustine, one of the early Spanish 

The climate is cooler in the mountains, 
where there are many pleasant summer 
resorts, as in the mountains of the North- 
ern States. The best-known mountain 
resort is Asheville, in North Carolina 
(Fig. 96). 

The western part of Texas has a different 
climate from the other parts of the South ; 

river flood plains, and among the moun- 
tains. Among the forests are many trees 

either unknown or uncommon T t . 

xt ? Lumbering 

in the North, some ot them, , _. . . 

. 1. Kinds of 

such as the magnolias, bearing trees, and their 
large, sweet-scented flowers. uses 
Another is the live oak, whose green leaves 
remain on the tree all winter, and whose hard 
wood is highly valued for shipbuilding. 

The long-leaved or hard pine, often called 
the Georgia pine, is a very valuable wood, 
and is much used for floors. This lumber 
is sent to all the cities of the North. It is 
shipped from the coastal cities 
of Charleston, S.C., Savan- 
nah and Brunswick, Ga., 
Jacksonville and Pensa- 
cola, Fla., and Mobile, Ala., 
as well as from other seaports. 
While the pine thrives on 
the low, sandy plains, the 
hardy oak and other valuable 
hard-wood trees are found upon 
the plateaus and upon the 
mountains (Fig. 99). Quan- 
tities of hard wood are shipped 
from Memphis and from other 

Fig. 98. — A view at Miami in Florida, showing the palms and other 
vegetation of a warm climate. 

for it is too far from the sea to be reached 
by damp winds, and therefore receives little 
rain. As one travels westward from the 
Gulf of Mexico, he finds first dense forests ; 
then come plains with scattered trees, es- 
pecially the live oak; beyond this are broad 
prairies without trees, but with extensive 
cotton fields. Next a section is reached 
which is too dry for cotton ; and this coun- 
try, fitted only for ranching, stretches west- 
ward for several hundred miles. 

The South is now the greatest lumber 
section in the country. There are immense 
tracts of forest on the Coastal Plain, on the 

The method of lumbering in the 
South is very different from that of 

New England (p. 34). 

t i.t f i.i ii ' 2. Method of 
In the South there , J " CL """ V1 

are no heavy snows 

to level up the uneven ground and 

to cause floods in the streams. Therefore, logs 

cannot be floated down to tide water by means of 

spring freshets. On this account the sawmills are 

located in the midst of the forests, if possible on the 

river banks. To them the logs are brought, either 

by water, by wagon, or by train (Fig. 100), and then 

sawed into lumber. 

In this section there are no fishing banks where such 
food fish as cod and halibut live. But in the rivers, 
along the coast, and in the bays, are . 

excellent food fish which are caught 
mainly for use in the South. 

There is also extensive oyster fishing in the shal- 
low bays, as in Mobile Bay, for instance; and in 
southern Florida there is sponge and turtle fishing'. 
The sponge grows in the warm, shallow waters of 
the coral reefs ; and the immense sea turtle swims 



about on the surface of the ocean. The alligator, 
whose skin is made into the valuable alligator skin 
leather, is also found in Florida. 

With its fertile soil and favorable climate, 
the South has naturally become a great agri- 
Agriculture cultural country. 

1. its rank as It is far better 
an industry suited to farming 
than either the Middle Atlantic 
or the New England States. 
Many people are engaged in 
other occupations, it is true, 
but farming is the leading in- 

The crop that exceeds every 
other in value, in the South, is 

2. Cotton cotton. The early 

(1) Its relation Colonists SOOll dis- 

to slavery covered that cotton 

could easily be raised here, and 

that there was a ready market 

for it abroad. The cotton fields, 

or plantations, were very large, 

and there was a vast amount of 

work in planting and picking 

the cotton, and in separating 

the fiber from the seed. This called for 

a great many laborers, — far more than 

could be found there. 

In those days it was common for people 
to own slaves, and negro slaves were offered 

with the spread of slavery in the Southern 

In 1910 the Southern States produced 
about 11,400,000 bales of (2)raeam(nmt 
cotton, each weighing a little produced 

Fig. 99. 

Fig. 100. — Lumbermen loading logs on a train in the forest of eastern 
North Carolina. 

for sale in many parts of the world. Since 
they were found to be well suited for work 
in the cotton fields, they were brought to 
our country for that purpose. In this way 
it came about that cotton had much to do 

Lumbermen at work cutting hard-wood logs in the mountains 
of western North Carolina. 

over 500 pounds. Of this, about 8,000,000 
bales were shipped abroad, especially to 
England. The remainder was manu- 
factured at home, mainly in New England 
and the South. In the same year the entire 
world produced a little less than 
20,000,000 bales, which makes 
it clear that the United States 
furnishes much more than half 
of all the cotton grown. Since 
so much of the clothing worn 
by men and women of all 
nations is made of cotton, we 
see that one of the chief in- 
dustries of the Southern 
States is to help clothe the 
peoples of the world. 
Cotton requires a rather fertile soil and 

a long, warm summer. These conditions 
exist throughout the region (3) The climate 
marked as the cotton belt in c°«°" requires 
Figure 253, but they are wanting in the 



North, where the summers are altogether 

too short. 

The cotton seeds are planted in the spring, in rows 
about three feet apart, and the weeds are kept out 
until the plants are nearly grown. 
(4) Method of These reach a height of two or three 
noting and f d blossoms ap pear that pro- 

marketing it \ , , „ . v. ■ ., 

duce a pod or boll m which the cotton 

and cotton seed are contained. When ripe the 
pod bursts open, making a white, woolly ball, 
known as cotton, which resembles in appear- 
ance the downy substance in the thistle, or in 
the pod of the milk-weed (Fig. 101). 

When a great number of these pods have 
opened, a cotton plantation presents a beauti- 
ful sight, — much like a field flecked with 
snow (Fig. 102). Then the busy season for 
the pickers begins. As many as two or 
three hundred men, women, and children 
may assemble in one field, carrying 
bags to be filled with cotton, sing- 
ing and chattering the livelong day. 

When plucked from the /- 

boll, the cotton is attached 
to seeds, and these must be ( : 
removed before the cotton 
can be of use. The seed- 
less cotton is tightly 
pressed into bales 
which are covered 
with coarse jute 
bagging, bound 
with iron bands, 
and shipped away 
to the warehouses. 
to be sold. 

Sugar cane 
is a second im- 
portant crop 
that is confined 
to our South- 
ern States. 

There are a 
number of 
plants from 


whose sap sugar is made. 
One of these, the sugar maple, 
has already been mentioned 
(p. 41) i another is the sugar 
beet, raised in great quantities 
in Europe, and also, of late, in many of our 
states. This beet is now a very important 
source of sugar, because it can be raised in 

3. Sugar cane 
and sugar 

(1) Plantsfrom 
which sugar is 

a cool, temperate climate. For a long time, 
however, the principal source of sugar lias 
been the sugar cane, a plant that looks 
somewhat like corn (Fig. 103). 

Sugar cane requires a fertile soil, and 
grows only in warm regions where there is 
little or no frost, even in winter. #) Where sugar 
For this reason cane is grown 
most of the cane sugar comes 
from tropical lands, such as 
the Hawaiian Islands, the 
Philippines, Porto Rico, and 
Cuba (Fig. 255). In our 
own country the most noted 
sugar district is the delta 
of the Mississippi River 
Louisiana ; but sugar 
raising is increasing in 
importance in Texas 
and Georgia. 

Some of the plantations 
in these states have several 

thousand _ _ 

(3) How it is 

acres in „ . . . 

sugar cane. 

The cane is planted either 
in the fall or spring, in rows 
about six feet apart. The 
stalks grow in the summer 
to be two or more inches in 
diameter, and reach such a 
height that a man 
riding through a 
field on horseback 
may be entirely 
hidden from view. 
The cane is ready 
to be cut in the 
fall, after the 
middle of Octo- 
ber. As soon as 
the stalks are cut, 
they are drawn to 
the sugarhouse in wagons, or, on the larger planta- 
tions, in railway cars (Fig. 104). 

In the sugarhouse the cane is ground 
between rollers in order to squeeze out the 
juice. The waste cane, left ,^ jj ow the 
after the juice is pressed out, sugar is 
is used as a fuel to run the obtained 
engines of the sugarhouse; the juice or 

101. — Pii-king cotton on a Southern plantation. The white, woolly 
cotton is seen on the plant in the lower right-hand corner. 



sap is placed in large vats and warmed 
to evaporate the water in it and to crys- 
tallize the sugar. This leaves two prod- 
ucts, a thick black molasses and brown 
sugar. Some large 
sugarhouses produce as 
much as 14,000,000 
pounds of sugar in a 

The crude, brown 
sugar is sent from the 
sugarhouse to some re- 
finery, either in New 
Orleans or in the 
North. At the refinery 
it is changed to white 
sugar, from which the 
various grades of granu- 
lated, powdered, and 
lump sugar are made. 
In changing the brown 
to the white sugar, 
burned bones, called boneblack, are used to 
filter out the impure parts. The bones are 
obtained from Chicago, and elsewhere, where 
large numbers of animals are killed for meat. 

and is not of great value to the sugar 

Rice, a third valuable crop in the South, 
is one of the most important foods in the 

Fig. 103. — Cutting the sugar cane on a plantation in Louisiana. 

The molasses is used for various pur- 
poses, some of it being manufactured into 
sirup and molasses for the table, and 
some of it into rum. Molasses is a by- 
product, like sawdust in a lumber mill, 

Fig. 102. — A cotton field on a Southern plantation in the picking season. 

world ; it is, in fact, the chief food of some 
nations, such as the Chinese. 4. Rj ce 
It is not eaten so extensively (i) i ts i m por- 
in our country, but still we tanceasafood 
consume large quantities, — 
far more, indeed, than we 

One reason why we have 
raised too little rice for our 
use, is that we (2) mi/we 
have not had the may raise more 
proper conditions l " lhe S<" ure 
for its growth. Rice requires 
a warm climate and a damp, 
even swampy soil. The cli- 
mate is suitable in many parts 
of the South, but the wet soil 
is not so common. On the 
Coastal Plain and river flood 
plains, from the Carolinas to 
Texas, there is some such 
land, and there rice culture has long been 
carried on, the principal districts being 
South Carolina and Louisiana (Fig. 105). 

Recently the area of rice production has 
been greatly increased by irrigation. By 



leading the water from streams, or springs, 
it has been found possible to make the soil 
as wet as necessary even on some of the 
higher, well-drained plains. With irriga- 
tion, rice culture may be carried on over 

5. Tobacco 

Fig. KM. 

-Carrying the sugar cane to the ears which will take it to the sugarhouse. 
A scene on a Louisiana plantation. 

much of the warmer part of the South. 
Some day, therefore, our country may sup- 
ply all the rice we need, and even have 
some to spare. Louisiana, Texas, and Ar- 
kansas produce most of the rice now raised 
in the country, though some comes from 
other Southern States. 

To raise rice the ground must first be prepared, 
(3) Method of as ^ or ota er grains. After the seeds 
cultivating and are planted, the fields are flooded. 
preparing for As the plant grows, it forms a slender 
market stalk, from three to sis feet high, 

upon the top of which appears a head of seed some- 
what resembling a head of oats. Shortly before the 
harvest season the water is drawn off, so that horses 
may be used in harvesting the crop. The rice is 
then cut and the kernels threshed out, as in the case 
of wheat (Fig. 105). After the hull is removed, the 
grains are sent to Sew Or- 
leans, Galveston, Savan- 
nah, or Charleston, to be 
polished, after which they 
are ready for market. 

Unlike cotton, rice, 
and sugar cane, tobacco 
is not con- 
fined to our 

Southern States. Yet 
it is naturally a Southern 
plant, and is raised in 
the North in only a few 
places where conditions 
are especially favorable. 
Virginia and Kentucky, 
where tobacco is a very 
important product (p. 52), have a milder 
climate than the rest of the Middle At- 
lantic States. Tobacco is cultivated in all 
the Southern States, but most of all in 
Tennessee (Fig. 106) and North Carolina. 
Claeksville, Tenn., and Durham, N.C., 
are centers for trade in tobacco. Name 
some Virginia cities likewise engaged in the 
tobacco trade. 

Fruits, such as strawberries, watermelons, 
apples, peaches, pears, grapes, 6 Fnjits and 
and oranges, flourish in the vegetables 

Fig. 10o. — Threshing rice on a large rice plantation in Louisiana. 



warm climate of the Southern States ; so 
do vegetables, such as peas, beans, potatoes, 
sweet potatoes, and tomatoes. All these 
ripen earlier than in the North. 

Florida is so far south that it has fruits 
of an entirely different kind. Besides 
oranges (Fig. 107), there are lemon and 
grape-fruit groves in many parts of the 
state. In southern Florida the climate is so 
warm that even tender tropical plants, such 
as cocoanuts and pineapples, 
thrive there. The pineapple 
plant, whose fruit is nestled 
in the midst of sharp-pointed 
leaves, grows especially well 
on the low coral keys and 
reefs that fringe the southern 
tip of Florida. 

Fruits and vegetables from 
the South are sent in great 
quantities to the North, 
where they appear in the 
markets early in the spring. 
The oranges are sent through- 
out the winter. Thousands 
of bushels of fruit and vege- 
tables are shipped at one 
time, by fast train or steamer, 
and at the proper season one 
may even see a whole train 
load of strawberries. Quan- 
tities of fruits and vegetables 
are canned in the South. 

Many other crops besides 
those named are raised in the 
7. Other farm South, corn, 
products wheat, and hay being among 

the most important. An immense quantity 
of corn is produced (Fig. 108), and over 
even a wider area than cotton itself; but 
since corn and wheat are raised even more 
extensively in other states, these grains are 
treated later (pp. 95 to 97). 

Peanuts and sweet potatoes are two valuable prod- 
ucts of these states. Stock of various kinds, such 
as horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs, is also raised, each 
plantation usually having some of these animals. 
Large numbers of cattle are also reared in the open 

pine forests of the Coastal Plains, especially in 
Florida and Georgia. 

An important draft animal in the South, wellsuited 
to the warm climate, is the mule. On the fertile 
plains, especially in Tennessee, Missouri, and Ken- 
tucky, there are stock farms where particular at- 
tention is paid to raising mules and fine breeds of 

In the western part of Texas, where there 
is little rainfall, grazing is the 
chief industry. The climate 

8. Ranching 

Fig. 106. — A field of tobacco in Tennessee. 

is so dry that the grass cures, and becomes 
hay, Avhile still upon the ground, making 
excellent food for cattle (Fig. 109) and 
sheep. One may travel for miles over 
the plains of western Texas, seeing little 
else than a ranch house here and there, 
with an occasional herd of cattle or sheep, 
and cowbo} r s riding to and fro. 

While there is no reason for large cities 
here, and the life of the cowboys and sheep 
herders is a lonely one, it is their work that 
helps to supply our tables with meat, and to 



give us our woolen clothing and our shoes. 
Explain how hundreds of New England 
families depend for their daily meat upon 
the products of these distant lonely ranches. 
How dependent people are upon one 
another ! 

There is a great variety of minerals in the 
South ; but here, as in the North, the most 
Mining important of all are coal and 

1. Coal and iron iron ore. One fourth of the 
coal of the country, and about one ninth of 

Fig. 107. —An orange grove near Jacksonville, Florida 

the iron ore, now come from the states south 
of Pennsylvania. 

Coal and iron ore are found among the 
mountain ranges, and in the Appalachian 
Plateau, all the way from Pennsylvania to 
Alabama. They are mined in several places, 
as near Chattanooga in eastern Ten- 
nessee ; but most noted of all is the district 
around Birmingham, Ala., near the ex- 
treme southern end of the Appalachian 
system. This region is so rich in coal and 
iron that it now ranks as the second iron- 

producing section of the continent ; and in 
coal production Alabama ranks sixth among 
the states of the Union. The Birmingham 
region is especially favorable because iron 
ore, coal, and limestone, the three materials 
necessary for the production of iron and 
steel (p. 57), are found there close to- 

Coal is obtained not only in the Appa 
lachian Mountains and Plateau, but in cen- 
tral Texas and Oklahoma. There are also 
iron ore and other minerals 
here. Beneath the plains 
bordering the Gulf of Mex- 
ico, from the Rio Grande to 
Georgia (Fig. 268), there is 
much brown coal, or lignite. 
This is not so good as the 
bituminous coal of the Ap- 
palachians, but it is valuable, 
and can be used for many 

There is not much natural 
gas produced in the Southern 
States, though 
it is found in 
several of them. The great- 
est quantity comes from 
Oklahoma. Petroleum, how- 
ever, is of very great im- 
portance. Vast quantities 
have been found in Texas 
and Louisiana, near the Gulf 
of Mexico, and this is now 
one of the most noted oil 
regions in the world. Much 
is also found in Louisiana, and some in 

There are valuable deposits of granite in several 
of the states, especially North and South Carolina, 
Georgia, Arkansas, and Texas. Ex- 
cellent sandstone for building, and 8 t ones and clays 
limestone for various uses, are also 
widely distributed. Among the important uses of 
the limestone here, as in the North, is the manufac- 
ture of Portland cement (p. 60). 

There is much beautiful marble in Texas, Georgia, 
and Tennessee. The Georgia marble is widely 
known for its great beauty ; and near Knoxville, 

2. Oil and gas 



4. Phosphates 

in eastern Tennessee, 
marble of different colors is 
quarried (Fig. 110). What 
city in Vermont is likewise 
noted for marble (p. 36) ? 

Clays of fine quality for 
bricks, tiles, etc., are found 
in many places; and there 
are also deposits of clay 
suited to the manufacture 
of high-grade pottery. 

The soil of farms 
often becomes worn 
out and 
needs a 
fertilizer. There are 
various kinds of fertil- 
izers, such as manure 
and bone dust, which 
furnish the plant food 
needed by crops; but 
one of the most impor- 
tant kinds is mineral 
phosphate. This is 
found in great quan- 
tities in Florida, Ten- 
nessee, and South 
Carolina ; and from 
these states much of 
our phosphate is now 
obtained. Besides be- 

5 . Other min- 
eral products 

Fig. 108. — A field of corn in Arkansas. Notice how 
very tall the corn grows in this warm climate. 

ing used in the South, it is shipped from | Before the Civil 

Charleston, Jack- 
sonville, and Tampa 
for use on farms in the 

The phosphate is a de- 
posit in which are found 
fossil remains of many 
animals, such as the teeth 
of sharks, and the bones 
and teeth of many lai-ge 
land animals, such as the 
huge mastodon, which once 
lived in this country. 

The South produces a 
variety of other minerals. 
Salt, for in- 
stance, is 
obtained in 
Texas and Louisiana. 
Bauxite, the mineral from 
which aluminum is made, 
is found in Georgia, Ala- 
bama, and Arkansas. Gold 
is mined in North and 
South Carolina, Georgia, 
and Alabama ; silver in 
Texas and Tennessee ; and 
copper in Tennessee. Some 
precious stones, such as the 
sapphire and the diamond, 
are also found. The South 
is, therefore, a rich mineral 
region, and the mining is 
rapidly growing in im- 

War there was little 

Fig. 109. — Cattle on a ranch in western Texas. 



Fig. 110. — A marble quarry near Knoxville, Tennessee. 

manufacturing in the South. The negroes, 
who did most of the hand labor, lacked the 
Manufacturing training necessary to handle 
1. Great ad- machinery ; and the raw 
vances in this materials were shipped away, 
industry while manufactured articles 

were brought back. Thus cotton went to 
England, New England, and elsewhere, some 
of it to be returned in the form of cloth ; 
and lumber was shipped to various Northern 
cities, often to be sent back in 
the form of furniture. Very 
little iron ore :r coal was mined 
in those days. 

The situation is now greatly 
changed (Fig. 111). Indeed, 
the advance made in manufac- 
turing, since the Civil War, has 
been wonderful. The raw mate- 
rials are very abundant, and of 
many kinds, as we have seen. 
Name some of them. Most of 
these raw materials must be 
changed more or less for use, 
and this calls for manufacturing. 
There is a great abundance of 

coal, to' furnish power for 
such work ; and there is also 
much water power along the 
Fall Line, in the Piedmont 
Plateau, and among the 
mountains. The conditions 
here are very favorable, 
therefore, for manufacturing. 
Why, then, should these raw 
materials be sent far away 
to be manufactured ? 

This is a question that the 
Southern people have asked 
themselves ; and they have 
answered it by the manufac- 
ture of many goods on a 
grand scale. There is every 
reason, too, to believe that this 
manufacturing will rapidly 
increase in the future, for 
the South has all that is 
necessary for very extensive 
manufacturing, and the people are awake 
to their opportunities. 

Although much of the pine, oak, and 
other lumber is sent North, a great deal of 
it is made into doors, blinds, 2 Manufac- 
f urniture, etc., at factories in tures from the 
Macon, Montgomery, Mo- forest 
bile, Chattanooga, Memphis, Little 
Rock, and Atlanta (Fig. 112). High 
Point, in North Carolina, "the Grand 







2 / w : ft\ 








jt : 

•/■'vj 1 

1 ]: ' > [Proportion exported 

-^— --^ 

'—\ ^Proportion aent to Horihern atatee 

3 ^^^H/v p rtion consumed in Svttth 

Fig. 111. 

Diagram to show what was dime with the Southern cotton in 
1900, as compared with 1880. 



Rapids of the South," is now one of the 
most noted furniture manufacturing centers 
of the South, although a few years ago it 
was hardly known. There are now eighty 
manufacturing plants there. 

The Southern forests are of value in several other 
ways. From them are obtained turpentine, wood alco- 

Fig. 112. — A planing mill in eastern North Carolina. 
Notice the great piles of boards in the yard behind 
the mill. 

hoi, and tannic acid (p. 42). The tannic acid from 
the hemlock bark of the North gives the leather a 
red color, so that shoes made from it need to be 
blackened; but tannic acid from the chestnut oak 
of the South gives a lighter, or tan, color, and it is 
from such leather that tan shoes are made. 

Turpentine is obtained from the sap of the long- 
leafed pine. The bark is cut through near the base 
of the tree, when the liquid oozes forth. This is 
then distilled in a furnace, and one of the products 
is turpentine. Other products obtained from the 
pine are rosin, tar, and wood alcohol. Thus the 
long-leafed pine is a very valuable tree, for all these 
products are used in every part of the country. 

Birmingham, the leading iron manufac- 
turing center of the South, and for that 
3. Manufacture reason called the " Pittsburgh 
of iron and steel of the South," is located on an 
goods old cotton plantation. In 1880 

the town had a population of 3086 ; but 
now it contains over 132,000 persons. 
What special advantages has it (p. 79)? 
In and near this city, as at Pittsburgh, the 
iron ore is reduced to iron in blast furnaces 
(p. 58) and then changed to steel and vari- 
ous other useful articles. 

Several other cities near the mountains 
are noted for their iron manufacturing, as 
Rome and Atlanta, in Georgia, and Knox- 

4. Cotton manu- 

(1) Extent of 
cotton manu- 
facturing, and 
leading centers 

ville and Chattanooga, in Tennessee. 
Chattanooga is also a center for the manu- 
facture of farm machinery. 

In some cities there are many cotton 
mills; for example, in Charlotte, N.C., 
there are twenty-three, and in 
and near Spartanburg, S.C. 
thirty-eight. In other towns 
there are only one or two. 
From Danville, Va., to At- 
lanta, Ga., cotton mills are 
very numerous, and there are others through- 
out the cotton belt. Indeed, the Piedmont 
Plateau has become one of the greatest 
cotton manufacturing sections in the world. 
The map (Fig. 113) shows the distribution 
of these mills in a number of the Southern 

While hundreds of Southern cities and 
towns now manufacture cotton cloth and 
cotton-seed oil, Charlotte, N.C., Colum- 
bia, Greenville, and Spartanburg, 
S.C, and Augusta, Columbus, and 
Atlanta, Ga., lead in these industries. 
What cities in New England are noted 
for cotton manufacture ? 

Fig. 113. — A map to show the extent of cotton manufac- 
turing iu the South. Each dot represeuts one mill. 

The following facts from an Alabama cotton mill 
give some idea of the size and output of these mills. 
This particular mill employs 600 
hands, including men, women, boys, 
and girls, and pays them about 
$2000 a week in wages. Every day this mill con- 
sumes 15 bales of cotton, each weighing about 500 
pounds. Since the average yield per acre of land 
is about 250 pounds, you can easily figure out how 

(2) Meaning of 

a " mill" 



many acres of cotton are called for in one year by 
this single mill. 

In this mill, as in many others, white people are 
employed to do the work. While many of the mills 
are in the cities, others are in the country; and 

Fig. 114. — Interior of a cotton mill in the South. There are scores of 
machines, and each one works steadily weaving the cotton fiber into 

there villages have sprung up near the mills. Some 
of these new villages are already so large that they 
have their own schoolhouses and churches. 

In the early days the cotton seeds were 
slowly picked out of the cotton by hand, 

(3) Value of the an d then thrown away. Whit- 
cottongin ney's invention of the cotton 
gin, in 1793, made it possible for one laborer 
to separate as much as a thousand pounds 
from the seed in the same time -that five 
or six pounds could be cleaned by hand. 
That, of course, made cotton raising far 
more profitable, and led the planters to 
cultivate it more extensively. 

The seeds have also been found to be of 
value, and are no longer thrown away. 

(4) Value of They are made into cotton- 
cottonseed seed oil, which is used in mak- 
ing soap, imitation lard and butter, and a 
substitute for olive oil. There are from 
two to three pounds of seed to one pound 
of cotton, and since, on the average, one 
acre produces two hundred and fifty pounds 

of cotton, the value of the cotton seed from 
a large plantation is considerable. The 
part of the seed that is left, after the oil is 
pressed out, has been found to be an ex- 
cellent food for cattle, and a 
good fertilizer. Thus the 
cotton plant now produces 
two valuable substances be- 
sides the cotton fiber. 

Some of the other articles 
manufactured in the South 
have already been 5 other manu- 
mentioned ; for factures in the 
example, tobacco South 
(p. 77) and sugar (p. 75). 
In each case the work is con- 
fined mainly to the section 
from which the raw material 
comes. Thus, New Orleans, 
near the sugar plantations, 
has large sugar refineries ; 
and Raleigh, Durham, 
Winston-Salem, and other 
cities in northern North Caro- 
lina, manufacture tobacco. 
Key West, on a small coral key south of 
the Florida peninsula, is also noted for its 
tobacco factories. It is so near Cuba that the. 
Havana tobacco, so much prized by cigar 
smokers, is easily obtained. There is also 
cigar manufacturing at Tampa. Why there? 
Besides the articles mentioned, the South 
makes a great variety of other goods from the 
products of the farm, ranch, forest, and mine. 

Fig. 115. — A cotton mill at Htmtsville, Alabama. There 
are many others as large as this, and many, also, that 
are even larger. 



With so many raw materials and so much 
manufacturing, commerce in the South is 
Transports- extensive, 
tion of goods There are 
excellent opportunities 
for transportation of 
goods both by rail and 
by water. While some 
of the harbors are shal- 
low and partly closed by 
sand bars, others are deep 
enough for large ocean 
ships. The principal sea- 
ports are kept open by 
building jetties, and by 
dredging the sand away. 
Here, as in the North, the 
government spends large 
sums of money each year 
for this purpose. 

The Mississippi River 
is a great artery of trade 
(Fig. 117), with many 
navigable branches; and 
on the Coastal Plains 
there are numerous short 
streams navigable for 
small boats. Railroads, 
also, are well developed, 
connecting all important 
points in the South with 
one another, and with 
other parts of the coun- 
try. Among these are 
some of the leading rail- 
ways of the country, such 
as the Southern, the 
Southern Pacific, and the 
Louisville and Nashville 

The greatest of all the 

ated at the gateway to the most productive 
valley in North America, about one hundred 

Leading cen- 
ters of com- cities is 
merce New Orleans, the largest in 
l. New Orleans the eastern part of the United 
(l) its size and States south of St. Louis, with 
location a p 0pu i aticm of over three 

hundred thousand. New Orleans is situ- 

Fig. 116. — Map to show location of New Orleans, Memphis, Birmingham, 
and Atlanta. 

miles above the mouth of the Mississippi. 
On the map (Fig. 116) you will see that 
an arm of the sea, called Lake Pontchar- 
train, reaches up to the city, and that New 
Orleans is located at the place where the 



river and lake are nearest together. At 
this point the Mississippi makes a great 
bend, in the form of a half-circle, which 

Fig. 117. — River steamers at New Orleans. These boats carry large amounts 
of freight, as well as passengers, up and down the river. 

explains the name, Crescent City, commonly 
given to New Orleans. 

That particular spot was selected for the 
site of the city, because the sailing ships of 
two centuries ago could reach 
it by crossing the lake, while 
they could not sail a hundred 
miles up the river without 
great difficulty. On account 
of the shallow water, the large 
ocean steamers now in use 
cannot enter the lake, but 
they can reach the city by 
the river route. 

When we recall the advan- 
tages of New York's water 
connection with 

reached from New Orleans by boat (Fig. 
40). How do these distances compare with 
those from New York to Chicago and 
to Duluth ? Also, how far 
apart are Pittsburgh andKan- 
sas City ? Much of the 
country between these cities 
is within easy reach of the 
Mississippi or some of its 

There is now a plan to improve 
the Mississippi River so that large 
boats can navigate it more easily. 
When this is done, the port of New 
Orleans will be even more impor- 
tant as a shipping point for the 
fertile Mississippi Valley. 

Like New York, New Orleans is 
connected with the interior of the 
country by rail as well as by water. 
The Illinois Central Railway ex- 
tends all the way to Chicago, run- 
ning parallel to the river for much 
of the distance ; the Louisville and 
Nashville reaches Louisville, St. 
Louis, and other cities; and the 
Southern Railway runs from Wash- 
ington to Atlanta, with connections to New Orleans, 
and thence the Southern Pacific Railway extends 
westward, across Texas, to California. 

Much of the land on which New Orleans is built 
is frequently below the level of the river. In fact, 

(2) Its Interior 

connections by the West, we 

voter and rail can readily un _ 

derstand the growth of New 

Orleans. Pittsburgh on the 

Ohio, St. Paul on the Mississippi, and 

Kansas City ou the Missouri, can all be 

By courtesy uf Mississippi River Commission. 

Fig. 118. — The embankment, or levee, along the Mississippi, built to prevent 
the river from overflowing the flood plain. 

from Memphis southward, a large part of the land 
on either side of the Mississippi is a low flood plain, 



caused by the 

spreading out for many miles, and often threatened 
■with floods. The mighty river, receiving tributaries 
from regions thousands of miles 
!) Difficulties ap^t, j s charged with yellow mud, 
which gradually sinks to the bottom 
as the current becomes slower toward 
the mouth. This has built up the bed of the river, 
so that at high water the floods would spread out 
over the low land if they were not shut in by strong 
walls of earth, called lerees (Fig. 118). 

In spite, of their strength, these embankments 
sometimes give way, especially" in the springtime, 
when the snows are melting in the North ; then the 
destruction to life and property is appalling. At 
such times hundreds of men patrol the levees, night 

midwinter weather is rarely colder than 
the early autumn of the North. What 
must be the effect of this climate upon the 
style of houses ? Also upon the presence 
of birds, flowers, and fruits in winter ? 

Memphis and Atlanta (Fig. 116) are 
two other large and rapidly growing 
southern cities. The for- 2. Memphis 
mer is situated in Tennessee, and Atlanta 
on a bluff with the Mississippi River at 
its base. Why is that a favorable loca- 
tion for the growth of a large city ? Mem- 

Fig. 119. — A view of Atlanta. 

and day, to check the slightest leak. A hole made 
by even a crawfish may be the beginning of a de- 
structive flood. 

Because the land near the river is so low, the 
soil on which New Orleans stands is very damp. 
Indeed, in digging foundations for buildings, 
water is reached a short distance below the sur- 
face. On that account it has been difficult to pro- 
vide proper drainage. A system of drainage and 
sewerage has, however, been established at great 

New Orleans once belonged to France 
(p. 25), and one person in six in the city 
is of French stock. French 
is still spoken by some of 
Frost seldom reaches this city, and the 

(4) People, and 
climate of the 

phis is a noted river port, and one of the 
great cotton centers and lumber markets of 
the South. 

Atlanta (Fig. 119), the " Gate City," is 
one of the few large cities not located upon 
a water route. Northeast of it, for over 
three hundred and fifty miles, there is no 
easy pass across the mountains, and until 
1880, in all that distance no railway crossed 
the Appalachian Mountains. Near Atlanta, 
however, there is a good route ; and rail- 
ways reaching westward from the Carolinas, 
or northern Georgia, come together here, 
making Atlanta a great railway center. 

Owing to its favorable situation as a rail- 
way shipping point, Atlanta is the leading 



interior wholesale market of the South ; 
and it surpasses all Southern cities in the 
number and variety of its manufactures. 

3 Nashville, 
Knoxville, and 

Fig. lliO. — Moccasin Bend in the Tennessee River, as seen from Lookout 
Mountain. Chattanooga is situated on the river bank just to the right of 
the middle of the picture. 

Among its factories are lumber, cotton, and 
iron mills. It is one of the most progres- 
sive cities in the country, and, like other 
Southern cities, is a busy center. 

If we recall the roughness 
of the plateau west of the 
Appalachians, we can under- 
stand the reason 
for the location 
of Chatta- 
nooga. It is on the Ten- 
nessee River (Fig. 120), at a 
point which makes it a gate- 
way somewhat like Atlanta. 
There is much manufacturing 
here, especially of articles 
made of iron and wood. 
Another busy manufacturing 
city, near by, is Knoxville, 
which is not quite so large 
as Chattanooga. 

Nashville, the capital of 
Tennessee, has sawmills, fur- 
niture factories, and flour 
mills. There are more than six hundred 
factories in this city. Being in the midst 
of a splendid farming country, it is a dis- 

tributing point for supplies to the sur- 
rounding towns and farms. It is also one 
of the educational centers of the South, 
having \ r anderbilt University 
and other important schools. 
There are several other well- 
known universities in the 
South, and each state sup- 
ports a state university. 
Many of these take a high 
rank among the universities 
of the country. 

The coast cities are chiefly 
engaged in shipping cotton 
and lumber, and 4 Seaport3 
most of them east of the 
are located near Mississippi 
the mouths of rivers, so that 
these goods may be brought 
to them by water as well as 
by rail. In them, also, there 
is important manufacturing, especially of 
cotton goods and lumber. Two of the 
best-known seaports are Charleston and 
Savannah, both long noted as shipping 

Copyright, 19(M>, by Detroit Photographic Co. 

Fig. 121. — Thousands of bales of cotton on one of the wharves at Savannah, 
ready for shipment. 

points for cotton (Fig. 121), lumber, and 
other goods. Charleston is the leading 
lumber port in the South. Mobile, on 



Mobile Bay, is another important Southern 

In Florida are Tampa and Pensacola, 
both with excellent harbors, and both rap- 
idly growing. Besides its cigar manufac- 
turing (p. 83), Tampa has a growing trade 
with the West Indies. It is the terminus 
of important railways, and is the nearest 
port in the country to the Panama Canal. 
Owing to the canal the trade of both Pensa- 
cola and Tampa has already 
greatly increased. 

Since so much cotton is 
shipped away, there has been 

5. Other cities need of a lar §' e 
of the Missis- number of ship- 

while an important line reaches southward 
into Mexico. Much of the land along the 
Rio Grande and Pecos rivers, and some 
other streams, is irrigated ; but in most of 
the western part of Texas the chief indus- 
try is cattle raising, in which Texas is the 
leading state of the Union. 

P2ast of the arid and semiarid plateau, 
most of the crops of the Southern States 
grow in great abundance. Rice and sugar 

ping points. 

sippi Valley 

Therefore, besides the cities 
already named, most of which 
are extensively engaged in 
cotton shipping, we find the 
cotton ports of Vicksburg, 
Natchez, and Baton Rouge, 
on the Mississippi, and 
Shrevepobt and Little 
Rock on tributaries to that 

Texas is the largest state in 
the Union. It is even larger 

than all the 

thirteen states 

included in New England and 

the Middle Atlantic States, 
and has a greater area than either France 
or Germany. At one time it was a separate 
country, having won its independence from 
Mexico in 1836. But it desired later to 
enter our Union, and was admitted as a 
state in 1845. 

Throughout the arid western section 
there are no cities and few large towns, 
(2) Smaiimss except in the extreme western 
o/thepopuia- corner on the Rio Grande, 
Hon in the west w]iere El p Ag0 j g located . 

The Spanish word " El Paso " means " the 
pass," for this city is situated at a pass in 
the Rocky Mountains, through which the 
Southern Pacific Railway extends westward, 

6. Cities in 

(1) Size of this 

Fig. 122. — The Alamo, at San Antonio — an old Spanish church, famous 
in the history of Texas. 

cane flourish on the Coastal 

(3) Resources in 

Plain, and forests are exten- the east, and the 
sive. On the higher plains, Cltiesthere 
just west of these lowlands, the warm cli- 
mate and fertile soil are especially favorable 
to .cotton. Texas leads all the states in the 
production of this valuable crop. What 
important minerals are found in Texas, and 
in what parts of the state (pp. 79, 80) ? 

Naturally, since so many raw materials 
are produced in the eastern half of this 
state, large cities are located there. Two of 
them are Dallas and Fort Worth — both 
shipping points, the former for cotton, the 
latter for cattle from the plains of the 
West. Dallas is also a busy manufacturing 
center. Austin, the capital, is on the Col- 



orado River, and San Antonio (Fig. 122), 
the largest city in the state, lies farther 

Two other important cities are Houston, 
near the coast, and Galveston, the princi- 
pal seaport west of New Orleans. Immense 
quantities of cotton and other products are 

Fig. 123. — A view of Oklahoma City as it appeared April 22, 1889 

with Figure 124. 

shipped from Galveston. It is also a port 
of outlet for goods from the Far West. 
Railroads from the north and west cross 
Texas to Galveston and other Gulf ports ; 
and railway lines likewise cross the state to 
Mexico and California. 

No one of the cities of Texas is yet of 
great size, since manufacturing is not ex- 
tensively developed. 
But here, as in the other 
Southern States, there 
is much recent advance 
in manufacturing. 

All of our states, ex- 
cept the thirteen orig- 
inal states, were once 
territories, occupied by 
7. Oklahoma Indians. 
(1) Its history As they be- 
came settled they were, 
one by one, admitted to 
the Union as states. One of the last states 
to be admitted was Oklahoma, and it is 
therefore of special interest. Not many 
years ago Oklahoma was occupied by Indians 
alone. As the red men in various parts of 
our country were conquered, and the land 
that they occupied became needed by white 

men, the Indians were placed on lands re- 
served for them in different places. These 
reserved sections were called Indian reser- 
vations, and at one time nearly all the area 
at present included in the state of Okla- 
homa was given over to the Indians. It 
was then called Indian Territory. 

As our country be- 
came more and more 
settled, and it was found 
that the Indian Terri- 
tory had great resources, 
the white men desired 
this land also. One 
strong reason for taking 
it from the Indians was 
that they did so little 
to develop it. Accord- 
ingly, in 1890, the west- 
ern part of the Indian 
Territory was thrown open to white settlers, 
and called Oklahoma. People rushed in 
there, by thousands, to secure the free 
farms that the government offered, and 
the region was rapidly settled (Figs. 123 
and 121). Then people asked that the two 
divisions, the Territory of Oklahoma in 
the west and Indian Territory in the east, 

Compare this 

Fig. 124. — A view of a part of Oklahoma City in 1908. Compare this with 
Figure 123 to see the great change in less than twenty years. 

be admitted into our Union as one state. 
This was granted, and in 1907 the new 
state was admitted under the name of 

Oklahoma, like Texas, is largely a plain ; 
but in the east there are low, 

forest-covered mountains, con- 

(2) lis resources 



(3) Chief cities 

taining coal, iron, and other valuable min- 
erals. In the extreme west the climate is 
more arid, and grazing is the leading in- 
dustry ; but in most of the state the plains 
are splendidly fitted for agriculture. Many 
farm crops are produced, the leading ones 
being corn and other grains in the north, 
and cotton in the south. 

Although the state is so new, there has 
already been great development of agricul- 
ture, lumbering, and mining, 
and no doubt there will be 
much greater advance in the next few 
years. The progress in manufacturing is 
indicated by the number and size of cities 
and towns that have already sprung up. 
The largest is the capital, Oklahoma City, 
but Muskogee, Shawnee, and Guthrie 
are also large and growing cities. 

1. How are the surface features of the northeast- 
ern portion of these states similar to those farther 
. north ? 2. To what extent is the 

n . surface of the Southern States level ? 

" 3. What mountains are found there, 

besides the Appalachians? 4. What is the character 
of the coast ? 5. Describe the climate. 6. What 
is the rank of the South in the lumbering industry ? 
7. Name the kinds of trees found there, and tell how 
the lumbering is carried on. 8. What about fish- 
ing ? 9. To what extent is agriculture important ? 
10. Why was slave labor needed on the cotton 
plantations? 11. Tell about the amount of cotton 
produced, and the climate it requires. 12. How 
is the cotton raised and marketed? 13. What 
plants produce sugar? 14. Where is sugar cane 
grown, and how is it cultivated ? 15. How is sugar 
obtained from the cane ? 16. What about the im- 
portance of rice as a food? Why may we expect 
that more will be raised in the future ? 17. How 
is it cultivated and prepared for market? 18. Where 
is tobacco produced in the South ? 19. What can 
you tell about fruit and vegetable raising here ? 
20. What other farm products are raised? 21. Where 
is ranching important ? Why? 22. Where are coal 
and iron ore found? 23. Oil and gas ? 24. What 
about building stones and clays in the South ? 
25. Phosphates? 20. What other mineral products 
are important ? 27. How has manufacturing in the 
South advanced since the Civil War? 28. What goods 
are manufactured from products of the forests ? 29. 
Name the principal cities engaged in that work. 30. 
What cities lead in the manufacture of iron and steel 
goods? 31. What is the extent of cotton manu- 

facturing? 32. Name the chief cotton manufac- 
turing cities. 33. Explain the value of the cotton 
gin. 34. Of what value are the cotton seeds ? 
35. What other manufacturing is carried on in the 
South ? 36. What conveniences has the South for the 
transportation of goods? 37. Tell about the size and 
location of New Orleans. 38. What connections 
'by water and rail has it with the interior of our 
continent? 39. What difficulties are caused by the 
Mississippi River? 40. Tell about the people in 
New Orleans. What about the climate there? 
41. State the important facts about Memphis and 
Atlanta. 42. About Nashville, Knoxville, and 
Chattanooga. 43. Locate and give the principal 
facts about the coast cities east of the Mississippi ; 
other cities of the Mississippi Valley. 44. What 
about the size of Texas ? 45. Why is the population 
so small in the western part ? 46. What are the 
resources in its eastern part, and the chief cities 
there? 47. Give a brief history of Oklahoma. 
48. What are its resources? 49. Name and locate 
its chief cities. 

North Carolina (N.C.). 1. Which part is moun- 
tainous ? Name and locate the highest peak east of 
the Mississippi River. 2. What are . 

the surface features of this state? 3. .. . „. . 
,,., ..... ,. , . ,, . tions by States 

Which cities are mentioned in this 

text? Where is each ? For what is each important ? 

4. What capes do you find on the coast? 5. What 

are the leading industries? (See Figs. 249 to 278) 

6. Draw an outline map of this state, like that of 

Maine. Do the same later for each of the other 


Tennessee (Tenn.). 7. Where are the mountains ? 
The plains? 8. Name two cities among the moun- 
tains. For what is each important ? 9. State facts 
about two other cities in Tennessee. 10. Which 
city is the largest ? -(See table, Appendix, p. 427.) 
11. What large rivers drain the state ? 12. What 
are the leading industries in this state? 

South Carolina (S.C.). 13. Describe the surface 
features of the state. 14. What are the principal 
industries ? 15. What city is on the Fall Line ? 
On the seacoast ? For what is each important ? 
16. Which city is largest ? 

Georgia (Ga.). 17. Where are the mountains? 
18. The plains? 19. What are the industries? 
20. Trace the Fall Liue across the state (Fig. 66). 
What cities are on it? 21. Why is Atlanta situated 
where it is? 22. How does it compare in size with 
the largest city in each of the three states just men- 
tioned ? 23. How does it compare in size with New 
Orleans, Buffalo, and Providence? 24. Name the 
two seaports. What do they ship ? 

Florida (Fla.). 25. What about the relief of 
this state? 26. Explain the irregular southern 
coast and the Florida Keys. 27. Describe the 
climate. How does this influence the crops? 



is it important '.' 
industries of Bir- 
aised in Alabama? 
in manufacturing 

28. What Florida cities are mentioned, and how is 
each important? Locate each. 29. What mineral 
product comes from Florida? 

Alabama (Ala.). 30. Trace the Fall Line across 
this state. What cities are situated on it ? 

31. Where is Mobile? How 

32. Describe the location and 
mingham. 33. What crops are 
34. What cities are engaged 
cotton? 35. In lumber manufacturing? 36. Com- 
pare Mobile in size with Atlanta and Birmingham. 

Mississippi (Miss.). 37. Why is there no city on 
the coast? 3S. In what way can the products of the 
state be shipped by water? 39. From what cities? 
40. What are the products? 41. Why no mining? 
42. What about the extent of cotton raising in this 
state (Figs. 253, 254) ? 

Louisiana (La.). 43. State the reasons for the 
great importance of New Orleans. 44. Why has 
it a better location than Mobile or Charleston? 
45. Compare it in size with those cities. 40. With 
Boston and Baltimore. 47. What large tributary 
enters the Mississippi in Louisiana ? 48. What 
crops are raised in Louisiana? Why there? 49. Tell 
how the delta is caused to grow (p. 6). 

Arkansas (Ark.). 50. What large river enters 
the Mississippi in this state ? 51. There is much 
forest in Arkansas; what kinds (Fig. 265)? 52. Is 
Arkansas in the cotton belt? (See Fig. 253.) 
53. The capital is the largest city. Compare it in 
size with Memphis. Why is it less favorably situ- 
ated than that city? 

Texas (Tex.). 54. Where are the mountains? 
55. Where are the forests? Why there? 56. What 
are the industries on the western plains ? 57. What 
city lies in the western part? Why there? 

58. What are the industries in eastern Texas? 

59. What cities are in eastern Texas? 60. For 
what is Galveston noted? 61. Compare it in size 
with New Orleans and Charleston. 62. Texas is 
how many times as large as Rhode Island? (For 
area, see table in Appendix, p. 425.) As Pennsyl- 
vania? 63. Add together the areas of all the New 
England and Middle Atlantic States, and compare 
the total with the area of Texas. 64. Compare 
the population of Texas with that of Massachusetts. 
(See Appendix, p. 425.) 

Oklahoma (Okla.). 65. What has. been the history 
of this state? 66. What about the climate of the 
western part? 67. What crops are raised in the 
northern part ? In the southern part ? 68. Into 
what river does the state drain ? 69. Name and 
locate the chief cities. 

70. Which is the smallest of the Southern States? 
"1. Compare it with Pennsylvania 
and Massachusetts in size. 72. State 
the principal industries of the South. 
73. Of what advantage is it that they are so dif- 

General Review 

ferent from those of the North? 74. Name the 
principal cities on the Fall Line, and explain the im- 
portance of each. 

1. Show several ways in which New England and 
the Southern States are dependent on each other. 
2. What effect did our Civil War 
have on the. cotton manufacturing of " 
England? 3. Near what places were some of the 
great battles of the war fought? 4. What other in- 
ventions may well be compared with the cotton gin 
in importance? 5. About how much sugar does 
your family use each year? 6. What reasons can 
you give for expecting the cotton mills in New Eng- 
land to prove less profitable, now that the South is 
developing such mills? 7. Find out how much 
nearer it is from Chicago to the Panama Canal by 
way of New Orleans than by way of New York. 
What effect will this probably have on New Orleans ? 
8. Through what waters would a boat go from New 
Orleans to Kansas City? To Pittsburgh? To 
Chicago? To San Francisco? 9. Make a drawing 
of these states, including the principal rivers and 
cities. Locate the capitals. 

5. Central States 

1. Name the large rivers of this group. 2. Draw 
a sketch map showing them. 3. Into what ocean 
does the Red River of the North 
flow? 4. Sketch the five Great " lap!,tuily 
Lakes. 5. Locate upon each of these sketches the 
cities printed in large type. 6. Are any of the very 
large cities in these states not situated on rivers or 
lakes ? 7. How far did the glacier advance in these 
states (Fig. IS)? 8. In what ways must the Great 
Lakes have influenced the development of this re- 
gion? 9. Where are mountains found in these 
states? 10. What does the fact that there are so 
many rivers tell about the rainfall? 

A little over a hundred years ago, when\M 
the pioneers had pushed across the Appala- 
chian Mountains into Ohio and surface 
Kentucky, they were gladdened features 
by the sight of immense tracts 1. Extent of 
of level land (Fig. 121). For level land 
hundreds of miles the plains slope gently 
toward the Mississippi ; and beyond that 
river, they slowly rise again, for hundreds 
of miles, to the very base of the Rocky 

In western South Dakota and in southern 
Missouri, low mountains rise above the 
plains. There is a hilly region around the 
western end of Lake Superior, in Michigan, 



Wisconsin, and Minnesota; and in eastern 
Ohio and Kentucky there is also hilly land, 
for the Appalachian Plateau extends into 
these states. With the exception of these 
small areas of mountains and hilly lands, 
most of the region is a vast level tract, quite 

remove the trees from a single acre, and to 
drag away or bury the bowlders. On the 
prairies (p. 19) of the Central States, how- 
ever, such labor was unnecessary, for there 
were hundreds of thousands of square miles 
covered with grass (Fig. 127). 

«>0 \oo 
U.L..M. I — 




Modeled by Edwin E. Howell. 


Fig. 120. — Relief map of the Central States. 

unlike the hilly and mountainous country 
farther east. What are the names of the 
mountains of the Central States? 

The hearts of the pioneers were gladdened 
not only because the land was level, but be- 

2. Absence of caUse a lar S e P art of [t waS 

trees and free from forests and bowlders, 

bowlders j n man y sections of New Eng- 

land weeks of hard labor were required to 

Being so far from the coast, this region is 
not influenced by sea breezes, as are some 
of our states. Florida, for 
example, being nearly sur- 
rounded by water, receives 
breezes from the ocean that 
greatly temper the heat of 
summer. Similar breezes greatly temper 
the cold in winter, for the ocean does not 


1. The tempera- 
ture, with rea- 
sons for the 




become so cold as the land. Thus water 
makes the temperatures of the two seasons 
more nearly equal, or equalizes it. For that 
reason such a climate is said to be equable. 
Because the Central States are so far 
from the ocean, the summers are very 
warm, while the winters are very cold. It 
is often as hot there in summer as it is in 
the Southern States ; but in winter the 
coldest part of our country is in North 
Dakota and Minnesota. Such a climate, 
with hot summers and cold winters, is com- 
mon in the interior of continents and is, 
therefore, called a continental climate. It 

have ample rain for farming, as is indicated 
by their many rivers. This rain is brought 
from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic 
Ocean, by the winds which every few days 
blow from the south and east. 

From eastern Ohio to western Nebraska, 
and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of 
Mexico, agriculture is a very Agriculture 
important industry. Indeed, eas t f the 
millions of persons in Europe arid lands 
and in our coast cities look to l- its impor- 
the Mississippi Valley for their ance 
bread, meat, and other food, as they look to 
the South for cotton. 

Fig. 127 

-A view on the level plains of the Mississippi Valley. For hundreds of miles there is just such 

level land as this. 

is also said to be extreme, in distinction 
from a climate that is equable. 

The Great Lakes are such large bodies 
of water that they influence the climate 
near them much as the ocean does, only to 
a less degree. Thus the climate is cooler 
in summer, and warmer in winter, along 1 the 
shores of the lakes, than at a distance from 

Since these states are so far from the ocean 
one might suppose that they would receive 
2. The fail of little rain. This is true of the 
rain, with western part of Kansas, Ne- 

reason braska, and the two Dakotas, 

where the climate is arid. The reason for 
this arid climate has already been stated 
(p. 7). With the exception of the 
western border, however, the Central States 

The farms vary greatly in size, from a 
few acres to several thousand, but the 
majority contain from 80 to 2 Afarmin 
160 acres. In the main, they central Ohio 
resemble the one in Ohio that m The house 
is here described. On this ana its snr- 
Ohio farm of 160 acres, is a "»»"«'** 
house in which the family lives, with a barn 
near by for horses, milch cows, and hay, 
and with sheds near it for storing grain and 
farming implements. 

A windmill at the rear of the house 
keeps the milk house well supplied with 
cold water, and also fills the water troughs 
in the barnyard. Near the house is an 
orchard (Fig. 129) of apple, peach, and pear 
trees, with a few rows of berry bushes in one 
part, and a chicken house in another (Fig. 



128). Here enough chickens are raised to 

supply some meat, and all the eggs that are 

needed, with some to sell. On one side of 

the front yard are a few beehives, and back 

of them, between the orchard 

and the barn, is a garden of 

vegetables. Still back of 

that are several pigpens, in 

which hogs are fattened for 

home use, and also for the 


Farther away from the 
house are fields in which there 
/ox rn. B 7j are at least three 

(2) The fields, 

and what is or tour different 

done with their kinds of Crops. 

c Every farmer in 

that vicinity expects to raise 
corn, — perhaps sixty acres 
of it, — some grass for graz- 
ing and for hay, and wheat 
or some other kind of grain. 

After these crops are harvested, they are 
either sold or fed to stock — horses, cattle, 
hogs, or sheep — upon the farm. The lat- 
ter plan is often followed, chiefly because it 

the farm, which not only supply the family 
with fresh milk and butter, but furnish some 
cream or butter to sell. 

Since there are usually only a few houses 

:-■- - 

■■■/ ■■'■ ■ : ■■' v-;v&$&.- ' M -.:.\ 

ai ^rnnnTrS^ni ifi'iii ; 

Fig. 129. — A farmer and his family in the orchard near the house. 

pays better to fatten stock and sell it, than 
to sell the crops themselves. There are 
generally two or three good milch cows on 

Fig. 128. — A farmer feeding his chickens and turkeys. 

in sight of a farmhouse, and no store or post 
office within a number of miles, (3) contactwith 
the farmer and his family may neighbors 
not meet with other persons for several 
days at a time, although they 
often see friends driving by. 
In the busiest season, from 
spring till fall, they make 
few trips to town. How- 
ever, they have a telephone 
by which they can talk with 
neighbors, and with friends 
and merchants in town, while 
the postman brings the mail 
to their doors. 

Some persons would not 
care for such a life as this, 

because it is too (4) Attractions 

lonesome, and of such a life 
there is too much hard work 
connected with it. But this 
farmer enjoys it greatly; be- 
cause he likes to take care of 
his stock, to work in the soil, and to watch 
his crops grow. In addition, he is able to 
raise most of his own food, and his whole 



Fig. l.TO. — A farmex cutting and binding wheat in the harvest season 

or maize 

(1) Extent to 
which, it is 

life is more independent than that of 
persons in a town or city. 

Some of our greatest men have come 
from farms. Can } r ou name two Presidents 
who spent their childhood on farms of the 
Central States ? Where were their homes? 
What can you tell about their early life ? 

Corn (Fig. 131) is raised in most 
of the states of the Union, and you 

3. Indian corn, have alr eady learned how 
important it is in the 
South. It is in the 
Central States, however, 
that we find the 
greatest amount. The corn belt of 
the country (Fig. 219) extends 
from Ohio to central Kansas and 
Nebraska, with smaller quan- 
tities raised to the north, south, 
east, and west of it. 
Farmers within this belt 
usually expect to devote 
from one third to one 
half of their land to 
corn ; therefore, in 
traveling across 
these states in sum- 
mer, one sees corn- 
fields in every direc- 

The seed is planted in rows in the springtime. 
Soon the little stalks appear above ground, growing 
rapidly during the hot summer mouths, until they 

reach a height of from seven to ten feet (Fig. 132). 
In order to keep the soil loose, and kill the weeds, 
the ground between the rows is 

plowed when the corn is young ; 
but as it grows higher, the shade of 
its leaves 
soil from 
A corn- 

(2) How it is 
cultivated and 

protects the 

both drought and weeds. 

field usually presents the most 
beautiful appearance in 
July, when the corn " tas- 
sels out " (Fig. 132). The 
plants then entirely hide 
the ground from view, 
and the rich green stalks, 
with their long, slender 
leaves, bend to the breezes 
in the most graceful 

If the stalk is to be 
used as fodder for cattle 
in winter, it is cut before 
frost, when the kernels on 
the cob are still some- 
what soft and milky. If 
left until after frost, the 
grain hardens, and then 
the harvest season begins. 
Men drive into the fields 
in wagons and tear the 
husks from the ear, spend- 
ing day after day at that 
kind of work. 

Fig. 131. — Two ears of corn, the one on the left with the 
husk turned down to show the kernels of corn on the coh. 

Corn is put to 
many uses. Much 

that is 

(3) Its uses 

raised is fed to cattle and 

hogs, as already stated. Some is made 

into hominy and breakfast foods, or into 



corn meal. Starch is another product, and 
a very extensive use of the grain is in the 
manufacture of whisky in distilleries. There 
are many distilleries in St. Louis, Louis- 
ville, and other cities within the corn belt. 
Peoria, in central Illinois, is 
another great center for dis- 

Wheat, like corn, is produced 
in all the Central States, as well 
4. Wheat as i n other parts 

(1) Extent of of the country 

its production (Fig. 251). It is 

an especially important product 
in Kansas, Nebraska, and Indi- 
ana ; but the section which at 
present is most noted for wheat 
is the valley of the Red River of 
the North (Fig. 133). In this 
valley there is a broad, level 
plain, including western Min- 
nesota, eastern North and South 
Dakota, and a portion of Mani- 
toba, which is one of the finest fig. 132 
wheat regions in the world. 

■which was larger thau all the Great Lakes put to- 
gether. When the ice melted away entirely from 
the valley, the Red River was once more able to flow 
northward, and then the great lake disappeared. 
The soil of the wheat region is the sediment that 
was deposited on the bottom of this ancient lake. 

- View in a cornfield in Nebraska. Notice how very tall the 
corn grows in this fertile soil. 

One of the reasons for the fertility of this section 

dates back to the time when the Great Glacier was 

melting away. The ice then 

(2) Why exten- stretched across the valley of the 

te'ltedmver 1 Red Rive1 '' ' vhioh fl ° WS northward 
y a ll ev into the Arctic. This ice dam pre- 

vented the river from flowing in 
that direction, and forced it to seek an outlet 
southward. A broad lake was thus formed, 

The land here is almost as level as the surface of 
the sea ; it is so level, in fact, that after a rain the 
water stands in sheets on the fields. It is necessary 
to elevate the roads a foot or more above the sur- 
rounding land and to make ditches on either side; 
otherwise the roads would be muddy much of the 
time. In every direction there is nothing to break 
the view except a farmhouse every half mile or so, 
with a few trees around it. Over this open plain 

Fig. 133. — Harvesting wheat on a large farm on the plains of the fertile Red River Valley of the North. 



the wind sweeps with terrific force, somewhat as 
upon the ocean : and in winter fierce, blinding snow 
squalls, or blizzards, are not uncommon. 

Upon this plain one may ride on the 
train northward toward Winnipeg all day 

(3) Mow mm- loil g' and see scarcely a single 
vated on a large crop besides wheat. Most of 
f arm the farms are of moderate size, 
but some are enormous. For example, one 
farm in North Dakota contains over thirty 
thousand acres. How many square miles 
is that? 

This farm is divided into six parts, with farm 
buildings upon each. To prepare the ground, from 
fifteen to twenty men at a time plow and sow the 
seed on each division. One takes the lead, another 
follows behind ; then comes a third, fourth, and 
so on. The grain is harvested on a similar plan 
(Fig. 133). One hundred and twenty men, and 
three hundred horses, are employed in the planting 
season, and three hundred men during the harvest. 
Since one acre usually produces from fifteen to 
twenty bushels of wheat, an immense amount of 
grain is obtained from this single farm. 

The great quantity of wheat produced in 
the Red River Valley and the neighboring 

(4) influence of region has helped in the growth 
wheat on of the cities of Minneapolis, 

growth of cities g T# p AUL) Rnd DuLUTH> j t 

has also caused the growth of cities in the 
midst of the wheat fields, like Fargo in 
- North Dakota and Sioux Falls in South 
Dakota. Since most of the grain is shipped 
to the East or South, it has influenced the 
growth of scores of other cities along the 
Great Lakes, the Mississippi River, and 
even on the Atlantic coast. State how this 
can be. 

While each farm in the Central States 
usually has a small orchard, like that on the 
Ohio farm, fruit raising is a special industry 
5. Fruits and in those sections where the cli- 
vegetabies mate and soil are favorable, as 

Q.) Fruits in the neighborhood of the 

Great Lakes. You have already learned 
that the immense area of water in these 
lakes, which do not freeze over in winter, 
renders the summers cooler, and the winters 
warmer, than they would otherwise be. 

(2) Vegetables 

This is why the grape belt of western New 
York (p. 53) extends westward along the 
shores of Lake Erie far into Ohio. 

The Michigan peninsula, which has Lake 
Michigan on the west, and Lakes Huron 
and Erie on the east, is also a noted fruit- 
raising region. Here great quantities of 
peaches, apples, and other fruits are pro- 
duced. With what part of the Atlantic 
coast can this fruit region be best compared 
(p. 53)? 

While these regions are especially noted, 
the raising of fruits is common in all the 
Central States. Among the kinds raised 
are peaches, grapes, apples, cherries, plums, 
and berries. 

Vegetables of many kinds, such as sweet 
corn, potatoes, turnips, beets, cabbages, 
tomatoes, peas, beans, lettuce, 
pumpkins, squashes, and celery 
are also raised in all of the Central States. 
Some of these are grown for use at home, 
some for canneries, and some for sale in the 
cities. The fact that there are so many 
cities makes truck farming profitable in 
their neighborhood, as is the case in New 

Tobacco is another valuable farm product 
in the Central States (Fig. 256). While 
it is raised in many sections, 
the greatest quantity comes 
from Kentucky and Ohio, which rank with 
Virginia (p. 52), North Carolina, and Ten- 
nessee (p. 77) as leading tobacco states. 
Both Louisville and St. Louis are impor- 
tant tobacco markets. What other cities 
have the same industry (pp. 52 and 77) ? 

Some domestic animals are raised on al- 
most every farm. Among these the most 
important are horses, cattle, „ 

, , , i.i 7. Domestic 

sheep, hogs, hens, and turkeys, animals 
Some farms, however, are (i) Principal 
mainly devoted to one or a few kinds,and their 

i • j sT*- -ioi\ tt> distribution 

kinds (Fig. 134). i or exam- 
ple, in the more hilly sections, where it is not 
easy to cultivate grain, cattle and sheep are 
numerous, and dairying is important. Ohio 
is one of the foremost sheep raising states. 

6. Tobacco 



(2) The Blue 
Grass Region 
of Kentucky ; 
its fine stock 
and its caverns 

More horses are raised in Iowa than in any- 
other state in the Union, more hogs in Iowa 
than in any other state, and more milch cows 
than in any other state except New York. 

Kentucky is famous for its fine stock, 
especially horses and mules, 

raised in the " Blue 

Grass Region" 

about Lexington. 

The grass here 

has a bluish color, 
and is very nourishing, mak- 
ing possible the raising of fine 

The reason why this grass is so 
nourishing is that the soil in this 
section is made of bits of decayed 
limestone in which there is lime 
phosphate, an excellent plant food 
(p. 80). This phosphate comes 
from the shells of small animals 
which lived in the sea that covered 
this region millions of years ago 
(p. 6). On dying, they helped to 
make a deposit of sediment on the sea 
bottom; and this sediment has since 
changed to limestone rock, which is 
now raised above the sea. As the 
limestone decays, the phosphate mixes 
with other rock bits, and thus fertilizes 
the soil. 

The abundance of limestone in this 
part of Kentucky is the reason for 
the numerous caves that exist there 
(Fig. 135). These caves are long 
tunnels that have been slowly eaten 
out by water that percolates through 
the rock, dissolving the limestone. 
The largest of all is the Mammoth Cave, which is 
said to have more than one hundred and fifty miles 
of tunnels, or galleries. They wind about in an 
irregular manner, some being many feet below 
others, and all together forming a network, or 
labyrinth, into which a stranger dares not venture 
without a guide. 

Great quantities of oats and barley are 
raised in the Central States. The former 
8. Other farm is a common food for horses, 
products but the latter is largely used 

in the manufacture of beer. The great 
breweries, found in every large city, con- 
sume immense quantities of barley in order to 

obtain the malt which is needed in making 
beer. In Cincinnati, St. Louis, and 
Milwaukee, beer making is one of the 
important industries. 

Another farm crop in some sections is 

Fig. 134. 

. scene on a chicken farm in Southern Missouri. There are 
hundreds of chickens on this farm. 

flax. From the bark of the flax stem a 
fiber is obtained which is used in making 
linen, while linseed oil is made from the 
flax seed. Hops, used with barley in mak- 
ing beer, are also raised ; and rye and 
buckwheat are produced on many farms. 
Sugar beets are now cultivated in many 
states, and they supply a part of the sugar 
consumed in the country. 

Finally, a vast amount of ha}' is grown ; 
some of it is fed to farm animals, but much 
is sold in the cities for the use of the 
horses there. The hay crop is one of the 
most valuable in the Central States. 



Fig. 135. — A view in one of the Kentucky caves. The 
icicle-like points hanging from the roof (stalac- 
tites) and the columns extending upward from the 
cave floor (stalagmites) are made by the deposit 
of limy matter that the water brings in solution 
as it percolates through the limestone of the cave 

Passing westward from the fertile valley 
of the Red River of the North, one finds 
the farmhouses decreasing in 
number, and the country 
becoming more and more 
arid, until, finally, in western 
North Dakota, there is very 

Agriculture in 
the arid section 

1. Meaning and 
extent of the^ 
Great Plains 

little farming without irrigation. At the 

same time, the plains gradually rise higher 

and higher, until, near the base 

of the Rocky Mountains, an 

elevation of fully a mile above 

the sea is reached. This arid 

plateau, extending from Canada 

to southwestern Texas (p. 72), 

is commonly known as the 

Great Plains. 

The soil is excellent, and 
where irrigation is possible, 

2. irrigatedsec- there are fine 
tions, and their farms. In many 
products p , aces the 8trean] - 8 

furnish water for irrigation ; in 
others, water rises to the sur- 
face when wells are driven into 
the earth. Such wells, from 
which the water often gushes 
forth as in a fountain, are called 
artesian wells (Fig. 136). The 

water comes from the rock layers under- 
ground, and by its help much land is now 
cultivated which a few years ago was of 
little use. 

Every year the amount of land cultivated in this 
section is increasing; and now that the government 
is building reservoirs to store the waters that 
otherwise run off through the rivers in spring, there 
will be still more land under irrigation. These 
irrigated farms produce the same crops as other 
parts of the Central States. Crops that will grow 
in a dry climate are also being introduced (called 
"dry farming"), and this is another reason why 
farming is increasing here. 

Still, most of the arid region of the Great 

For that 

3. Ranching 
(1) Its extent 

The entire 

Plains is unsuited to farmin 

reason there are few towns 

and no large cities, as you can 

see on the map (Fig. 125). 

western third of North and South Dakota, 

Nebraska, and Kansas, as well as the Great 

Plains farther west, are given over mainly 

to ranching (Fig. 137). 

This industry is carried on in much the 
same way throughout all parts 
of the arid West. In western (2) Location of 

v ii n l c • the ranchman' s 

^rth Dakota, for instance, house and cor . 
there is little water except rals 

Fig. 136.- 

■ An artesian well supplying water for use in irrigation in 
western United States. 



in the widely separated streams, and 

there are very few trees except along 

the stream banks. Since the ranchman 

must have both water and wood, he locates 

his house, sheds, and stockades, 

or corrals (Fig. 138), within 

easy reach of these two things. 

If there is no neighbor within 

several miles, it is all the better, 

for his cattle are then more 

certain to find abundant grass. 

Few fences are built, partly 
because most of the region is 
(3) Why few owned by the gov- 
fences eminent, not by 

ranchmen. Very often they 
own only the land near the 
water ; but this gives them con- 
trol of the surrounding land, 
for it is of no use to any one 
else if his cattle cannot reach 
the water. Another reason 
why fences are not common is 
that it is necessary for the cattle to roam 
far and wide in their search for food. 
The bunch grass, upon which they feed, 
is so scattered that they must walk a 
long distance each day to find enough 
to eat. 

A single ranchman may own from ten 
to twenty thousand head of cattle, and yet 

sometimes they stray one or two hundred 
miles away. 

Twice a year there is a general collection, 
or round-up (Fig. 139), of cattle, — the 

Fig. 138. — Cattle in a corral on a western cattle ranch. 

they may all be allowed to wander about 
upon public land, called " the range " (Fig. 
137). Usually they keep within a distance 
of thirty miles of the ranch-house; but 

Fig. 137. — Cowboys and cattle on a ranch in western United States. 

first round-up occurring in May or June, 
and the other early in the 
fall. One object of the first is jrst round-up, 
to brand the calves that have and how accom- 
been born during the winter. p " 

Since there are few fences, cattle belonging to 
ranches which are even a hundred miles apart be- 
come mixed during the winter ; and those in a large 
herd may belong to a score of dif- 
ferent ranchmen. Each cattle 
owner has a certain mark, or' 
brand (Fig. 140), in the form of 
a letter, a cross, a horseshoe, etc., 
which is burnt into the side of 
every calf. 

A round-up, which lasts several 
weeks, is planned by a number of 
ranchmen together. A squad of 
perhaps twenty cowboys, with a 
wagon and provisions, a large num- 
ber of riding horses, or " ponies," 
and a cook, go in one direction ; 
and other wagons, with similar 
" outfits," set out in other direc- 
tions. Before separating in the morning, the 
members of a squad agree upon a certain camping 
place for the night, and they then scour the country 
to bring the cattle together, riding perhaps sixty or 
eighty miles during the day. 



Fig. 139. — A round-up on the Great Plains. All the cattle in the distance belong to one ranchman ; 
those in the front of the picture to another. 

Each ranchman knows his own cattle by the brand 
they bear; and since the calves follow their mothers 
(Fig. 140). there is no difficulty in telling what brand 
shall be placed on them. After branding the calves, 
each ranchman drives his cattle homeward, to feed 
during the summer within a few dozen miles of their 
owner's home. 

The second large round-up is similar to 
the first, except that its object is to bring 
(5) Second together the steers, or male 
round-up, and cattle, and ship them away to 
bhat/oUows mar k et . i t i s therefore called 

the beef roundup. A ranchman who owns 

Fig- 140. — This animal bears the brand of the owner. The cowboy is trying to catch the 
calf that is following its mother; and when he does he will place the same brand on it. 

twenty thousand cattle may sell nearly half 
that number in a season. As the steers are 

collected, they are loaded upon trains and 
shipped to distant cities to be slaughtered 
( P . 109). 

Tery often the cattle have found so little -water, 
and such poor pasturage, that they have failed to 
fatten properly, and must be fed for a time before 
being slaughtered. This may be done upon the irri- 
gated fields near the rivers in the ranch country ; 
or the cattle may be sent for this purpose to the 
farms farther east, as in Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, and 

The lives of ranchmen and cowboys 

are interesting and often exciting, ' ' f^ e °^ e 

c u j i ■ 4. ■ *.i ranchman 

most of each day being spent in the 

saddle (Fig. 141). 
They are so far sepa- 
rated from other 
people that they must 
depend upon them- 
selves far more than 
most people do. For 
instance, a ranchman 
must build his house, 
kill his beef and dress 
it, put up his ice. raise 
his vegetables, do liis 
blacksmithing, find 
his fuel, and evenkeep 
school for his children 
if they are to receive 
an education. He af- 
fords a good example 
of the pioneer life 
which was so com- 
mon in early days. 

Although so much of the land is under 
cultivation, or given over to ranching, forests 



are found in many sections. In Wisconsin, 
for instance, in traveling northward from 
Lumberinz ^ le we ^- cu ^ivated southern 

l Extent of portion, one comes to a section 
forest, and where farmers are beginning 

kinds of trees to ta k e t h e p i ace f lumber- 
men. Many log huts stand here in small 
clearings, with the green fields still dotted 
by tree stumps. But beyond, little else 
than woods can be seen. 

In these forests are many kinds of trees 
belonging to the north, especially the ever- 
greens, such as hemlock, spruce, white pine, 
and cedar. There are also some hard woods, 
such as oak, birch, and maple. 

Lumbering is still an important industry 
in the neighborhood of the Great Lakes. 
It is carried on in much the 
same manner as in Maine 
(Fig. 142), although a great 
deal of the timber is brought to 
the sawmills by wagons or rail, instead of 
being floated a long distance downstream. 

The excellent water power in the Missis- 
sippi River, at Minneapolis (Fig. 158), 
early led to the building of sawmills there, 
and made that city famous for lumber. 

2 Method of 
lumbering, and 
centers for 


141. — A cowboy and his pony. The rope in his hand 
is his lariat, with which he lassoes the cattle. 

Fig. 142. — Floating logs downstream to a sawmill in Wisconsin 

Other mills are situated farther down the 
Mississippi, as at Winona. They are also 
numerous at Dtjltjth, in Minnesota, and 
at Superior, which is just across the state 
line in Wisconsin. 

Since the Central States have no seacoast, all the 
oysters, cod, and other sea fish consumed in this sec- 
tion must be broughtfrom the Pacific _. ,. 
coast, or from the Atlantic, or Gulf 
coasts. Thus, while the people of these states supply 
meat and grain for those living in other parts of the 
country, they, in turn, depend upon others for some 
of their food. 

The Central States, however, are not entirely 
dependent upon the sea for 
their fish. In the rivers there 
are some excellent fish, quite 
different from those in the 
ocean ; and in the lakes there 
are still other kinds. There 
is, therefore, considerable 
fishing here, especially on 
the Great Lakes; but the 
fishing industry is by no 
means so important as in 
the groups of states already 

Coal is mined in al- 
most all the Central 
States. II- M i n i n g 
linois pro- i. coal 
duces most, ranking next to (i) its wide 
West Virginia among the states distribution 
of the country. Ohio produces almost 
much, however, and large quantities. come 
from Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, 



Missouri, and Michigan. There is so 
much coal in this section, and it is found 
throughout so large an area, that it is easy 
to obtain fuel for manufacturing in almost 
every part. 

While Pennsylvania produces two kinds 
of coal, anthracite and bituminous, the Cen- 

(2) Khidqfcoal, tral States haye onl y the latter 

and method of kind. But it is bituminous 
mining it CQal that is used jn nia kj n g 

coke, and because there is so much of this 

Fig, H3. 

A view in the oil fields of Kansas, 
each derrick. 

kind of coal, it is of great value for iron 
manufacturing. In some places the coal 
beds lie near the surface, like rock in 
quarries, and then the mining is very sim- 
ple; in others it is buried so deep that long 
shafts must be sunk to reach it. 

When oil and natural gas were first dis- 
2. Oil and gas covered in New York and 
(1) Where/ound Pennsylvania, it was supposed 
that they did not exist elsewhere; but they 

have since been found in many places. 
Name some of them (pp. 56-79). Both oil 
and gas are found in several of the Central 
States, especially Illinois, Ohio, and Indi- 
ana. Many farmers, whose soil is no better 
than that of their neighbors, have suddenly 
become rich by the discovery of oil or 
natural gas in the rocks far beneath the 
surface (Fig. 143). In fact, these sub- 
stances are so abundant in some places that 
towns, like Findlay in western Ohio, have 
sprung up like mushrooms. 

The way in which gas 
and oil are formed, and the 
uses to which they are put, 
have already been described 
(p. 56). 

In many places in the 
Central States natural gas is 
in common use, ( 2) cheapness 

furnishing both ofgasasafuel 

light and heat in the houses, 
and fuel in the factories. It 
is a very cheap fuel, for, after 
the hole is bored into the 
earth, it costs almost nothing 
to produce the gas. The 
main expense is the cost of 
the pipes through which it 

Formerly Pennsylvania was 
the chief iron-producing state, 
having both coal 
and iron ore : 
but some years 
ago explorers 
discovered enormous beds of 
iron ore near the western end 
of Lake Superior. In some places the ore 
is so soft that, like gravel, it can be dug out 
with steam shovels, and very often it is so 
near the surface that the mines are open 
pits. In other places the mining is done 
underground. That is the case, for exam- 
ple, at Ishpejiesig, in northern ■ Michigan 
(Fig. 144). 

This Lake Superior district is now the 
leading iron-producing center of the world. 

There is an oil well under 

3. Iron ore 

(1) The Lake 





It includes parts of three states — Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and Minnesota, — the most impor- 
tant being Minnesota, — (Fig. 270), and 
the least important Wisconsin. These 
three states together produce _ sixty -two 
times as much iron ore as 
Pennsylvania, and four-fifths 
of all the iron ore of the coun- 
try. The enormous develop- 
ment of mining in this region 
has caused numerous towns 
and cities to grow up here. 
It is a very unfortunate 

(2) why the ore fact that there 

must be trans- i s n0 coa l j n this 

iron district. 
For in order that 
the ore may be reduced to 
the metal, either coal must 
be carried to the iron mines, 
or else the ore must be moved 
to the coal regions. The 
latter has proved the cheaper. 
Accordingly, hundreds of 
boats sail every year from the lake ports of 
Duluth, Superior, Ashland, and Mar- 
quette, loaded with ore for the manu- 
facturing centers along the lakes. 

Fortunately the iron deposits are located 

(3) How u is near waterways. If it were 
loaded, and necessary to haul the heavy 
where sent ore a \ on g distance by rail, 

the expense might be so great as seriously 
to check its production. As it is, however, 
the ore is mined, loaded upon cars, and 
sent over short lines of railway to the lake 

ported, and 
from what 

Fig. 144. — An electric motor in an iron mine at lshpeming, Michigan. 

Great ore docks (Fig. 145), or piers, reaching 
out into deep water, have been built to hold the ore. 
Railway tracks are laid upon the docks, and the 
trains run out upon them to dump their contents 
quickly into bins. On a single pier there are scores 
of bins, which together hold enough ore to fill 
several large vessels. When a vessel is to be loaded, 
it comes up to the pier; then a door at the bottom 
of a bin is opened, allowing hundreds of tons of ore 

FlG. 145. — The great ore docks on the shores of Lake Superior. Trains loaded with ore run out onto these docks 
and dump their ore into large hins up to which vessels come to be loaded. 



to slide out. After this, the next bin is emptied, 
and in tliis way the vessel is rilled in a few hours. 

As the ore must reach a point where coal 
is easily obtained, it is taken to such lake 
ports as Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, 
Cleveland, and Buffalo. Notice how- 
close to these cities the coal beds extend 
(Fig. 2G8). From the lake ports the ore is 
also carried by rail to Pittsburgh, as well 

Fig. 146. — Bars of copper on the dock at Houghton, Michigan. These are 
to be carried away by the large lake steamer. 

as to many other places in the midst of the 
coal fields. 

Another metal found in the Central 
States is copper, which is valuable in many 
i. Copper ore ways. It is one of the metals 
(l) Uses of used to make bronze, and also 
copper brass ; but of late years a new 

and even greater demand for this metal has 
arisen. Electricity passes through copper 
more easily than through other common 
metals ; copper is, therefore, the best 
material for trolley wires, for the wire of 
long-distance telephones, and for wire used 

in electric lighting. Since the use of 
electricity is rapidly increasing, there is a 
growing demand for copper. 

The Indians and early explorers found 
pieces of copper on the surface of the ground 
in northern Michigan. Later (2) Where the 
it was discovered there in the ore is found 
pores of a lava rock, and between the grains 
of a pebble beach which was formed in the 
ancient sea, and has since 
hardened into rock. These 
copper-bearing rocks are 
found on the small peninsula 
that extends into Lake 
Superior near Houghton'. 
Cojjper mines were started 
there long ago, and for many 
years that has been one of 
the leading copper-mining 
regions of the world. 

Some of these mines are 
very deep, one of the shafts 
reaching to a (3) How copper 

depth of about is obtained from 

a mile. When 
the ore is drawn 
to the surface, it is found 
mixed with so much beach 
rock and lava, that it must 
first be crushed to a powder 
under powerful hammers, or 
stamps. Then water is run 
over it, in order to carry 
away the bits of rock and 
leave the heavier particles of 
copper. Even after this, some foreign 
substances are still mixed with the copper, 
and these must be removed before the 
metal is fit for use. In order to remove 
them, the copper is next placed in a large 
smelter and melted. The pure copper is 
allowed to run out of the furnace and cool 
in bars to be shipped away (Fig. 146). 
Among the foreign substances is a little 
silver, which is carefully saved. 

As in the case of iron ore, the copper is shipped 
to points along the lakes, and elsewhere, by water 
and by rail. Much of it goes to the metal manufac- 

the ore, and 
where sent 



tories in the New England cities (p. 43). Name 
some goods that must be shipped into this section in- 
stead of away from it. Why? 

The largest of the copper mines are near together, 
and so many men are employed in obtaining the 

ore, and in getting out the pure 
(4) Population meta , that , towns haye n 

dependent on ., . ,,..,, . ° , 

these mines U P near the mines - Within a few 

miles of the most important mines 
are several towns, the largest being Calumet. 
Many of these persons are miners and families of 
miners ; but there must, of course, be storekeepers, 
physicians, teachers, ministers, etc. ; and they all 
depend for a living upon the precious copper buried 
far beneath the surface. 

There is an abundance of budding stones in the 

Central States. Among these are 
5. Other mm- sandstone and limestone, which are 
' '''""' shipped in all directions for building 

(1) Building purposes. Limestone is also used 
stones, sand, ,, • , . , . 

and day m lron smeltln g and ln making 

Portland cement. In addition, there 
are slates and granites in the hilly and mountainous 
sections, as there are in New England (p. 30). 

Several states produce much sand, which is 
melted and made into window glass, bottles, and 
other objects. Clay of various kinds, used in making 
brick, tiles, or pottery is abundant in all the states. 
Lead and zinc, two other metals found in the 
Central States, occur in pockets and little veins in 

layers of limestone. The ores are 

(2) Lead, zinc, 
and gold 

mined in many places, as at Joplin, 
Mo., and then sent to furnaces, where 
the pure metals are separated from the ore. A 
large part of our supply of lead and zinc is obtained 
from Missouri. What are some of the uses of these 
metals ? Of what use should you think this lead 
was to the early pioneers? 

Gold and lignite are mined in considerable quan- 
tities in the Black Hills in the extreme western part 
of South Dakota. 

Much salt is obtained in the Central States, 
especially in Michigan. This state produces more 
salt than any other in the Union, 
New York ranking second, Ohio 
third, and Kansas fourth. 

(3) Salt 

The abundance of coal, gas, and water 
power, together with raw materials, has 
. led to very extensive manu- 
facturing in the Central States. 
Great quantities of corn are consumed in 
making corn meal, hominy, 
1. Manufac- starch, and breakfast foods; 

tures from i i i • 

agricultural :ln(l . SOme ls als ? Used m 

products distilleries (p. 96). There 

are many flour mills where wheat is made 
into flour; large quantities of oats are 
made into oatmeal; and much barley is 
consumed in the breweries. Canning of 
fruits and vegetables is extensively carried 
on at many places, and the making of sugar 
from the sugar beet has come to be of great 

The ranches in the arid section, as well 
as the farms in general, supply animals 
from which meat, lard, soap, and various 
other products are made in several of the 
large cities. The hides of these animals are 
made into shoes, gloves, traveling bags, and 
other articles, while the wool is manufac- 
tured into clothing. Cotton is brought 
from the South to be made into cotton 
goods. Much butter and cheese is made in 
every state. 

Near the forests, both along the streams 
and on the shores of the Great Lakes, the 
manufacture of furniture and 
other articles of wood is an im- 
portant industry. On many 
of the rivers of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and 
Michigan, where there is abundant water 
power, there are sawmills, furniture fac- 
tories, and planing mills. Some of the most 
important are located in Oshkosh in Wis- 
consin, and Saginaw, Bay City, and 
Grand Rapids in Michigan. School 
desks, office desks, chairs, tables, and other 
kinds of furniture are made at Grand 
Rapids, which city is especially noted 
for the manufacture of furniture. Chicago 
manufactures furniture to a considerable 

The crude oil is made into many prod- 
ucts, as in the Middle Atlantic States. 
Name some of these products 
(p. 56). 

The manufacture of iron ore 
into iron and steel goods oc- 
cupies an enormous number of 
men in hundreds of cities and 
towns. The manufacture of copper goods 
is another extensive industry, and many 

2. Manufac- 
tures from for- 
est products 

3. Manufac- 
tures from min- 
eral products 

(1) Manufac- 
tures from oil 
and ores 

products are made from lead and zinc. 



Fig. 147. — Tile employees of a large manufacturing plant in Dayton, Ohio 
at luncheon. 

Metal manufacturing in the Central States 
is quite as important as in the states along 
the Atlantic coast, and the industry is 
rapidly growing (Fig. 147). 

Much of the deep soil left in the prairie 
states by the glacier is a clay which is use- 

(2) Manufae- ^ ln * ne man ufacture of 

turesfrom clay bricks. As in other sections 
and limestone f the count , r y (p. 59), there 

are many brickyards, especially near the 

large cities. From this same 

kind of clay, flowerpots, 

drainpipes, and other articles 

are made. During recent 

years, when drainage of farm 

land has become common, the 

manufacture of tile for that 

purpose has developed into 

a great industry. Many a 

small town has a tile factory. 

A very high grade of pottery, 
known as Rookwood ware, is man- 
ufactured in Cincinnati. The 
best of clay is needed for this, and 
it must be brought from a distance. 
The first step in making a vase is 
to wet a lump of clay so that it 
may easily be molded. Then it is 
placed upon a potter's wheel, where 
it is whirled rapidly around while 
a man molds it with his hands. 

Tn a very few minutes he changes 
the shapeless lump into a delicately 
formed vase. It must then be 
baked, and after the baking, flowers 
or other ornaments may be painted 
upon it. The surface is finally 
covered with a substance which, 
when baked, produces a glaze. One 
of the beauties of the Rookwood 
ware is the peculiar color of the 
glaze, which is a dark or yellowish 

In Missouri, Indiana, Mich- 
igan, Ohio, and other states 
of this section, Portland ce- 
ment is made from limestone. 
Pennsylvania produces most 
cement, but several of the 
states produce large amounts. 
The handling of so many raw materials 
and manufactured products leads to exten- 
sive commerce. The transpor- Transporta- 
tation of bulky goods, such as tion of goods 
ores, coal, and wheat, is particularly impor- 
tant where the coal and iron ore are so 
widely separated, and where far more wheat 
is raised than can be consumed. 

The importance of the Great Lakes in 
bringing the ores to the coal and the wheat 

Fig. 148. — The " Son " Canal. Boats going west pass through the canal on 
the right ; those going east pass through the canal on the left. In the 
very front of the picture is the gate of a lock. 



to the Eastern markets is evident. From 
Duluth to Buffalo there is only one place 
where navigation is interfered with. That 
is at the outlet of Lake Superior into Lake 
Huron, where there are some rapids. Here 
a broad canal, large enough for the great 
lake vessels, has been dug. It is called the 
Soo Canal (Fig. 148), after the city Sault 
Ste. Maeie, located at this point. 

The Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri riv- 
ers, with many smaller tributaries, drain 
almost the entire area of the Central States. 
Which parts are not in the Mississippi River 
drainage area? The three rivers named, as 
well as many smaller ones, are navigable. 
Tims the Great Lakes and the rivers to- 
gether afford admirable water transporta- 
tion for goods in all directions. 

Railroads have been very easily built in 
this level country, and they connect these 
two vast water ways at many points. Most 
of the great railroad systems that cross the 
continent from east to west pass through 
either Chicago or St. Louis. 

Since the Central States have no ocean 
coast, we naturally find the principal cities 
Principal cities along the Great Lakes and the 
along the Great three great rivers, where it is 
Lake 3 possible to ship goods by water. 

Let us first consider those along the Great 

At the western end of ' Lake Superior 
there is a "fine harbor, one side being in 
l. Duluth and Minnesota, the other in Wis- 
Superior consin. Upon this harbor are 

two cities, Duluth and Superior, which 
together have a population of over one 
hundred thousand. The chief products of 
this vicinity are iron, lumber, and wheat, 
which are shipped eastward in immense 
quantities from these two ports. Owing to 
the nearness of these cities to the Minnesota 
and Dakota wheat fields, there are enormous 
elevators for storing grain, and flour mills 
for grinding it into flour. 

Goods are shipped to this point as well as from 
it, for the people in this section must depend upon 
other people for their farming implements, clothing, 

various kinds of food, furniture, and coal. These 
goods are brought cheaply, because the vessels carry- 
ing ore, wheat, and lumber eastward must have a 
cargo to bring back. Explain how the products of 
this region help to make Buffalo, Montreal, and New 
York important, and tq keep the mills and factories 
of New England busy. 

Locate Chicago. At this point the small 
Chicago River empties into 2. Chicago 
Lake Michigan (Fig. 149), ( i) History 0/ 
forming a small harbor, on tnis region 
which a fort was located in early times. 

The harbor itself was formed thousands of years 
ago, while the Great Glacier wa,s melting away. At 
that time, the ice sheet lay across Lake Michigan, 
forming a huge dam which prevented the water from 

Fig 149. — Shipping on the Chicago River. This was the 
first port at Chicago, but now breakwaters built out 
into the lake make a large harbor. 

flowing into Lake Huron, and through the St. Law- 
rence River to the sea, as it now does. This forced 
the water to find an outlet southward, past the pres- 
ent site of Chicago, into the Illinois River, and 
thence, by way of the Mississippi, into the Gulf of 
Mexico. It was the wash of this water that dug out 
the small harbor. 

As the West developed, this site proved 
to be a most favorable one ; for whenever 
a railway was built from the ( 2) Advantages 
East to the Northwest, it was 0/ this site 
necessary for it to pass around the southern 
end of Lake Michigan. As the city grew 
in size, other railways were built to it be- 
cause it was large ; and now they approach 
it from the east, west, north, and south 
(Fig. 150). Thus Chicago has become a 
great railway center. 



The city is an important shipping point 
for grain, because it lies in the midst of the 
most productive grain region in the world. 

Fig. 150. — Map showing the loeatiou of Chicago aud Milwaukee 

It is also within easy reach of extensive 
coal fields, while lumber and iron ore are 
readily brought to it by boat. These facts 
have caused Chicago to have a wonderful 

growth. In the year 1840, there were but 
4470 inhabitants ; in 1870, 300,000 ; in 
1910, 2,185,283; and now it is the sec- 
ond city in size in the 
New World. It has 
long since outgrown its 
small natural harbor, 
and a much larger one 
has been made by build- 
ing long breakwaters 
out into the lake. 

Chicago is not only a 
great grain market, but 
also the ... 

(3) Meat pack- 
m O S t 1 m- iny aud related 
portant industries 

meat market in the 
world. All the grazing 
states of the West ship 
stock to this point, and 
in the city itself nearly 
a square mile is taken 
up by the Union Stock 
Yards (Fig. 151). In 
these are large sheds for 
the various kinds of 
stock, pens with high 
fences, and troughs for 
food and water (Fig. 
152). Train loads of 
cattle, hogs, and sheep 
are unloaded here every 
day. The work em- 
ploys about thirty thou- 
sand men. 

The packing houses 
send out a number of 
products. By far the 
most important is meat, 
for most of the cities of 
the East are furnished 
with fresh meat from 
Chicago and other West- 
ern cities. Both live 
cattle and fresh meat are sent in large 
quantities to Europe also. It may be 
several weeks after the meat is prepared 
for food before it reaches the table ; yet 



all this time it is kept fresh by the use of 
ice. Special refrigerator cars are built for 
the sole purpose of carrying it. 

Besides the meat that is sold fresh, a great 
deal is canned. The fat of the hog; is made 

There are many companies engaged in 
the making of iron and steel goods ; one of 
them alone, the Illinois Steel (4) other 
Company, employs ten thou- manufacturing 
sand men. An enormous amount of fur- 



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Fig. 151. — A general view of the stock yards at Chicago. 

into lard, and not a little beef fat is made 
into imitation butter, called oleomargarine. 
Many of the bones are burned and used in 
the manufacture of sugar (p. 76) ; and the 
horns and hoofs are of use in 
making gelatine and glue. 
The hides are made into shoes, 
gloves, harnesses, and other 
leather goods. Nothing is 
wasted in the packing busi- 
ness ; even the bristles of the 
hog are saved and made into 
brushes ; and the hair from 
the hides of cattle is valuable 
in making plaster. 

It is from the Western 
packing houses that the shoe 
factories of Lynn, Haverhill, 
Brockton, and other cities are 
supplied with much of their 
leather. The hides, however, 
must first be sent to tanneries. 
One of the principal places for 
tanneries is Milwaukee, which obtains 
tannic acid from the bark of the hemlock 
tree that grows in the forests of Wisconsin. 

niture is made, and the manufacture of 
farming implements is also very extensive. 
Chicago is the home of the National Har- 
vester Company, which controls the manu- 

Fig. 152. — A view of a small part of the stock yards (Fig. 151), showing 
cattle in the pens. 

facture of farming implements in most 
parts of the country. A single one of its 
plants sends out about three hundred thou- 



sand farm machines every year. The Pull- 
man Car Works made as many as ten 
thousand freight cars in one year, besides 
several hundred Pullman and passenger 
cars. As in New York (p. 63) and other 
great cities, the making of clothing is one 
of the most important industries. These 
are but a few of the kinds of manufactur- 
ing in this great city where there are thou- 
sands of factories. 

Like other very large cities, Chicago has 
much difficulty in providing transportation 
(5) Transports I01 ' tlie people of the city. 
tion and sewage Street cars are one important 
means, and many steam railways carry 

Fig. 133. 

■ A view of the elevated railway in Chicago at the point known as 
the Union Loop. 

passengers to and from the heart of the 
city. There are elevated railways (Fig. 
153), also, as in New York, and under- 
ground roads, as well. But unlike New 
York, the underground roads are used 
mainly for hauling freight. 

Another great difficulty has been the proper care 
of the sewage of the city. For a long time it was 
poured into Lake Michigan ; but as the drinking 
■water was taken from the lake, this became very 
dangerous to the health of the people. In order to 
carry it away, an immense drainage canal has been 
dug (Fig. 150), connecting Lake Michigan with the 
Illinois River, and thus setting the current toward 

the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico. This drain- 
age canal, which is wide and deep enough for boats, 
may in time develop into a ship canal. In that 
case, large ships may reach Chicago from the Gulf 
of Mexico, as they now do from the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence. What effect would this have upon the 

Chicago has an excellent system of edu- 
cation, from the lowest grades to the univer- 
sity, and hundreds of buildings 

,, • i (6) Education 

are given up to this work 
alone. The chief educational institution is 
the University of Chicago, which, although 
established as recently as 1890, now has 
more students than some of the older uni- 
versities of the East. At Evanston is 
the Northwestern University ; 
and at Champaign the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, one of the 
most progressive and rapidly 
growing of the state uni- 

Other large cities along the 
lakes are engaged in many of 
the same Indus- 3 . Milwaukee 

tries as Chicago, and Racine 

Milwaukee (Fig. 150), the 
largest city in Wisconsin, deals 
extensively in grain, lumber, 
and leather, packs much pork, 
and manufactures a great quan- 
tity of flour and machinery. 
Its tanneries and immense 
breweries have already been 
mentioned (pp. 98 and 110). 
Locate Racine, a smaller but 
important lake port. 

Detroit (Fig. 154), the largest city in 
Michigan, is also on tbe Great Lakes water 
route. The name is a French 4. Detroit and 
word for strait. Why is that Ann Arbor 
name suitable here ? All vessels going east 
or west must pass this city, and some 
railroads connecting the East and the West 
either cross the strait at Detroit or pass 
under it by a tunnel. Being at the crossing 
of important railway and steamship lines, 
Detroit has become a great shipping and 
manufacturing center. It deals in grain, 



wool, pork, and ores from the West, and 
makes iron and steel goods. 

Not far away, at Ann Arbor, is the 
University of Michigan, 
one of the largest in the 
United States. It is sup- 
ported by the state. In 
fact, state universities 
are established in most of 
the Central, Southern, 
and Western States. 
Some are located at the 
state capitals : for in- 
stance, the University of 
Ohio is at Columbus, the 
University of Wisconsin 
at Madison, and the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska at 
Lincoln. Others, like 
the universities of Il- 
linois, Missouri, and 
Michigan, are located at 
other places than the 
capital. If there is one 
in your state, where is it ? 

On the lake shore in 
Ohio the chief cities are 

5. Cleveland TOLEDO and 
and Toledo CLEVELAND 

(Fig. 154). The former 
has extensive flour mills 
and iron manufactories; 
and the latter, which is a 
much larger city, heing 
even larger than Cincin- 
nati, Detroit, or Buffalo, 
has an important trade 
in grain, lumber, and 
ore. The situation of 
Cleveland near the coal 
and petroleum fields has 
led to extensive manu- 
facturing of machinery, 
furniture, and other 
goods. Much petroleum 
is refined here, and the building of ships 
for the lake commerce is an important 

The largest city on the Principal 
rivers, corresponding to Chi- cities along 
cago on the lakes, is St. Louis, the riYers 

Fig. 154. — Map showing the location of Detroit, Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Pitts- 
burgh, and their relation to the trade routes of the Central and Middle Atlantic 

the fourth in size among our cities (Fig. 
157). It has a very favorable l. st. Louis 
position in the center of the (l) its location 



Fig. 155. — Shipping on the Great Lakes. The peculiar ship in the foreground is called a whaleback. 

Mississippi Valley, on the Mississippi 
River, near the mouths of its two largest 
tributaries. Tiie railway bridges across the 
Mississippi at this point have also had great 
influence on the growth of the city. It is 
an important shipping point both by water 
and by rail. 

Fig. 156. — A railway bridge across the Missouri River above St. Louis. 

Like Chicago, St. Louis is one of our 
leading markets for grain and live stock ; 
(2) its indus- but, being so far south, it 
tries handles Southern products also, 

especially cotton and tobacco. Besides this, 
it is a great manufacturing center. It man- 
ufactures immense quantities of tobacco, 
beer, flour, clothing, iron, steel goods, and 

is the greatest manufacturing center of boots 
and shoes in the United States. 

At one time Chicago and St. Louis were 
almost the only noted markets for grain 
and live stock in the West ; 2. St. Paul and 
but in later years several other Minneapolis 
cities have become prominent. Two of these 
are the "twin cities," 
Minneapolis and St. 
Paul (Fig. 157), both 
on the Mississippi River. 
The latter, the capital 
of Minnesota, is a trade 
center. From it the 
products of the West 
are sent east and south, 
while farm implements, 
furniture, clothing, and 
other articles are dis- 
tributed among the 
smaller towns round 

Minneapolis, only 
ten miles distant, is 
situated at the Falls 
of St. Anthony, which furnish splendid 
water power (Fig. 158). Its location in 
the midst of the wheat region, together 
with its water power, has caused Minne- 
apolis to become the leading flour-produc- 
ing center of America. In the city are 
many sawmills, grain elevators, and flour 



One of these flour mills, 
belonging to the Pillsbury- 
Washburn Company, is one 
of the largest in the world. 
Steam shovels scoop the grain 
from the trains very rapidly, 
emptying a oar of 750 bushels 
in eighteen or nineteen min- 
utes. All straw, useless seeds, 
sticks, etc., are first separated 
from the grain; then it passes 
through different machines 
until the pure flour is pro- 
duced. During this process it is 
raised to the top of the build- 
ing twelve different times, be- 
ing carried up by rapidly mov- 
ing belts having many small 
buckets, or pockets, attached. 

.Just inside the husk of a 
wheat grain is the kernel, the 
most valuable part of the 
wheat. The husk is removed 
by machinery, and sold for 
bran and shorts, and the cen- 
ter, called the heart, or germ, 
is made into breakfast food. 
The other portion is ground 
into flour, poured into sacks 
and barrels by machinery, 
and then sent sliding down 
a chute into the cars which 
stand near by. This one mill 
has ground as much as 61,000 
barrels of flour in one day. 
One year the daily output of 
five mills was about 36,000 

Smaller cities on the 
Mississippi River water- 

3. Other cities wa 7' b e ~ 

on the Missis- tween Min- 
sippi neapolis 

and St. Louis, are Wi- 
nona, in Minnesota; La 
Crosse, in Wisconsin; 
Dubuque and Davenport, in Iowa ; and 
Quincy, in Illinois. Find each. Each is 
important either for lumber, grain, or farm- 
ing implements, or for all three combined. 
The leading cities on the Missouri River 

4. Cities on are KANSAS ClTY (Fig. 157), 

and near the in western Missouri, and 
Missouri Omaha, in Nebraska. Each 

Fig. 107. — Map showing the location of St. Louis, Kansas City, Omaha, 
Minneapolis, and St. Paul. 

is surrounded by a fertile farming country, 
which produces much grain. Each is also 
a market for cattle, sheep, and horses 
raised near by and in the arid region farther 
west. Being so near the ranch country, the 
meat-packing industries in both of these 
cities are gaining rapidly each year. Note 
that there is also a Kansas City in Kansas. 



Fig. 158. — The St. Anthony Falls at Minneapolis — some of the factories are seen 

in the distance. 

On the river above Kansas City is St. 
Joseph, in Missouri ; and below it is Jef- 
ferson City, the capital of that state. 
Farther west, in Kansas, are Topeka, the 
capital, and Wichita. Southwest of Omaha 
is LINCOLN, the capital of Nebraska ; and 
across the river, in Iowa, is Council 
Bluffs, a very active trading center. 
Several cities northwest of this point are 
chiefly important as trade centers. Find 
some of them on the map. 
Locate Des Moines, the 
capital and largest city of 
Iowa. Of what advantage is 
its central position in a level 
farming country. 

In the Middle Atlantic 
States, Pittsburgh, and Wheel- 
5. Cities in the ing, on the upper 
Ohio Valley Ohio, owe their 
importance largely to coal and 
iron, and to the fact that river 
boats can reach them. Farther 
down the river is Cincinnati 
(Fig. 154), the largest river 
port in the state of Ohio, and 
a busy shipping and manu- 
facturing center (Fig. 159). 
Besides pottery (p. 107), this 
city manufactures large quan- 
tities of iron, machinery, and 
clothing. Across the river, 
in Kentucky, are Covington 

and Newport (Fig. 
154), both almost a part 
of Cincinnati, as Jersey 
City is almost a part of 
New York. 

Farther north and 
east, in Ohio, are Day- 
ton and Springfield, 
both noted for the 
manufacture of farm 
machinery. Dayton, 
like Pullman in Chi- 
cago, makes a large 
number of cars, and is 
engaged in manufactur- 
ing of many kinds. Colujibus, the capital 
of Ohio, is an important trade center, and 
manufactures many carriages and wagons. 
Why should farm machinery, carriages, and 
wagons be manufactured in so many of 
these cities? 

Down the river, below Cincinnati, is 
Louisville, the largest city in Kentucky. 
There are rapids in the Ohio at this point, 
but a canal leads around them. Besides 

Fig. 159. — River boats on the Ohio at Cincinnati. 



being a center for tobacco, like Richmond 
and St. Louis, Louisville manufactures iron 
goods, farming implements, flour, and 
leather goods. It is also a railway center. 

Evansville, the largest river port in 
Indiana, is principally engaged in the 
manufacture of flour, machinery, and leather 
goods. Indianapolis, the capital and me- 
tropolis of Indiana, is in the midst of a 
splendid farming district. Like Columbus, 
it is a railway and trade center, and handles 
much grain, lumber, furniture, and many 
farming implements. 

1. To what extent is the land level in the Central 
States? 2. What about forests and bowlders there? 
_ . 3. Describe the temperature, giving 

n . . reasons for the extremes. What is 

meant by a continental climate ? By 
an equable climate? 4. What about the rainfall? 
5. State the importance of agriculture. Describe the 
farm in central Ohio, and the farm life. 6. To what 
extent is Indian corn raised in these states ? 7. How 
is it cultivated and harvested ? 8. What are its 
uses? 9. How extensively is wheat produced, and 
in what sections ? 10. Describe wheat raising on 
the large farm mentioned. 11. What cities have 
been much influenced in growth by the wheat raised 
in the valley of the Red River of the North? Why? 
12. What fruits are grown, and where? 13. What 
vegetables? 14. Where is tobacco raised? 15. AVhat 
are the principal domestic animals raised, and where? 
16. What can you tell about the fine stock in Ken- 
tucky, and the caverns there ? 17. Name other im- 
portant farm products east of the arid lands. 18. 
What is meant by the Great Plains, and what is 
their extent ? 19. How is irrigation carried on, and 
what are the products of the irrigated farms? 
20. Tell about ranching; its extent; how it is car- 
ried on ; and a ranchman's life. 21. What is the 
extent of forests in these states, and what kind of 
trees are there ? 22. Describe the method of lumber- 
ing, and name the centers of the industry. 23. What 
about fishing in these states? 24. Where are the 
coal mines, and what is the kind of coal ? Where 
are oil and gas found ? 25. Why is gas an espe- 
cially cheap fuel ? 26. Locate the Lake Superior 
iron ore district, and tell about its importance. 
27. Why must the ore be taken elsewhere to be 
smelted, and from what ports ? 28. How is the ore 
loaded on to the vessels, and where is it taken? 
29. What are the uses of copper ? 30. Where is cop- 
per ore found? 31. How is the copper obtained 
from the ore, and where is it sent? 32. How 
have the copper mines influenced settlement ? 
33. What about building stones in these states? 

34. Name other mineral products, and tell where 
found. 35. What are the leading kinds of 
manufacturing from the agricultural products? 
36. Name the principal kinds of manufacturing 
from forest products, and the chief cities en- 
gaged in them. 37. What about the impor- 
tance of the manufactures from oil? From ores? 
38. What about manufactures from clay and lime- 
stone? 39. What conditions favor the transportation 
of goods ? 40. Name and locate the principal cities 
along the Great Lakes. 41. State the chief facts 
about Duluth and Superior. 42. Outline the history 
of the region about Chicago. State the advantages 
of the site of the city. 43. Give an account of meat 
packing and related industries there. 44. What 
other kinds of manufacturing are prominent in Chi- 
cago? 45. What means of transportation are pro- 
vided in the city? 46. How is the sewage taken 
care of? 47. What about education in this vicinity? 

48. What can you tell about Milwaukee and Racine? 

49. Detroit and Ann Arbor ? 50. Cleveland and 
Toledo ? 51. Name and locate the principal cities 
along the great rivers. 52. For what is St. Louis 
especially important? 53. St. Paul and Minneapo- 
lis? 54. Name smaller cities on the Mississippi 
River and tell of their importance. 55. Locate and 
tell what you can about the various cities along and 
near the Missouri River. 56. State the principal 
facts about the cities in the Ohio Valley. 

Ohio(0.). 1. Name the four largest cities (Appen- 
dix, pp. 427-428). State the advantages of each loca- 
tion. 2. What other cities of Ohio . 
are mentioned? For what is each J: eTle T^ 
important ? 3. Why is there much y 
manufacturing in this state ? 4. What other indus- 
tries are mentioned in the text? 5. Examine the 
maps (Figs. 249-259) in order to see what crops are 
especially important in Ohio. 6. In what ways are 
the cities of Ohio dependent upon New Orleans and 
New York? How are the latter cities dependent 
upon those in Ohio ? 7. Of what service to Cleve^ 
land and Toledo is the Erie Canal ? 8. Draw a 
sketch map of Ohio like that of Maine (p. 47). As 
you study each state, do the same. 

Indiana (Ind.). 9. Examine the maps (Figs. 249- 
259), to see what crops are produced in Indiana. 
10. What minerals are found here ? 11. Which is the 
largest city? For what noted? 12. What other 
cities are mentioned ? 13. What are the industries 
of Indiana? 14. Of what importance was the fact 
that a large part of this section was treeless when 
discovered ? 

Kentucky (Ivy.). 15. Why should this state be 
better adapted to tobacco raising than Ohio? 16. Of 
what importance is the limestone of Kentucky ? 

17. Where are most of the cities ? Why there ? 

18. What products are mentioned from Ken- 
tucky? 19. Which is the largest city? For what 



important? 20. What other cities are men- 
tioned ? 

Illinois (111.)- 21. Examine the maps (Figs. 249- 
259) to see what crops are especially important. 
22. Why is there much manufacturing in Illinois ? 
What kinds are carried on ? 23. Of what value is 
the lake to manufacturing? 24. State the reasons 
why Chicago has developed so greatly. 25. What 
other cities are mentioned in this state ? For what 
is each important? 26. Which of the four states so 
far reviewed is the largest ? Which smallest (Ap- 
pendix, pp. 425-426)? 

Michigan (Mich.). 27. What lakes does this state 
border? Of what advantage is this? 28. What 
disadvantage can you see in the fact that water 
separates the lower from the upper peninsula of 
Michigan? 29. Ice stops canal traffic in winter. 
What effect must this have? 30. Into what waters 
does this state drain ? Contrast this drainage with 
that of the other states. 31. Where are most of the 
large cities? Why there? 32. For what is each 
important? 33. Give the reasons for the location of 
Detroit? 34. What are the invportant products of 
Michigan ? 

Wisconsin (Wis.). 35. Which is the largest city 
in this state? For what important? 36. What 
other cities are mentioned in the text ? What is done 
in each? 37. Compare Wisconsin with Michigan 
in relief; in mineral products; in crops ; in the size 
of cities. 38. What effect must the lakes have upon 
the climate ? Would this influence be greater or less 
than in Michigan ? Why? 39. If there were coal 
beds in northern Wisconsin, what effect might the 
coal have upon Chicago, Cleveland, and the coal 
mining of Pennsylvania? 

Minnesota (Mian.). 40. Where does the Missis- 
sippi River rise? 41. What oceans receive the 
waters that fall upon Minnesota? Give proof. 
42. What manufacturing industries are carried on 
in this state ? 43. What crops are raised ? 44. 
Name the three largest cities, and tell how each is 
important. 45. How does the largest compare in 
size with Boston? With Cincinnati? 

Iowa (la). 46. Examine the maps (Figs. 249- 
259) to see what crops are raised in this state. 

47. What other important industries are carried on ? 

48. Name the largest cities. For what are they 
noted? 49. Much corn is raised here ; what is done 
with it? 

Missouri (Mo.). 50. Examine Figures 249-259 
to see how the crops of Missouri differ from those of 
Minnesota. Why this difference? 51. Why are so 
few large towns found in the southwestern part? 
52. Name and locate the two largest cities. For 
what is each important? 53. What other cities are 
mentioned? 54. Find the population of St. Louis; 

compare it with that of Philadelphia and Boston. 
55. Give five reasons for its great size. 

Kansas (Kan.). 56. Why are the cities in the 
eastern part? 57. What are the industries of the 
West? Why? 58. What are the leading crops in 
Kansas (Figs. 249-259)? What other industries 
are important? 59. Name the principal cities. 
For what is each noted? 

Nebraska (Neb.). 60. How do the industries of 
Nebraska compare with those of Kansas? Why? 
61. How are these states alike in regard to location 
of cities? 62. What cities in Nebraska are men- 
tioned ? 63. For what is Omaha noted ? 

North and South Dakota (N.D. and S.D.). 
64. These two states once formed the territory of 
Dakota. Suggest reasons for making two states out 
of the one territory. 65. Compare the industries of 
the two states with those of Nebraska and Kansas. 
66. Look at the corn and wheat maps (Figs. 249 and 
251) to see where most wheat and corn are produced. 
Is North Dakota more or less important than Kansas 
as a corn-producing state? Answer the same for 
wheat. Why is this so ? 67. Of what advantage 
would it be to Fargo if a deep river extended from 
that city to Duluth ? 68. How do the Black Hills 
increase the wealth of South Dakota? 

69. Which state is the largest in this group (Ap- 
pendix, pp. 425-426)? Which smallest? Compare 
each of these in area with Pennsvl- 
vania; with Texas. 70. Which of the Questions ^ 
Central States has most inhabitants " 
(Appendix, p. 425)? Which fewest? Compare each 
of these in population with New York ; with Texas. 
71. Find the largest ten cities (Appendix, p. 426). 

1. Find how much earlier in the fall frosts come 
in Minneapolis than in Memphis. 2. How do farms 
that you have seen differ from the _ Hnnq 

Ohio farm described in the text? 
3. How does the wind often help ranch cattle to ob- 
tain food in winter? 4. What are some of the ad- 
ventures that cowboys experience ? 5. Why are 
coal and brick especially valuable in a prairie coun- 
try? 6. Visit a brickyard, and write a description 
of brickmaking. 7. See how long a list you can 
make of articles manufactured partly or wholly out 
of copper. 8. Do the same with regard to lead. 
9. How are the advantages of the location of Chicago 
somewhat similar to those of Atlanta? 10. Make a 
drawing of the great water route from Duluth to 
New York City, and put in the leading cities located 
upon it. What states border on this route? 

11. Make a drawing of the Mississippi, Missouri, 
and Ohio rivers, and include the leading cities. 
What states do these rivers border or cross ? 

12. Make a sketch map of the Central States, in- 
cluding the principal lakes, rivers, and cities. 



Fie. 161. — Relief map of the Western States. 


uinta wts. — 5 / V ^-\i-^>-i Greeley J^ 

Salt Lake Crty R .(_/ .— 4 Coll.ns°T| 

*TM^« lf i - p r»Y' AusH ° oE"^a I I ^SWl'Tpie XH ^^ ^Denver 

rx ■>«!« ill rf "Emia City o ° iNeijnix K) .iu.lieasp_t_ j ^wSTu Cross , _.i. ?n. , , •< 

-NClTy Basi " E ,J - U. 

Jyco -a jj> 

LeatU/lle k 

V> 5 . —.-J" 5 


X f4.\l)'°l'>= 
p \°°Iieatty 

1)*""' *«*?<.. Las Visas / I „o oVo* 

Salida '^-^ueblo^jBUc 
0uray o CaO°£ La Ju^a°f |« 

feilvertoST ~X„ Blanco PeahT 

\ Alamosa*^ l_/ idad 

TV "Raton Xi 

kcimarrrjn \ 
,os V 

O T f Mohave? . 

n-Coicept/onlsJiz Barbi"°'""'^' Dl ' 


I ISLANDS X. * ' r /? U 

"» USan Die E i 


Soak' of Miles 

50 100 150 ZOO 250 300 
CitU* with over 300,000 SAN FRANCISCO 

C.(i« with 200.000 to 300.000 Seattle 

CitiM wiu 100.000 to 200.000 Oakland 

Cine* with 25.000 to 100,000 Butte 

5ma"'i' Pities . Tucson h 

Capital* with leu than 25,000 SANTA EH J} 

Capital* © Other; Citit* O ^ 

wniiuis (ssBtvNS cs , m.v. f 

■pa** c^t\ » 


Longituda Vitn from Gfwowich 110* 

FIG. 160. 



6- Western States 

1. Compare this group with each of the other 
groups in relief ( Fig. 4:2) ; in area, and in population 
w ot ^ (Appendix, pp. 425-426)? 2. Which 

Map Study ... ^ ]argest state? W hich the small- 

est? How does each of thess compare in size with 
Pennsylvania? With Texas? 3. What becomes 
of the water of the Humboldt River? 4. Name 
the five largest rivers. Where does each rise, through 
what states does it flow, and where does it empty? 
5. Xame the principal mountain ranges ; the plateaus 
(Fig. 4:2). 6. Where are the largest cities? Why 
there? 7. Find the Yosemite and Yellowstone 
parks. 8. Name the states having a seacoast. 

Fig. Hi2. — These powerful streams of water wash the gravel away, and the 
gold collects in the bottom of troughs or sluices. This is called hy- 
draulic miniug. 

9. Xame those states whose waters drain mainly or 
entirely into the Pacific ; into the Atlautic ; into the 
Great Basin. 

While the pioneers were settling the 
prairies of the Central States, almost noth- 
ing was known about the Far 
West. The Spanish had taken 
possession of the southern portion, and 
many of their names, such as New Mexico, 
Los Angeles, and San Francisco are still to 
be found there. The northern portion, 
called Oregon, was claimed by English- 
speaking people, and there was a great 
immigration to the Willamette valley in 

In 1848 gold was discovered in the 
l. Discovery of stream gravels of California, 
gold in Caiifor- For ages the precious metal 
"* had lain scattered through 

the rocks of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 
Then, as the mountains slowly crumbled, it 
had been washed into the streams. Being 
very heavy, it dragged along at the bottom, 
lodging here and there in the stream beds. 
It was such gold as this that was first found. 
As the discovery became known, tens of 
thousands of persons in the East left farms, 
factories, and homes in a mad 2. Effect of the 
rush for the gold fields. Some discovery 
sailed all the way around South America ; 
others crossed the Isthmus of Panama ; but 
many traveled overland, running the risk 
of attack from Indians and 
of death from thirst. There 
were then no railways west 
of the Mississippi, and the 
journey was long, tedious, and 

The discovery of gold 
quickly drew so many per- 
sons to California that the 
territory was able to enter 
the Union as a state in 1850 ; 
and, as the search for the 
precious metal was carried 
farther and farther, the entire 
West soon became explored 
and settled. Railways were 
built across the mountains (Fig. 280), and 
many industries, such as farming, lumber- 
ing, and manufacturing, have followed 
mining. Indeed, in many sections these 
industries are now much more important 
than the mining. 

The Western States are made up almost 
entirely of plateaus and motin- Surface of the 
tains. Most of the surface is country 
more than a mile above sea 1. The three 
level, while some mountain principal moun- 

, ., tain systems 

peaks are two miles or more 
in height. 

The extreme eastern portion is a part of 
the Great Plains (p. 5), which reach to 
the very base of the Rocky Mountains. 
These mountains (Fig. 42) extend entirely 
across our country, into Mexico on the 
south, and Canada on the north. They 



consist of a large number of ranges and 
ridges, which reach their greatest height in 
Colorado. A long distance farther west, 
and almost parallel with the Rockies, is an- 
other system of mountains, called the Sierra 
Nevada in California and the Cascade 
Ranges in Oregon and Washington. Still 
farther west, and close to the coast, is a 
third system known as the Coast Ranges, 
some portions of which rise directly out 
of the ocean. The highest peak in these 
mountains is Mount Whitney, in Califor- 
nia, the loftiest mountain in the United 
States proper. 

Between the Rocky Mountains and the 
Sierra Nevada-Cascade ranges, is a broad 
2. The valleys valley dotted with numerous 
between short mountain ridges, extend- 

ing north and south. There is a plateau at 
each end, and a broad basin of interior drain- 
age between, in which there are a number 
of salt lakes. It may be divided into three 
parts (Fig. 42) : (1) The great Columbia 
Plateau of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, 
on the north ; (2) the Colorado Plateau of 
Arizona and Utah, on the south ; and (3) 
the Great Basin of Utah and Nevada be- 
tween the two. The numerous short moun- 
tain ranges in the Great Basin are called 
the Basin Ranges. 

Between the Sierra Nevada-Cascade sys- 
tem and the Coast Ranges there is an area 
of lowland (Fig. 41). In California, Ore- 
gon, and Washington this forms a fertile 
valley; in Washington it is partly occu- 
pied by Puget Sound. 

Throughout much of this Western coun- 
try volcanoes were once very active (p. 4). 
3 Thovoica- Indeed, some of the loftiest 
noes, and their peaks are extinct volcanoes, 
influence Among these are Mount Rain- 

ier (also called Mount Tacoma) (Fig. 163), 
within sight of Tacoma and Seattle, 
Wash. ; Mount Hood, not far from Port- 
land, Ore. ; and Mount Shasta, in north- 
ern California. Other fine volcanic cones 
in this region are Mount Baker, Mount 
Adams, and Mount St. Helens. 

Lava covers hundreds of thousands of square 
miles in these Western States, and its decay has pro- 
duced a soil which is very fertile. The lava has 
also had an important effect upon the deposit of 
valuable minerals. Veins of gold and silver usually 
occupy cracks in the rock, caused by the breaking 

Copyright, 1906, by A. H. Barnes. 

Fig. 163. — Mount Rainier from Tacoma. This beautiful, 
snow-capped peak is 60 miles away. 

of the rock layers while the mountains were form- 
ing. Through these cracks water passes, often 
heated so hot by the buried lava that it is able to 
dissolve mineral matter and carry it along. As the 
water cools, on n earing the surface, it cannot hold 
all of this mineral in solution, and therefore deposits a 
part of it on the walls of the cracks. In this way many 
valuable veins of metal have been slowly formed, 
and it is for those that thousands of miners are 
now searching. Hot water still flows from the earth 
in many parts of the West, the section most noted 
for this being the Yellowstone Park. In this water 
there is much mineral matter in solution, and in 
some cases even small quantities of gold. 

In the East, there is little variety in the 
climate, even over large sections ; but in 
the West the variety is great. The climate 
Even in a single state there are 1. Extent of 
often great differences. Nearly arid lands 
everywhere, excepting in the Northwest and 
on the mountain slopes and plateaus, it is 
so dry that no agriculture is possible with- 
out irrigation. Almost one fifth of the 
United States is unfit for agriculture with- 
out irrigation, and most of this arid land is 
in these Western States. 

Parts of southern California, Nevada, 
Utah, and Arizona, and smaller portions of 



each of the other states, are true desert. 
Near the western shores of Great Salt Lake, 
for example, not a tree nor even a shrub is 
to be seen for miles and miles (Fig. 164). 
The entire surface is covered by a glisten- 
ins whitish substance called alkali. In 
other regions dreary wastes extend for 
hundreds of miles, broken only by a few 
cacti and other arid land plants, by rocky 
ledges, and by occasional mountain peaks. 

The scarcity of streams on the map in and 
near Nevada shows clearly the lack of water 
there. That section is a real basin, having 
a rim higher than the center, and for that 
reason it is called the Great Basin (Fig. 42). 

Fig. 164. — The desert near Great Salt Lake in Utah. 

Some of the few streams flow into shallow 
salt lakes, which are growing more and more 
salt as the years pass ; others dry up and 
disappear in the sand. 

Along the northwestern coast the damp 
west winds from the ocean bring so much 
„ _ , vapor that the rainfall is heavy. 

2. The well- 

watered sec- Indeed, along the coast of Wash- 
tion s ington the rainfall is heavier 

(l) The north- than in any other part of the 
f*""" United States (Fig. 303), the 
greatest amount falling in winter. There 
is also plenty of rain in western Oregon and 
the northern half of California. 

Being robbed of its vapor in crossing the 
mountains, the air descends on the eastern 
side quite dry ; and there agriculture with- 
out irrigation is possible in only a few sec- 

tions, as in the high mountain valleys and 
in the wheat district of central and eastern 
Washington and Oregon. 

Throughout the West the higher moun- 
tains and plateaus receive enough rain for 
crops. That this is true is (2) Ke higher 
proved by the numerous large plateaus, and 
rivers which have their sources the mountains 
there. Name and locate those flowing from 
the Rocky Mountains into the Mississippi. 
Trace the Rio Grande and its principal 
tributary, the Pecos ; also the rivers that 
empty into the Pacific Ocean. Although 
long, many of these rivers are shallow, and 
during the summer season some, like the 

Rio Grande, al- 
most disappear in 
the middle part 
of their course. 
Others, like the 
Columbia and 
Sacramento, are 
navigable in parts 
of their course. 

The importance of 
the higher plateaus 
in condensing vapor 
is well shown by the 
highlands of central 
Arizona. A person 
traveling eastward from Los Angeles, on the Atchi- 
son, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway, finds himself, 
upon reaching the Colorado River in the evening, 
in the midst of a desert about five hundred feet 
above sea level. If it is summer, the thermometer 
may register from 110° to 120° in the shade, for this 
is the hottest region in the United States; indeed, 
it is even hotter than many parts of the torrid zone. 
After leaving the river, the train slowly winds its 
way up onto the Colorado plateau, seven thousand 
feet high, and the next morning the almost unbear- 
able heat of the previous day is replaced by a delight- 
fully cool air. As if by magic the scene is changed; 
the barren wastes of sand are gone, and a green for- 
est is on all sides. This change is due to the simple 
fact that the air is cooler on the high plateau, and 
the vapor can therefore be condensed into rain, while 
there is less evaporation of the'water in the soil. 

Finally, in the desert itself are many 
oases where water for irriga- ... _ 

4. U 1 T3 ■ 1 * (3) Theoas ™ 

tion is at hand. By aid ot 



water, even the most barren land may be 
transformed to a beautiful garden (Fig. 165). 
Every one of the Western States con- 
tains mineral deposits of some 
kind, such as gold, silver, 
copper, lead, mercury, petro- 
leum, and coal. This region 
is now one of the most im- 
portant mining districts in the world. 


1. Kinds of 
minerals, and 
ownership of 
mining lands 

to get the gold out of these gravels, but 
in some places these ancient stream beds 
have been covered with a thick 2. Methods of 
layer of hard lava. Then it mining gold 
is necessary for the miners to tunnel under 
the lava in order to obtain the gold. 

The first miners obtained the gold in a very simple 
manner. Placing some of the stream ( i> "Panning" 
gravel in a pan of water, they rocked the gold 

Fig. 165. — This view, near Pasadena, California, shows the barren arid lands, in the midst of which are extensive 
orange groves, irrigated by water from the mountains. 

Much of the land is still owned by the government, 
and all ore that is discovered upon it belongs to the 
finder. Any citizen of the United States may become 
the owner of a valuable mine, if he can find one on 
government land. With such a hope, hundreds of 
prospectors are digging tunnels into the earth where- 
ever they believe they may obtain ore. In most cases 
they are doomed to disappointment ; but they keep 
trying, moving from one place to another, always 
hoping for a rich reward. Sometimes valuable ore 
is found, and then a*p oor prospector suddenly finds 
himself a rich man. 

Much gold has been discovered in the 
river gravels. In many regions it is easy 

it back and forth in such a way as to cause the 
heavier particles of gold to sink to the bottom of 
the pan, while the lighter minerals on top were 
washed out and thrown away. Most of the gold was 
in very small flakes, but sometimes the miners found 
large lumps of gold, called nuggets, worth hundreds 
of dollars. This method of washing away the gravel 
in pans was called " panning " the gold. 

Very soon the miners tired of such a slow pro- 
cess. They then invented the far more speedy plan 
of hydraulic mining. By this method (2) Hydraulic 
a large, powerful stream of water, mining 
from the nozzle of a pipe, is turned against a gravel 
bank, washing the gravel rapidly away (Fig. 162). 
The water, with the gravel and gold, then runs into 



steeply sloping troughs, or sluices, the bottoms of 
which are made rough by many cleats. The rush- 
ing water carries the gravel over these cleats to 
the end of the sluice, where it is dropped ; but the 
gold, being so heavy, settles to the bottom of the 
sluice and is caught behind the blocks. Later it is 
removed and carried away to be sold. 

In this way much gold has been obtained from 
the gravels of California and other Western States. 
For example, even the gravel out of which some of 
the streets of Helena, Mont., are built has been 
washed for gold in this way. 

The method by which most gold is now 
obtained, is to dig into the solid rock, as in 
(3) Thecommon the case of other metals. The 
method mw shafts and tunnels follow the 
veins from which the gold in the gravels 
came. In the veins, the metal is found 
mixed with other minerals which are of 
little or no value. This mixture forms 
gold ore, and there is so little gold in such 
ore, and it is in such small grains, that one 
may spend days in a mine looking for it 
without seeing any. The gold ore, like 
other ores already studied, must be crushed 
and melted before the gold itself can be 

One of the most remarkable gold-min- 
ing districts in the world is that of the Com- 

3. Noted rain- stock Lode at VIRGINIA ClTY, 

ing districts Nev. The vein is irregular 
(1) In Nevada ln richness, some parts, called 
"bonanzas," containing much gold and 
silver, while elsewhere it is quite barren. 
So much metal has been obtained from 
this single vein that Nevada at one time 
produced more silver than all the other 
states put together, and more gold than 
any other state in the Union. So many 
people moved there then that Nevada terri- 
tory became a state in 1864 ; and Virginia 
City, though in the midst of a desert, grew 
to be a thriving city. 

As the mines went deeper, hot water, with a tem- 
perature of 170 °, poured in and caused the tempera- 
ture in the mines to be almost unbearable. Ice-cold 
air was forced in, and machinery and mules were 
made to do most of the work ; but even then men 
fainted at their posts. Partly because of the diffi- 
culty of mining, and partly because of the failure to 

discover new bonanzas, some of the mines were 
abandoned and people -drifted away, so that for a 
while the population of Nevada decreased. 

With the discovery of many rich new 
mining fields, and the re-opening of old 
mines, new towns have sprung up, and 
Nevada is again the center of great min- 
ing activity and one of our most important 
mining states. It is one of the leading 
states in the production of gold and silver. 
Toxopah, Goldfield, and Bullfrog are 
important and rapidly growing mining 
towns. These and other cities are now 
more important than Virginia City. 

At present Colorado produces more gold 
than any other state (Fig. 272), and it 
ranks fourth in the production 
of silver. In addition to these 
metals, Colorado produces much copper, 
lead, and iron. Among the mountains, one 
sees many mines (Fig. 166) ; but one of 
the most noted mining districts is near 
Leadville, a city at an elevation of over 
ten thousand feet above the sea. Gold, 
silver, and lead are mined in this locality. 

Another well-known mining camp in 
Colorado is Cripple Creek. A few years 
ago there was no town here, and the gold 
ore, which later proved so valuable, was 
not recognized as ore by the prospectors. 
Finally, when some one discovered the 
gold, thousands of people rushed in from 
all directions, and a city sprang up almost 
in a day. This has been true in many 
other places. Sometimes the cities have 
continued to grow, but if the mines have 
given out, the mining centers have been 
abandoned almost as rapidly as they grew. 

Iron is found in several of the Western 
States, but as yet it is not mined to a great 
extent except west of Pueblo, in Colorado. 

The western half of Montana is another 
noted mining section, and this state is now 
second in the production of 
silver and copper, while it also 
supplies much lead, gold, coal, and other 
mineral products, including precious stones. 
Helena has already been mentioned 

(3) In Montana 



(p. 123), but no portion of the state is now 

so important for mining as the region in 

and near Butte (Fig. 182). There the 

principal metal is copper, although some 

gold and silver are mixed with the ore. 

More copper has been produced 

at the Butte mines than in any 

other mining district in the 

world. The mines are very 

extensive, reaching several 

thousand feet into the earth, 

and having tunnels through 

which one might wander for 

days without finding his way 


The mining industry of 
Arizona is also very impor- 
(4) in other tant, much COp- 
Western States p er , silver, lead, 
and gold being produced. Ari- 
zona now ranks first among 
the states of the Union in the 
production of copper. One 
of the largest cities in the ter- 
ritory is Tucson (Fig. 167). 
Another large city is Bisbee, the center of 
a noted copper mining region and rivaling 
Butte, Montana. There is much smelting 
at Douglas, and all these cities, as well as 
Phcenix, are trade centers for neighbor- 
ing mines and irrigated farms. 

There is much mining, especially of gold, 
silver, copper, and lead, in each of the 

other Western States. California ranks 
second among our states in the production 
of gold, Utah third in silver and lead, 
and Idaho second in lead and fifth in sil- 
ver. The Coaur d'Alene mining district 

Fig. 166. — A view in the mining district of Victor, Colorado. There are 
mines beneath these buildings, and the waste rock removed from the 
tunnels form huge banks near them. 

of northern Idaho is the most important 
silver-lead district in the county. Spo- 
kane, in Washington, is the trade center 
for this noted mining region, which has 
had much to do with the remarkable and re- 
cent growth of this city. In addition to 
the metals mentioned, these states, as well 
as Wyoming and New Mexico, produce 

Fig. 167. — Tucson, Arizona, which owes much of its prosperity to the rich mines in the neighboring mountains. 



large quantities of other valuable miner- 
als. There are many important mining 
towns and mining camps in each of these 

Coal, some of it of excellent quality, 
occurs in man}' sections of the West, being 
4 Coal petro- mined in almost all these states. 
leum, and other Colorado produces more than 
minerals an y otner Western state, rank- 

ing seventh among the states of the country 
in this production. But other Western 
States produce considerable amounts: among 
these Wyoming and Washington are next 
in importance to Colorado. Nearly every 
one of the Western States has coal beds 
which are bound to be of great value in the 

Petroleum is another valuable product in 
the West. Enormous quantities have been 
found in California, and that state now 
produces more than any other in the 
Union. So much is produced, in fact, that 
it is used on railway engines, in place of 

There are many other mineral products 
in the Western States, including building 
stones and semi-precious stones, which are 
obtained in California, Arizona, Colorado, 
Utah, Nevada, and other states. 

Mining gives rise to much lumbering in 
many parts of the West. The Butte mines 
alone consume millions of feet 
of lumber per year. In the 
ii -I i mines heavy, upright timbers 

are placed together, on each 
side of a tunnel, to prevent the rock from 
caving in. Because of the great pressure 
upon them, timbers more than a foot 
through are often broken. 

While a great portion of the Western 
country is arid, the mountains and some 
2. Where it is °^ * ne higher plateaus bear 
obtained; also extensive forests. Thus the 

kinds of trees mineS) wh ; ch are usually 

among the high mountains, are generally 
supplied with little difficulty ; for the logs 
are easily brought down to them. 

The most noted lumber region, however, 


1. The special 


is on and near the western coast from cen- 
tral California northward. Here, in the 
damp, equable climate, the giant redwood, 
fir, cedar, and spruce trees grow to great 
size, the redwood being confined to Cali- 
fornia, where there are extensive forests 
of these big trees (Fig. 198). There are 
immense forests of giant trees all the way 
from central California to Canada. While 
the logs in Maine and Michigan are rarely 
more than two or three feet through, many 
in Washington and Oregon are from six to 
fifteen feet in diameter, and some in Cali- 
fornia are very much larger. 

A visit to a lumbering camp in "western Wash- 
ington will show that, owing to the size of the trees, 
and to the climate, the work is car- 

3. Method of 

ried on very differently from lum- 
bering in Maine (p. 33). The men 
are able to work both winter and summer. They 
select a tree, which perhaps towers upward for two 
hundred feet, that is, higher than most church 
steeples. Two men saw and chop at this tree until 
the giant begins to quiver, and when Anally it falls, a 
wonderful sight may be seen. The tree bends slowly 
over, quickens its movement, then falls to the ground 
with a mighty crash, breaking good-sized trees in its 
way, as if they were twigs. 

After the branches are cut off, the tree is sawed 
into sections of different lengths (Fig. 168), as 
twenty-four, thirty-two, or forty-eight feet, and these 
are dragged to a railway which leads up into the 
forest. There the logs are piled upon flat cars and 
taken to the mills, a single section sometimes occu- 
pying an entire car (Fig. 169). From five to fif- 
teen thousand feet of lumber, or enough to build a 
small house, may be obtained from a single large 
tree (Fig. 170). 

Many of the logs go to Tacoma and Seat- 
tle, where there are enormous sawmills. 
There is such an abundance 4 what is done 
of wood that in some places with the logs 
thick planks are used for pav- and lumber 
ing the streets ; and wood is burned as a 
fuel in locomotives, and in the lumber mills. 
Such enormous quantities of lumber are 
obtained from these forests, and so cheaply, 
that it is sent even as far as the Atlantic 
coast. The Northwest is now one of the 
greatest lumbering regions in the country, 
and all the cities there have some share in 



the industry. Much lumber is sent away 
by boat from Portland and Astoria, 
but even more goes from the cities of 
Puget Sound. Besides Tacoma and 
Seattle, Everett and Bellingham are 
noted for their lumber industry. With so 

of timber will be preserved for use in the 
future ; for it is hardly fair that we should 
leave no timber for those who come after us. 
In addition, the forests are of value in pre- 
venting the rapid running off of the water 
in streams ; thus they help to regulate the 

Fig. 16S. — Lumbermen at work in the forest of Western Washington. 

for drawing logs. 

Note in the foreground the donkey engine used 

much lumber it is natural that there should 
be extensive manufacture of shingles, doors, 
and other wooden articles. 

A great deal of the forest of the West is 
on government land, and to prevent it from 
5. Forest res- being wasted, our government 
ervations h as se t apart what are called 

forest reserves (Fig. 265). That is, the for- 
est is kept, or reserved, by the government, 
so that no one can cut down the trees 
without permission. In this way a supply 

supply of water for manufacturing, irriga- 
tion, and other purposes. 

Although there are few fishing banks 
along the western coast of the United States, 
there are some on which valua- 
blefood fish are found. Other 
kinds of fish are caught along the coast, or 
are found swimming in the surface waters; 
and the oyster thrives in the shallow waters 
at the head of Puget Sound. 

Lanje numbers of cod and halibut are 




js**zz~*^ '—^:: r '^ 

Fig. lbU. 

• A train drawing lumber out of the forest of western Washington. Each section of a log occupies an 
entire car, and all the logs in the picture are parts of a single tree. 

caught on the hanks and along the shores of 
British Columbia and Alaska, and many ves- 
sels go there, especially from Seattle. Not 
all the fish that are caught are eaten 
by the Western people ; some 
are shipped to other parts 
of the country, even to 
Eastern cities. Fresh / 
halibut, kept on ice /^ 
in refrigerator cars, &~ 
are sent from ISt 
Seattle to many 
places in the 

The most im- 
portant fishing 
industry, how- 
ever, is that 

This fish, like the 
shad of the East 
(p. 51), spends most 
of its life in the oeean, 
but passes up the rivers 
to spawn, or lay its eggs, 
in fresh water. As they 
are going toward and up 
the rivers, the salmon are 
caught in great numbers, 
and some are shipped away 
in ice, even across the con- 
tinent. Others are sent to the numerous 
canning factories at Astokia and other 


1. In the North- 
west and Cali- 



This is 


Fig. 170. — The end of a log cut 
from the forest of western 
Washington. You can see how 
large it is by the men standing 
in front of it. 

points along the lower Columbia, and to Bel- 
LINGHAM and other points on Puget Sound, 
where they are packed in cans (Fig. 171). 
There is extensive farming in 
Washington and Oregon, east 
„ of the Cascade 
Ranges, one of 
the finest 

in the 
a noted 
(Fig. 172), like 
the valley of 
the Red River 
of the North, 
and some of the 
farms are even 
larger than the one 
described on page 97. 
Mile after mile, in Ore- 
gon and Washington, are 
fields of waving grain, which, 
because of the very fertile soil, yield 
enormous crops. Hay, barley, corn, 
oats, fruits, vegetables, and farm 
animals are also raised. During 
the harvest season the air in most 
sections is so dry that both grain 
and hay may be left out of doors! 
weeks with little danger of being 


spoiled by rain. Walla Walla, Wash- 



-Interior of a salmon cannery on the Columbia River. A salmon hangs from the roof ; 
thousands of cans of salmon piled up on the floor. 

and there are 

ington, Lewistox, Idaho, and Pendleton, 
Oregon, are situated in this great wheat 

Near the eastern base of the Cascade 
Ranges the climate is so dry that irrigation 
is necessary and there, as in the Yakima 
Valley, is found a wonderful fruit country. 
On the western side of the Cascade Ranges 
there is abundant rainfall and there fruit, 
vegetables, and grains, as well as hops, are 
extensively produced. The entire Pacific 
coast region, from Canada to Mexico, is 

famous for its excellent fruit. In the north 
berries, apples, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, 
and other fruits are produced ; but in the 
south, in the Great Valley of California 
(p. 120), besides these fruits there are groves 
of oranges, lemons, olives, and figs, as well 
as other trees which thrive only in warm 
climates. Sacramento, Stockton, and 
Fresno are the leading cities of the Great 
Valley, which, throughout its whole length, 
is occupied by a succession of wheatfields, 
vine3 r ards, orchards, and nut and fruit 

Fig. 172. — Cutting wheat in the fertile farming district of central Washington. By these machines the wheat is cut, 

threshed, aud sacked all ready for shipping. 



Fig. 173. — An irrigating ditch near Denver. The water is led from a river, and by it the land, otherwise useless for 

agriculture, is made to yield rich harvests. 

groves; but in the central and southern 
portions, where the rainfall is light, irriga- 
tion is provided as described in a later sec- 
tion. California fresh fruit is shipped in 
enormous quantities to Eastern cities, while 

Fig. 174. — A farmer irrigating his field. The water from 
ditch is allowed to run along the furrows and thus wet 
have just been planted. 

dried and canned California fruits are to be 
found in most of our grocery stores. 

There are a few other, smaller sections 
where the rainfall is sufficient for agricul- 

ture ; but the only way in which farming 
is possible in most other parts of the West 
is by means of irrigation. 

The influence of irrigation is well illus- 
trated in the region near Denver, which 

lies in the midst of an arid 

plain. This plain 

is crossed, how- "" 

ana Wyoming, 
ever, by the by irrigation 

South Fork of (1) Hoioirriga- 

the Platte River, tUm is P l «^d 

near Denver 

from which a 
ditch, as large as a canal, is 
led out upon the plain (Fig. 
173). The river itself has a 
rapid fall, but just enough 
slope has been given the ditcli 
to allow the water to flow. 
Thus the ditch soon runs on a 
higher level than the river, 
and the land between it and 
the river is lower than the 

Water from the ditch may 
then be led out over these 
fields to irrigate them. For this purpose 
ditches branch off from the main canal, 
and each of these is divided and subdivided 
to supply farms along its course. When 

the irrigating 
the seeds that 



a field needs water, one of the smaller 
ditches is tapped and the field is flooded ; or 
else the water is led into little furrows a few 
feet apart (Fig. 174). The method followed 
depends upon the kind of crop that is under 
cultivation. As there is danger that the sup- 
ply of water may not last through the sum- 
mer, reservoirs are built to store the water 
of the spring freshets ; > and when needed, 
this is allowed to flow into the ditches. 

alfalfa. The latter, like clover and hay, is 
fed to stock. It is one of the most impor- 
tant crops of the arid regions, where there is 
much demand for fodder for cattle, hogs, 
sheep, and horses. 

Without irrigation, crops could not be 
grown in this vicinity. It would then be 
necessary to bring farm products from Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, and other states, a distance 
of several hundred miles. It is evident, 

Fig. 175. — An orange grove in southern California on land which not many years ago supported only the sparse 

vegetation of an arid, climate. 

Of course such an arrangement is expen- 
sive, and each farmer must pay for his water 
_. „ . at a certain rate, as each tenant 

(2) Expense of . . . ., - 

such irrigation, of a house in a city pays tor 
and its advaiv- his water or gas. That a 
tages farmer can afford to pay for 

water, however, is well shown in this case ; 
for on the upper side of the ditch, which 
cannot be reached by the water, the land is 
fit only for grazing, while on the lower side 
there are rich fields of grain, vegetables, and 

therefore, that irrigation must have had a 
great influence on the settlement of the 
West. Without it Denver and Pueblo 
would not be so important as they are ; and, 
because of the expense of carrying food so 
far, scores of mining towns would not exist. 
Wherever the waters of the rivers are led 
out over the fields, people form settlements, 
and even towns and small cities. That 
is the case at Greeley, in Colorado 
Cheyenne and Laramie, the principal 




cities in Wyoming ; and scores of other 

One of the best farming districts in the 
arid lands is in Utah. A large part of that 
3. in Utah, by state was once a desert. But 
irrigation extensive areas have been en- 

tirely changed by the Mormons, a religious 
sect founded in New York, in 1830, by 
Joseph Smith. 

Under the leadership of Brigham Young 
these people migrated into the then un- 
known West and settled a few miles from 
Great Salt Lake. Here they commenced to 
build Salt Lake City, which is now one 
of the most beautiful cities in the country. 
They also began to raise crops by irriga- 
tion, and to plant fruit trees, and thus con- 
verted portions of the desert waste into 
beautiful gardens. 

There are now in Utah many who do 
not accept the Mormon religion. Agri- 
culture is no longer the sole industry. 
As you have already learned (p. 124), 
many rich mines have been opened in this 
stale. There are numerous busy towns 
and cities, the one next to Salt Lake City 
in size being Ogden, which lies north of 
the capital. 

Central and southern California is a third 
section noted for its extensive irrigation. 
The region is far south, and 
its shores are bathed by warm 
ocean waters, so that the cli- 
mate is delightful. But the 
land, although very fertile, is 
method of irri- arid by nature, and in places 
almost a desert (Fig. 165). 
Vapor condenses on the mountains, how- 
ever, and forms streams whose water is 
stored in immense reservoirs and led into 
long irrigating ditches. Other irrigating 
ditches are supplied with water from wells. 
The bringing of water to the parched soil 
has changed even the desert parts of this 
region into one of the garden spots of the 
world. The rainfall increases toward the 
north, and irrigation becomes less and less 
necessary as one goes northward. Thus 

4. In central 
and southern 
California, by 

(1) The climate 
here, and the 

there is every gradation in California, 
from farms, orchards, and vineyards that 
could not exist without irrigation, to 
those, already described, which require no 

Oranges, lemons, peaches, pears, grapes, 
figs, olives, walnuts, almonds, and many 
other kinds of fruits and nuts, 
now grow here in abundance. 
Among the fruits the most common is the 
seedless navel orange. In these beauti- 
ful valleys nearly every home has its orange 
trees, and in many cases the house is entirely 
surrounded by them (Fig. 175). 

Thousands of persons from the East were 
first attracted to California by the mild and 

(2j The products 

Fig. 170. — An orange tree in southern California. Notice 
the snow on the mountain only a few niiles away. 

healthful climate ; then, seeing the oppor- 
tunity for fruit raising, they planted orchards 
and orange groves. In those valleys which 
are too cool for oranges, thousands of acres 
are devoted to other fruits, such as prunes, 
apricots, grapes, rjears, and apples. Land 
that a few years ago was worth, at best, 
only a few dollars an acre, now supports 
flourishing groves of fruit. 

The groves of all kinds are planted in 



straight rows, and the ground 
is kept so clean by frequent 

(3) Care of the plowing that 
fruit, and what scarcely a weed is 

is done with it tQ be geen> j n 

this respect the groves present 
a very different appearance 
from the orchards, overgrown 
with grass and weeds, that are 
often seen upon farms of the 

The winter season is the har- 
vest time for oranges, which are 
picked from about the middle 
of November until February 
or later (Fig. 176). They 
are cut from the trees, sorted 
according to size, then packed 
in boxes and shipped away. 

Immense quantities of peaches, prunes, 
apricots, grapes, figs, and other fruits are 
dried, usually by exposure to the sun. In 
the Eastern States fruit would soon decay 
if left out of doors, but in the sunny cli- 
mate of the arid lands it dries quickly. 
Much fruit is also canned, and many grapes 
are made into wine. California wine is of 
such high quality that it is sent not only 
to the East, but even to Europe. 

The value of irrigation is well shown 
here. Before irrigation was introduced 
into southern California, this region could 

Fig. 178. — Desert land in the Yakima Valley which only a few years ago 
was covered with sagebrush like that in Figure 177. Now, being reached 
by an irrigation ditch, it supports a flourishing young peach and apple 
orchard and is worth $1000 au acre. 

Fig. 177. — Desert land in the Yakima Valley, covered with the worthless 
sagebrush. Such land without irrigation is of almost no value ; but 
compare this picture with Figure 178. 

support very few people. Now, in Los 
Angeles and vicinity, there is a population 
of over three hundred thousand. 

The description of these few places serves to show 

the importance of irrigation in the West. It is not 

to be understood, however, that these 

are the only noted irrigated sections, ' . ° c 

t L tvt i t gated sections 

lor there are many others. Most ol 

the largest and best known are along the large riv- 
ers. For example, irrigation is extensive along the 
Yellowstone and Missouri rivers and their tributa- 
ries in Montana; along the Snake River and its 
tributaries in Idaho; along the Yakima River (Figs. 
177 and 178), and other streams tributary to the 
Columbia River in Washington, 
Oregon, and Idaho ; along the Gila 
and Salt rivers in Arizona; along 
the Rio Grande and Pecos rivers in 
New Mexico ; and along the Sacra- 
mento, San Joaquin and other rivers 
in California. The map (Fig. 258) 
shows that there are many irrigated 

The irrigation of Arizona deserves | 
especial mention, partly because of 
the extensive irrigation works that . 
the government has constructed 
there, and partly because of the 
climate. One of the greatest irriga- 
tion works undertaken is the Roose- 
velt dam in the Salt River, which 
will supply water for a large area 
near Phcenix. The climate near 



this city and Tucson is such that even semi-tropical 
fruits are produced. Here are raised oranges, 
lemons, grape fruit, figs, olives, pomegranates, and 
even dates. The warm, dry climate also makes this 
region an important health resort. 

So important is irrigation that it is being 
introduced wherever possible, and every 

6. Government y eai " new irrigation systems 
work in irriga- are being built, some of them 
at great expense. Since much 
of the arid region is public land, the 
United States government is aiding in this 
work. There is, in fact, a special depart- 
ment of the government in charge of it, 

Fio. 170. — A masonry dam built by the United States government, forming a 
large lake in which water is stored for use in irrigation during the summer. 

and every year millions of dollars are 
being spent in this way. 

Enormous dams are built (Fig. 179), 
forming large lakes in the mountain val- 
leys, and these are filled in spring when the 
snow melts. Then, in summer, when the 
crops need water, it is let out of the reser- 
voirs into the irrigation canals. In this 
way the amount of farm land in the arid 
West is being greatly increased. This is 
one of the most important works in which 
our government is engaged. 

There is so little rainfall in the arid 
portion of the West that only a small part 
of the land can be irrigated. 7. Ranching 
This leaves most of the coun- (i) Kinds of 
try for grazing; and wherever animals raised 
there is water enough for tbe animals to 
drink, cattle, horse, and sheep ranches are 
found. In some parts, especially where 
the grass is scanty, herds of goats are 

The manner in which cattle ranching is 
carried on in Dakota was de- (2) 1Iow sheep 

scribed On pages 99-101, and ranching is car- 

much the same plan is followed ried on 

for cattle and horses in all the 
Western States. Sheep ranch- 
ing is somewhat different, as 
may be seen from the ranches 
about Billings, Mont. 

A good-sized sheep ranch has 
from twenty-five thousand to forty 
thousand head of sheep. These, 
like cattle, may feed partly upon 
government land, or the " range," 
and partly on land fenced in and 
owned by the ranchman. During 
the coldest winter weather, when 
the snow may be so deep that the 
sheep cannot obtain food, they are 
often driven into protected corrals 
and fed on alfalfa. The fierce 
winds of the open plains help them, 
however, by drifting the snow and 
thus leaving open patches where 
they can find grass. 

When the sheep are feeding on 
the range, one man, with a dog 
(Fig. 180), can herd twenty-five 
hundred ; and if he has a horse to 
ride, he sometimes takes care of five thousand. 
Selecting a spot near water for a camp, the herder 
drives his sheep out each morning, and back 
at night, going each day a distance of two or 
three miles from camp. When the grass is 
eaten in one place, the camp is moved; then, 
from, the new point as a center, they wander out 
as before. 

The life of the herder is extremely lonely, both 
day and night being spent with the sheep. Once a 
week a man brings him food; and for weeks, and 
even months at a time, the only company he has, 
aside from his sheep, is his dog, and possibly his 



After the winter is over, the first income 
to the ranchman comes from the sale of the 
(3) Sources skins, or pelts, of sheep which 
of profit have died during the cold 

weather. He expects to lose about one 
sheep in twenty each year from this cause. 

The next harvest comes from the wool 
(Fig. 181). Men who make it their busi- 
ness to shear sheep travel in squads of 
about twenty-five. They erect sheds and 

bales and shipped to various markets in the 
East. Where should you think it might 
be sent, and for what purposes used? 

From July on, many sheep are sold for 
mutton. Those that are from three to five 
years old, and that have already borne a 
quantity of wool, are usually selected for this 
purpose. The hides are useful for leather 
and the bones for fertilizing the soil. 

A newly settled country has little manu- 

Fig. 180. — A Montana sheep herder with his dogs and his flock. 

pens near some sheep center, such as Bil- 
lings, and shear all the sheep that are 
brought to them. Sometimes sheep are 
sheared at the ranch, but many ranchmen 
prefer to drive them near to a market, 
before they are sheared. This saves the 
expense of hauling the wool to the rail- 
way station, and besides, the sheep graze 
on the way to and from the market. 

In the Southwestern States sheep are 
often sheared twice a year; but farther 
north it is done only once, and then as near 
the month of June as possible. Can you 
suggest a reason for choosing that time ? 
After the wool is cut, it is pressed into 

facturing. Consequently many manufac- 
tured articles that are needed Manufacturing 
in the West must still be i. Extent of the 
brought from the East. As manufacturing 
in the Southern States, however, rapid 
changes have been going on, and the West 
is fast becoming an important manufactur- 
ing region. Already in some parts, as in 
Colorado and on the Pacific coast, there is 
a great deal of manufacturing. 

There is every reason for believing that 
this progress will continue; for the West 
has great resources, including immense de- 
posits of coal and petroleum for fuel, as 
well as abundant water power. Further 



more, the demand for manufactured articles 
is increasing, because many people are set- 
tling in this section. 

Fig. 181.— Shearing sheep in Montana. The men hold the 
Sheep and the wool is clipped oft hy machinery. There 
is a great pile of this wool along the middle of the 

One of the most extensive kinds of manu- 
facturing in the West consists in separating 
2. Principal the metal from the ores. After 
kinds the ore is taken 

from the mines, it must usu- 
ally be crushed, the worthless 
parts must be washed out, 
and the remainder sent to 
the • smelters (Fig. 182), 
where the metal is extracted 
by a difficult process. The 
machinery for crushing and 
smelting is so expensive that 
ores from many mines are 
sent to one place, and must 
sometimes be carried a lone 
distance. For example, the 
mines near Leadville send 
their ore to that city, but 
many mines in Colorado ship 
ore to the smelters at Denver and Pueblo. 

All the ores must be treated in some such 
way. Thus the crushing and smelting of 
ore is an important industry in many of the 

Western cities. The metals thus obtained 
are also manufactured into various articles 
in the larger cities. 

The manufacture of lumber and articles 
made of wood, such as paper, furniture, and 
farm implements, is already extensive in 
some places, and is rajndly increasing. 

As we have seen, the West is, to a large 
extent, a fruit and wheat region. On that 
account the canning and drying of fruits, 
and the making of flour and other products 
from wheat, are very important industries. 
The abundance of fish gives rise to the 
canning industry in certain places, and the 
great numbers of cattle and sheep supply 
hides and wool not only for shipment to 
Eastern factories, but also for manufacture 
in the West. 

The development of manufacturing in the 
West has been made possible largely by the 
building of railroads (Fig. Transporta- 
183). There is a remarkably tion of goods 
large number of railroads here, considering 
the difficulty of building them and the recent 
settlement of the country. On Figure 280 
observe that each of the great cities on the 
coast is connected by rail, not only with the 



*■ ™ 



sL^ * * 

Fig. 182. — Mines in Butte, Montana, where copper is obtained 
from the ore. 

others, but also with the East by one or more 
transcontinental railways. Count the rail- 
roads that cross the Western States, and learn 
their names. When the Union Pacific, the 



first of these, was completed, in 1869, it was 
thought to be a wonderful work, and of enor- 
mous importance ; but now that there are so 
many railroads, people are inclined to over- 
look their great value. 

Railroads are of especial value in the 
interior of the West, where there is very- 
little opportunity for transportation by 
water. The scarcity of navigable streams 
is partly due to the fact that the rivers are 
few and shallow, and partly to the fact that 
many of them descend rapidly to the sea, 
and therefore have rapids and falls that pre- 
vent navigation. Notable exceptions are the 
lower Sacramento and the Columbia, on which 
rivers boats carry an extensive commerce. 

Although harbors are not numerous, 
there are several excellent ones, sufficient 
to carry on traffic with all parts of the 
world. The importance of these ports has 
been greatly increased since the opening 
of the Panama Canal. Can you explain 
why ? 

Large inland cities in the Western States 
are few in number, partly because there 
Leading cities are no important waterways, 
in the interior There are, however, so many 
railways that some large cities have devel- 

Fig. 184. — Pike's Peak from the Garden of the Gods, near Colorado Springs. 

Fig. 183. — A railroad in one of the canyons in the 
Rocky Mountains of Colorado. 

oped, especially at the junction of important 
trunk lines. 

The greatest of the interior cities is 
Denver, the capital of Colorado. This 
city is located on the site of a i. Denver ana 

Small mining camp, but its Colorado Springs 

growth is chiefly due to two 
facts: (1) the numerous min- 
ing towns among the moun- 
tains near by; and (2) the 
near presence of water, which 
has made irrigation on a large 
scale possible (p. 129). The 
first fact calls for an impor- 
tant trade and manufactur- 
ing center somewhere in that 
region, and the second makes 
it possible to secure food. 

Denver has now become a 
very important railway and 
manufacturing center, where 
ore is smelted, and machin- 
ery, flour, and cloth manu- 
factured. It is also of im- 
portance as a health resort, 
for the altitude of over five 



thousand feet and the dry climate are 
especially favorable to persons suffering 
from diseases of the lungs. Colorado 
Springs, south of Denver, at the base of 

Pike's Peak (Fig. 181), is one of the lead- 
ing health resorts in the country. 

Pueblo, a trade and manufacturing 
center, is situated south of Denver, where 
the Santa Fe line meets the 
Denver and Rio Grande Rail- 

2. Pueblo 

ated on the Spokane River at a point where 
there is a large waterfall (Fig. 186). This 
supplies abundant water power, 
so that there is much manu- 
facturing. Since the city lies 
in the midst of the fertile 
wheat region of eastern Wash- 
ington, flour milling is of 
special importance, as at Min- 
neapolis. From the forests 
of Idaho it receives lumber, 
and, as already mentioned, it 
has been greatly benefited by 
the rich mines of the near- 
by Cceur d'Alene district. 
Spokane is also an important 
railway center and distribut- 
ing point for a wide area of 
country. It has grown very 
rapidly, and is now second in 
size among the interior cities. 
Two other cities in the interior of Wash- 
ington are Walla Walla in the southeast 
and North Yakima in the Yakima Valley. 

Some of the ore mined at 
Butte (Fig. 182) is crushed L£»d^t 
and reduced in smelters Falls 


Fig. lSti — The fall iu Spokane River at Spokaue, Washington. 

way. Here much ore is smelted, and iron 
goods are manufactured (Fig. 185). It is 
the nearness to coal and iron ore which 
makes the latter industry possible. 

Spokane, in eastern Washington, is situ- 

within the city limits. But most of it 
is sent to the smelters at Anaconda, 
and many of the Montana ores go to the 
smelters at Great Falls. In the process 
of smelting, fumes of sulphur pour forth 



from the tall chimneys and settle to the 
ground, killing almost all vegetation, and 
causing the country round about to appear 
barren and desolate. In 
spite of their appearance, 
however, these smelting 
centers are thriving and 
rapidly growing. 

Several other interior 
cities, such as Salt Lake 

5. Other cities ClTY and 
and towns in OgDEN, have 

the interior a i rea dy been 
mentioned (page 131). 
Find others on the map. 
Most of these owe their 
importance chiefly to 
mining, farming by irri- 
gation, and grazing. 
Name the capitals of the 
Western States. Which 
of these have been 
mentioned, and in what 
connection? Locate 
Boise, the capital of 
Idaho, a city in the 
midst of a fertile irriga- 
tion district. 

The largest city in the 
Western States is San 

and the center of large manufacturing and 
ship-building industries. Close to it is 
Berkeley (Fig. 187), the seat of the Uni- 

Leading cities 
on the coast 

1 . San Fran- 
cisco and cities 
near by 

(1) Names and 
locations of 
these cities 

(Fig. 187), 

located on a 


fine harbor, 

at the tip of 

the penin- 
sula that shuts in the 
waters of San Francisco 
Bay. This harbor, like 
that of New York, was 
formed by the sinking of 
the coast. There are 
other important cities 
near San Francisco, the largest being Oak- 
land, Berkeley, and Alameda. The for- 
mer, which is much the larger, is the land 
terminus of several transcontinental railways 


187. — Map to show the location of San Francisco, Portland, Tacoroa, 
and Seattle. 

versity of California; and farther south is 
Stanford University. These are two of the 
most important universities in the West. 
There are others of note, however, for each 



of the Western States supports a state uni- 

South of San Francisco is San Jose ; 
northeast of San Francisco, on the Sacra- 
mento River, is Sacramento, the capital of 
California; and east of San Francisco is 
Stockton, at the head of navigation on the 
San Joaquin River. Trace these rivers, and 
observe the extent of the fertile Great 
Valley through which they flow. 

leura is still another important industry, 
and brewing, distilling, and the manufacture 
of boots, shoes, and clothing are others. 
San Francisco, being by far the largest of 
the cities in this vicinity, leads in these 

Not much coal is mined in California, 
but, since this state produces more petroleum 
than any other in the Union, .there is an 
abundance of oil for fuel. Coal is easily 

Fig. 188. — The Golden Gate, as the entrance to San Francisco Bay is called. Outside is the open ocean, while within is 
a broad, deep bay, protected from winds and waves and making a port where the largest ships may safely anchor. 

The enormous crops of wheat, fruit, and 
wool in the Great Valley of California 
(2) Their suggest some of the occupa- 

manufactures tions in these cities. Among 
them are the canning of fruit, the milling 
of flour, and making of wine, and also of 

The mineral products in this region have 
led to much smelting, and to the manufac- 
ture of metal goods of various kinds. In 
and near San Francisco foundries and 
machine shops are numerous, and ship- 
building is a great industry. One of our 
best-known battleships, the Oregon, was 
built here. 

Sugar refining is another prominent indus- 
try, the raw sugar being brought from the 
Hawaiian Islands. The refining of petro- 

brought by train and boat from the Wash- 
ington coal fields, and in the mountains 
there is an abundance of water power that 
can be used in generating electricity. 

San Francisco Bay (Fig. 188) is the only 
gap in the Coast Ranges for hundreds of 
miles, either to the north or (3) Their 
the south; and since it is one shipping 
of the finest harbors in the world, it is very 
important as the outlet to the Great Val- 
ley and the mining regions round about it. 
The principal products shipped from here 
are gold, silver, wine, fruit, wool, grain, 
and the various manufactured goods just 
named. Some go East by rail, but many 
go by boat to different parts of the world. 
Several transcontinental railways terminate 
on the shores of San Francisco Bay. For 



all these reasons this is a great shipping 
point, and, as our trade increases with the 
Philippines, the Hawaiian Islands, Japan, 
China, and other countries bordering the 
Pacific, the amount of shipping will in- 

Many goods are sent from Stockton, Oak- 
land, and other points on or near the bay ; 
but San Francisco is the leading center for 
the shipping, as for the manufacturing. 

has had such a rapid growth that it is now 
the second city in size in the Western States. 
The first large city north of San Francisco 
is Portland (Fig. 187) on the Willamette 
River, a tributary of the Co- 
lumbia. Like New Orleans, it 
situated about a hundred 


3 . Coast cities 
north of San 

(1) Portland 
and vicinity 

miles from the ocean, near the 
head of deep-water navigation. 

Since good harbors having connections 

Fig. 189. — A street in Los Angeles bordered by palms and other warm-climate trees. 

The next important harbor south of San 
Francisco is the port of Los Angeles, twenty 

2. Coast cities mileS fr0In L ° S ANGELES it- 
south of San self, where a fine artificial har- 
Francisco fo 0J . ] lag Deeil mac l e a t great 

expense. Still farther south is the fine 
natural harbor of San Diego. Estimate 
the distance of these points from San Fran- 
cisco (Fig. 187). 

Los Angeles is one of the most beautiful 
cities in the country (Fig. 189). It lies in 
the midst of the rich orange country (Fig. 
175), and there are scores of small villages, 
towns, and cities round about it. Among 
the larger of these are Pasadena, Pomona, 
Riverside, Redlands, and San Bernar- 
dino. Los Angeles is the chief distribu- 
ting center for this productive region. It 

with the interior are lacking, most of the 
other important towns of Oregon are inland, 
and Portland has grown to be the chief ship- 
ping point by water, and therefore the largest 
city in the state. From this point wheat, 
flour, fruits, wool, and lumber (Fig. 190), the 
leading products of Oregon, are shipped in 
great quantities. 

Portland has extensive manufactories of 
woolen goods, flour, and furniture; and 
Salem, the capital, situated in the fertile 
Willamette Valley, also has large woolen 
and flour mills. Farther down the Colum- 
bia is Astoria, where, as elsewhere along 
the river, the salmon industry is developed. 
It is also an important shipping point. 

Portland, one of the most beautiful cities 
in the West, is growing rapidly in industry, 



commerce, and population, its recent growth 
being most remarkable. It has an exten- 
sive and increasing trade with the Orient, 
and there is also important commerce with 
Alaska. Portland is one 
of the great lumber ports 
in the world, and one of 
the leading wheat and 
flour shipping points on 
the Pacific coast. 

Washington, unlike 
Oregon, has many fine 
(2) Cities on harbors. 

Paget Sound On two of 

these Seattle and 
Tacoma (Fig. 187) are 
situated. Coal, lum- 
ber, grain, and hops are 
the principal exports. 
There is also extensive 
manufacture of lumber, furniture, and other 
goods along the shores of Puget Sound, 
especially at Seattle (Fig. 191), and Ta- 
coma. These goods are shipped to the 
Eastern cities, to China, Japan, the Philip- 
pines, Alaska, and other countries. Bel- 
lingham and Everett on Puget Sound, 

is an important ship building yard at 
Seattle, in which the battleship) Nebraska 
was built ; the largest salmon cannery in 
the world is located at Bellingham ; and 

Fig. 190. - 

A raft of lugs Boating down the Willamette River to the sawmills at 
Portland, which is seen in the distance. 

there is much other manufacturing. In- 
deed, the rapid development of manufac- 
turing in the cities of Puget Sound has 
been one cause for their great growth and 

The cities of Puget Sound, especially 
Seattle, have the bulk of the trade with 

Fig. 191.— A view of a part of Seattle from the harbor. 

though smaller, have important lumber and 
other industries. There is a large smelter 
at Tacoma, to which ores are sent from 
even as distant a point as Alaska ; there 

Alaska, as well as much commerce with the 
Orient, to which steamers ply regularly 
from Seattle. To these Puget Sound jjorts 
most of the gold, salmon, and other Alaskan 



products come, and from them the regular 
Alaskan steamers sail, carrying many miners 
and other passengers, and large cargoes of 
goods for use in that Northern territory. 
Seattle is the place of outfitting for most of 
the people who go to Alaska ; and the rapid 
development of that territory has brought 
much business to this city, whose recent 
growth has been remarkable. Both Tacoma 
and Seattle are beautifully situated on the 
shores of Puget Sound, and from both the 
extinct volcano, Mount Rainier, is plainly 
visible. There are many fine public build- 
ings in each city, and in Seattle is the 

Fig. 192. — A street in a small town in New Mexico, with adobe houses belongiu. 
to the Mexican inhabitants. 

University of Washington, one of the most 
rapidly growing and progressive state uni- 
versities of the West. 

Another Pacific coast port is Gray Harbor, at 
the mouth of Chehalis River in Washington, west 
of the capital Olympia. Transcontinental rail- 
roads have extended their lines to it, and there is 
already trade in lumber and grains with the Orien- 
tal ports. 

When this Western country was first 
settled, it was divided into territories, but 
Our newest as tne population increased, 

states these territories have one by 

one been admitted into the Union as states. 
The last to be admitted are Arizona and 
New Mexico in 1912. 

There are many fertile valleys in these 
new states where there is irrigation ; and, in 

this warm climate, wheat, corn, vegetables, 
alfalfa, apples, peaches, grapes, and many 
other crops are raised. While i. Their re- 
some of the farming is carried sources 
on by Mexicans and Indians, best results 
are gained by Americans who own a large 
part of the irrigated land. The United 
States government is spending large sums 
of money in building storage reservoirs, 
and in improving the irrigation systems in 
other ways, so that many settlers are find- 
ing valuable farm lands here. 

The plateaus and mountain valleys are 
the seats of extensive cattle and sheep 
ranching, and, as we have 
already learned, mining 
is of great importance. 
Arizona, besides being 
second in the production 
of copper, also produces 
large amounts of gold 
and silver, while New 
Mexico supplies much 
gold, silver, and coal. 

The cities, though not 
of great size, are impor- 
tant distrib- „ 

2. Their cities 

utmg centers 
for the surrounding 
country, and also centers 
for smelting the ores. Among the most 
important are Tucson, Prescott, Bisbee, 
and Phoenix in Arizona, and Albuquer- 
que, which is the largest city in New 

Among the early Spanish settlements is Santa 
Fk, the capital of New Mexico. Here, as elsewhere, 
in the state, the houses are mostly low, one-story 
buildings (Fig. 192) made of sun-dried bricks, or 
adohe. The Spanish language is most commonly 
heard, and in some parts one still sees the primitive 
customs of a century ago. For instance, on the 
small Mexican farms near by, wheat, instead of 
being threshed out by machines, is in some cases 
spread upon the ground and trampled by goats until 
the grain is separated from the hull. The grain is 
then tossed into the air in order that the wind may 
carry away the chaff. These customs form a very 
striking contrast to those introduced into most parts 
of the region by progressive Americans, who use the 



3. Their Indian 

most approved methods of farming and the best of 
farming implements. 

This is the region in which some of the most civ- 
ilized Indiaus once lived (p. 22) ; and here some 
of their descendants still occupy In- 
dian reservations, or land reserved 
for them by the government. The 
Pueblo Indians, for instance, still live here after the 
manner of their ancestors. Their homes, called 
puelilos, are built of adobe, and in some cases are 
entered from the roof by means of a ladder (Fig. 37). 

The pueblos were intended as strongholds for 
the storing of grain and for protection against 
wandering tribes, which might attack 
them at any time. Other Indian 
houses, the cliff dwellings, were built 
on the sides of cliffs beneath over- 
hanging ledges : and still others, 
care dwellings, were in caves dug 
out of the rocks bv the Indians (Fig. 

Some of the Pueblo Indians carry 
on farming by irrigation, as their 
ancestors did before the white men 
came ; and many of them are pros- 
perous farmers. Other Indians on 
reservations are more shiftless, and 
the government has to help them to 
make a living. The same is true of 
Indians in other parts of the West, 
for there are Indian reservations in 
all the Western States. The red 
men are no longer allowed to roam 
at will, but must live on the land 
allotted to them by the United 
States government. 

the Yellowstone National Park, the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado River, and the 
Yosemite Park. 

The Yellowstone Park, chiefly in Wyo- 
ming, is a tract of land, larger than Connect- 
icut, which the government 
has set aside as a national park. 
It is often called the " Won- 
derland of America." A stage 
road leads from the Northern 
Pacific Railway to the Mammoth 

2. The Yellow- 
stone Park 

(1) Its hot 
springs and 


Scenery in the 

1. The most 
noted places 

formed cliff 

In many places among the 
Western mountains are scenes 
that compare 
favorably with those of the 
Alps, which attract so many 
Americans abroad. Strangely 
i deep canyons, and imposing 
waterfalls are present without number. 
There are also beautiful snow-capped vol- 
canic cones and glaciers. Many of these 
grand scenes may be viewed from the rail- 
way, as, for instance, the wonderful gorges 
and canyons through which the Denver and 
Rio Grande Railway winds its way across 
Colorado. Among all the interesting places 
in the West, however, are three that easily 
surpass the others in grandeur. These are 

193. — The cave dwellings of the southwest. The Indians dug these 
caves out of the solid rock and lived in them. 

Springs on the northern side of the park. 
There is also a stage route from the Oregon 
Short Line on the western side. At the 
Hot Springs from openings in the hillside, 
heated water flows down over beautifully 
colored terraces, which have been built by 
a deposit of mineral matter carried in solu- 
tion in the hot water. Farther on are boil- 
ing springs ; also boiling mud springs of 
different colors; and here and there is a 
spring, called a geyser, from which hot water 
and steam now and then burst forth with 
great violence, even to a height of one hun- 
dred or two hundred feet (Fig. 194). 



Fig. 194 

Old Faithful " geyser in eruption. 

" Old Faithful," one of the most regular of these 
geysers, "plays" at intervals of sixty-five minutes. 
Then a column of steam and hot water shoots up- 
ward from one hundred to one hundred and thirty 
feet. Other geysers discharge at much longer peri- 
ods, as two to three hours, or several days ; and in 
some of the geysers the roar of escaping steam lasts 
for hours after the water has all been expelled. The 
outbursts are really explosions of steam, the heat 
being supplied from the depths of the earth. Some 
of the springs are on a level with the ground, so 
that a visitor must be on the lookout lest he step 
into one ; others are surrounded by a rim several 
feet high. 

Beyond the geyser basins the Yellow- 
stone Lake is reached, a beauti- 
ful sheet of water, nestled in 
the mountains, nearly eight 
thousand feet above the sea. Its waters 

(2) lis laic, 
falls, and 

flow northward, forming the Yellowstone 
River, a tributary of the Missouri. 

To many persons, the falls and canyon of this 
river are the greatest wonders of the park. Soon 
after leaving the lake, the stream narrows and 
quickens, and the water leaps one hundred and nine 
feet directly downward. A short distance farther 
on it tumbles three hundred and eight feet, or almost 
twice the height of Niagara (Fig. 195). The river 
then runs between steep walls, which rise one thou- 
sand feet above it. This canyon is somewhat wind- 
ing, with numerous bold cliffs jutting far out into 
the abyss; and from these cliffs grand views maybe 
obtained. Far below, one sees the silvery stream, 
too distant to be heard as it dashes along. Across 
the chasm, a half mile awa} 7 , dark green pines fringe 
the bank, and between the water and these woods 
are gorgeously colored rock walls, having all the tints 
of the rainbow. 

In this park hunting is prohibited, and for that 

reason wild animals are numerous ,„, _ , 1 

, .. A , r , j ■ ■ (3) Its animals 

and quite tame. W hen driving 

through the park one can sometimes see elk by the 

Fig. 195. 

-The great falls of the Yellowstone, three 
hundred and eight feet high. 



roadside; and bears, both grizzly and black, come 
close to camps and hotels for food. There are many 
other animals here, among them some bison, or 
buffalo (Fig. 196). 

One portion of the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado, in Arizona, maybe reached on the 
3 The Canyon Atchison, Topeka, and Santa 
of the Colorado Fe Railway. The wonderful 
River Yellowstone Canyon, just de- 

scribed, and the canyons on the Denver 
and Rio Grande in Colorado are pygmies 
compared with this. 

As one first looks out into the canyon, he 
sees nothing but rock towers, pinnacles, 
many colored layers of rock, 
and apparently bottomless 
depths. When he finally 
reaches a point from which 
the threadlike stream may be 
spied at the bottom of the 
abyss, a mile below, it seems 
almost impossible that so little 
water could have wrought 
such mighty havoc. Yet 
this river has been slowly 
cutting its way into the rocks 
for thousands of centuries, 
and this great gash, or can- 
yon, is the result. 

The remarkable Yosemite Valley, on the 
western slope of the Sierra Nevada Moun- 
tains, in California, presents 4. The Yosemite 
very different views from those Park 
just described. This is the region of the 
High Sierras, a region of deep canyons and 
granite peaks, one of which, Mount Whit- 
ney, 14,502 feet high, is the highest, point 
in the United States, not including Alaska. 
Some of the most magnificent views in the 
High Sierras are formed by waterfalls of 
the Yosemite Creek and Merced River, in 
Yosemite Park. In one mighty leap the 
water descends fifteen hundred feet, form- 
ing the Yosemite Falls (Fig. 197), which 

The difficult path which leads 
to the bottom of the canyon is 
seven miles long, and the trip 
down and back is a full day's 
journey; but without making it, one fails to ap- 
preciate fully the marvelous carving, sculpturing, 
and coloring of the canyon walls. At the bottom 
the scene is entirely changed; and, as one looks 
upward, to see himself shut in by walls which seem 
to extend to the very heavens, his own littleness 
and the immensity of the works of Nature, are 
wonderfully impressed upon him. 

For three hundred miles the Colorado River flows 
at the bottom of this deeply cut canyon, which forms 
a very complete barrier to travelers. A person living 
on one side, where he could see across to the other 
side, ten miles away, would need to travel hundreds 
of miles to reach that side ; for there are no railways, 
roads, or paths leading across. The government has 
set aside this wonderland also as a national park for 
the enjoyment of the people. 

Fig. 196. — Bison feeding in the Yellowstone National Park. 

are famed the world over. Below this are 
some cascades, then another fall of four 
hundred feet. 

Only a few miles from the falls are the giant 
trees of the world, the largest of which is 35 feet 
in diameter (Fig. 198) and 300 feet high. The 
Yosemite region, like the Yellowstone, is a public 
park, and is visited every year by thousands of 
people, including many Europeans. 

It would require a great many pages to describe 

all the wonderful scenes in Western United States, 

or even to make a list of them. But 

. v. j t iv.» j 5. Other scenic 

mention must be made ot the grand 

Shoshone Falls in Idaho, Lake Che- 
lan in Washington, Lake Tahoe in the Sierra Ne- 
vadas, and Crater Lake in Oregon — the great crater 



Fig. 197. — The Yosemite Valley, bordered by lofty granite precipices, over one portion of which the water leaps 

to form the far-famed Yosemite Falls. 

of an extinct volcano in 
now situated. Also the 
the slopes of Mount 
Rainier with its beauti- 
ful valleys, large glaciers, 
and grand mountain 

1. Tell about the dis- 
covery of gold in Cali- 
_ . f o r n i a. 

* e ™ w 2. What 

Questions ,, 

x were the 

effects of this discovery? 

3. Name and locate the 
three principal moun- 
tain systems in the West. 

4. Describe the valleys 
between. 5. Where are 
volcanoes found ? Of > 
what importance is the 
lava? 6. What about 
the extent of the arid 
lands? 7. Where are 
the well-watered • sec- 
tions? State some facts. 
about them. 8. What 

which a beautiful lake is 
Rainier National Park on 

Fig. 108. — One of the "Big Trees" of California — so 
large that a wagon road passes through a tunnel cut 
in its trunk. 

minerals are found here, and what about the owner- 
ship of the mineral lands? 9. Describe the three 
methods of gold mining. 
10. What can you tell 
about noted mining dis- 
tricts in Nevada? 11. In 
Colorado? 12. In Mon- 
tana ? 13. In other West- 
ern States? 14. Where 
are coal and petroleum 
found? 15. What use 
is made of timber in the 
mines ? 16. Where is 
the timber obtained, and 
what are the principal 
kinds of trees? 17. De- 
scribe the method of 
lumbering in Washing- 
ton. 18. What is done 
with the logs and with 
the lumber from them? 
19. Of what importano 
are the forest reserva 
tions? 20. AVhat kind 
of fish are caught, and 
where? 21. What do 
you know about agricul- 



ture in the well-watered Northwest ? 22. How is 
irrigation planned near Denver? 2:5. What about 
the expense of such irrigation, and its advantages? 
21. What do yon know about agriculture by irriga- 
tion in Utah? 25. In southern California ? 26. In 
other sections? 27. How is the United States 
government assisting in irrigation in the West? 

28. How is sheep ranching carried on here ? 

29. What are the different sources of profit in that 
business? 30. What is the extent of manufacturing 
in the West? 31. Name the principal kinds of 
manufacturing. 32. What are the conveniences for 
transportation of goods ? 33. State the principal 
facts about Denver and vicinity. 34. Pueblo. 
35. Spokane. 36. Butte, Anaconda, and Great Falls. 
37. Other cities and towns in the interior. 38. Name 
and locate the principal cities about San Francisco 
Bay. 39. AY hat goods are manufactured in them? 
40. What about the shipping at this point ? 41. State 
the important facts about the coast cities south of 
San Francisco. 42. About Portland and vicinity. 
43. About the cities on Puget Sound. 44. Name 
our two newest states, and tell about their re- 
sources. 45. Name and locate their principal cities. 
46. What can you tell about their Indian inhab- 
itants? 47. Name and locate the places in the 
West most noted for scenery. 48. Describe Yellow- 
stone Park. 49. The Canyon of the Colorado River. 
50. The Yosemite Park. 

Montana (Mont.). 1. What industries are car- 
ried on in the eastern part? Why? 2. In the 

f . „ western part ? 3. Name the chief 

Review Ques- ... . i, . , , ,, , , 

, \. cities in Montana, and tell how each 

tions by States . . . ,, r . , , 

is important. 4. \\ hat two large 

rivers drain this section ? 5. Through what states 
do they flow before reaching the Gulf? 6. Draw 
an outline map of the state and, as each of the other 
states is studied, do the same for that. 

Wyoming (Wv.). 7. What industries are carried 
on in this state? 8. What cities are mentioned? 
In what connection? 9. Find the Yellowstone Park, 
and tell for what it is noted. 10. This state is rep- 
resented as having little grain, on the maps show- 
ing the principal grain-producing regions (Figs. 249 
and 251). Why? 

Colorado (Col. or Colo.). 11. Examine Figures 
249 to 274 to see what are the industries of Colorado. 
12. Why is there more water for irrigation in this 
state than in some of the others? 13. Trace the 
divide between the Pacific and Atlantic drainage, 
as it crosses Colorado. Trace it northward to Can- 
ada and southward to Mexico. 14. Name the cities 
in Colorado mentioned in the text, and tell how each, 
is important. 15. Find the population of Denver 
(Appendix, p. 427). Compare it with that of other 
large cities in the Western States ; also with that of 
New Orleans and of Buffalo. 

New Mexico (N.M.). 16. What about the in- 

habitants? 17. What is said about the industries? 

18. How large is the largest city (Appendix, p. 427) ? 

19. Compare it as to population with the largest 
city in Massachusetts ; in Nevada. 

Arizona (Ariz.). 20. What can you tell about 
the large river that crosses Arizona? 21. What 
cities and industries are mentioned? 22. What 
minerals are obtained here? 23. How does the 
largest city compare in size with the largest in New 
Mexico? In Colorado? 24. Find the population 
of Arizona. Of New Mexico. 

Nevada (Nev.). 25. For what mines was Nevada 
famous? 26. Find its present population (Appen- 
dix^. 425). Whyare there so few people? 27. What 
about its present industries? 28. How may the 
government irrigation work be of special value to this 
state ? 

Utah. 29. Why is the Great Salt Lake salt? 
30. What are the industries of this state ? 31. What 
cities are mentioned? Tell about each. 32. Exam- 
ine the maps, Figures 249 to 274, to see what prod- 
ucts come from Utah. 

Idaho (Ida.). 33. What metals are obtained? 
(See Figs. 263 to 273.) 34. What great river drains 
Idaho ? 35. What mountain range forms the east- 
ern boundary ? 

Washington (Wash.). 36. Compare the coast line 
with that of Oregon ; of Maine. 37. What about 
the rainfall of this state? Compare it with that of 
Montana (Fig. 303). Why this difference? 38. What 
effect has the rainfall upon the industries? What 
are the principal industries? 39. What cities are 
mentioned in the text? What can you tell about 
each ? 

Oregon (Ore.). 40. AA'hat advantage do you see 
in the location of the largest city ? 41. Compare it 
in size with Denver; New Orleans. 42. Examine 
the maps (Figs. 249 to 274) to see what is produced 
in Oregon. 43. AVhat industries are mentioned in 
the text? 44. AA T hat cities are mentioned, and in 
what connection ? 

California (Cal.). 45. AA'hat about the rainfall ? 

46. AA'hat two rivers drain most of this state? 

47. Describe the relief. 48. Name the cities men- 
tioned ; for what is each important? 49. AA'hat 
industries are found in this state? 50. AVhat 
advantage do you see in the location of San Fran- 
cisco? 51. Compare its population with that of 
Boston; Denver. 52. AA'hat caused the early 
growth of California? AA'hat effect has that had on 
other AYestern States ? 

53. AYhich state has the largest population (Ap- 
pendix, p. 425) ? The smallest? 54. Compare each of 
these two with Massachusetts and 
New York in population. 55. Name General Review 
and locate the eight largest cities " l ns 
(Appendix, p. 427). 56. AA'hich of the five groups 
of states has the densest population (Fig. 246) ? 



Which the least dense? What reasons can yon 
give ? 


1. Read about the expedition of Lewis and Clark 
from St. Louis to the Pacific coast in 1803-1806. 
2. Find out about the early settle- 
ment and dispute about the owner- 
ship of Oregon. 3. What is the origin of the 
expression " to pan out " ? 4. Why do the heavier 
rains on the northern Pacific coast come in win- 
ter? 5. Mention several of the advantages and 
disadvantages of having no rain for several months 
at a time, as in southern California. 6. Make a 
collection of minerals for the school. 7. Hydraulic 
mining has been largely prohibited in many parts 

Flo. 200. — Scene after a winter snowstorm on the Alaskan coast. 

of the West. Why? 8. Should the ditch that is 
to irrigate a certain field skirt its upper or lower 
edge? Why? 9. Which is the more easily irri- 
gated, nearly level land, or land that is rough and 
hilly? Why? 10. Is southern California as liable 
to cold snaps as Florida? Why? 11. Make a list 
of articles made of wool. 12. In what year were 
Arizona and New Mexico admitted into our Union 
as states? 13. Write a story describing an imagi- 
nary visit to southern California. 14. Make a 
drawing of the Western States, putting in the prin- 
cipal mountain ranges, rivers, and cities. 

1. Name the principal crops of the United States, 

and tell in which section each is 

General Review raised. (Consult figures 249 to 

Questions for 050.) o. Do the same for m j ne ,. al 

United States products. 3. For other raw prod- 

ucts. 4. For manufactured articles. 5. Name the 
ten largest cities in their order (Appendix, p. 426). 
For what is each important? 6. State some ways 
in which the rainfall influences the occupations of 
the people. 7. The temperature. 8. State clearly 
the influence of the sinking of the coast. 9. Of the 
glacial period. 10. Of the coal period. 11. Of the 
absence of forests on the prairies. 12. Of the rich 
mineral deposits in the West. 13. In what ways 
have the Great Lakes been of value? 14. Name 
some of the cities that have been benefited by them. 
15. In what ways have the Mississippi River and its 
two largest tributaries been of value? 16. State 
some of the natural advantages that have aided the 
growth of Boston ; New York ; Buffalo ; Philadel- 
phia ; Baltimore; New Orleans; 
Cleveland ; Pittsburgh ; Detroit ; 
Chicago ; St. Louis ; and San Fran- 
cisco. 17. Can you name some 
other cities that have also been 
influenced by their surroundings? 
18. Which is the largest state 
(Appendix, pp. 425-426)? The 
second in size? The smallest? The 
next to the smallest? 19. Which 
state has the largest population 
(Appendix, p. 425) ? The second 
largest? The smallest? Next to 
the smallest? 20. What states 
border Mexico ? Canada? Draw a 
map of the United States. 

IV. Territories and 
Dependencies of the 
United States 

At the close of the Kevo- 
lutionary War the United 
States consisted of thirteen 
small colonies, extending along Our increase 
the Atlantic coast from Maine of territory 
to Georgia. Our new nation laid claim 
also to the land far into the wilderness, 
even to the distant Mississippi. Beyond 
this was French and Spanish territory, 
while the whole Mississippi Valley was oc- 
cupied by Indians. 

By purchase, by war, and by treaty, we 
have gained possession of all the other land 
between the Atlantic and the Pacific, which 
has thus far been described ; but our con- 
trol does not end with the boundaries of 
the United States proper. In 1867 we ob- 



How obtained 
and how the 
purchase was 

tained Alaska. In 1808 Hawaii was an- 
nexed as a territory and a number of other 
islands came into our possession. Since 
these lands form a part of the territory con- 
trolled by our government, a study of them 
may come at this point. 

i. Alaska 

For a long time Alaska, which is more 
than twice as large as Texas, belonged to 
Russia. In 1867 that nation 
sold the territory to us for 
67,200,000. At the time many 
people thought it very unwise 
to pa}' so large a sum for so distant and des- 
olate a land. However, 
it lias already proved of 
great value, and has 
paid for itself many 
times over. 

Since the Arctic Circle 
crosses the northern part 
of Alaska, 
it will be 
seen that the climate of 
much of the territory 
must be severe. The 
winters are long and 
cold, and the summers 
short and cool. 

A strip of coast land 
extends southeastward from the main penin- 
sula of Alaska, and to this the west winds 
bring an abundance of rain and snow (Fig. 
200). Since these winds blow from the 
ocean, they make the winters much warmer 
than in the northern part of the territory. 

A large part of Alaska is mountainous, 
for the mountain ranges of the United States 
and western Canada extend 
northward into this territory. 
Among these mountains are 
the loftiest peaks of the con- 
tinent, the highest yet discovered being 
Mount McKinley, which is 20,46-1 feet high. 

The long peninsula and the chain of Aleutian Is- 
lands, which form the southern boundary of Ber- 

ing Sea, are really a growing mountain chain 1600 
miles in length. Altogether there are 57 volcanoes 
in this chain, some of them still active ; and all along 
the Alaskan coast earthquakes are frequent, because 
the mountains are still rising. 

The snows are so heavy that most of the 
mountains are snow-covered throughout 
the year (Fig. 201) ; and hun- 
dreds of glaciers descend 
through the mountain valleys, some even 
entering the sea and breaking off to form 
icebergs. The largest glaciers on the con- 
tinent are found iu this section. One of 
the best known of these, the Muir Glacier, 
is located not far north of Sitka. 

There are so many islands along the coast 

£. The scenery 

The climate 

Surface of 
the land 

1. Extent of 
the mountains 

Fig. 201. — The suuw-capped mountains near Mount Saint Elias, Alaska. In the 
middle of the picture is a glacier which descends to the sea, discharging icebergs 
from a cliff over a mile and a half long and 250 feet high. 

that, for a thousand miles, the steamers 
sail between lofty, forest-covered mountain 
walls, with snow-capped peaks in the back- 
ground, and upon waters whose surface is 
as quiet as a lake. It is one of the most 
wonderful ocean voyages in the world, and 
the reason for it is that the sinking of the 
land has allowed the sea to enter the 
branching mountain valleys, changing them 
to long, narrow, arms of the sea, or fiords, 
almost cut off from the ocean. 

Among the resources of _ . „ . 

Present tnriV" 
Alaska, as in the case of other ^ industries 

far Northern lands, those of j Fishing 

the sea are especially impor- (1) Catching of 

tant. On the shallow banks, foodfish 



and along the coast, are many cod and 
halibut, for which vessels now go from 
Seattle and ports further south. These 
fish are caught in large quantities, some 
being sold even in the Eastern States. 

Every year steamers, specially built for the pur- 
pose, venture into the Arctic Ocean through Bering 
Strait in search of the whale. Few ships are now 
engaged in this dangerous occupation, for the whale 
is much less common than formerly. The ships are 
obliged to push their way into they?oe ice, in which 
they are in danger of being crushed 
by the pressure of the ice, as it is 
moved about by the current. 

Men take all these risks in order 
to secure the valuable whalebone 
that grows in the whale's mouth. 
This bone has a coarse, haiiiike 
fringe on its margin which serves 
to strain out of the water the small 
sea animals on which the huge 
monster feeds. Another product is 
the blubber, or layer of fat, that lies 
beneath the skin and keeps the 
whale warm even in the waters of 
the frozen Arctic. This blubber is 
made into oil ; and before kerosene 
was made, whale oil was much used 
for lights. 

Fig. 202. — Picture of a whale, the largest of auinials. 

i ..Still more important, at present, is sal- 
mon fishing. Here, as in the Columbia River 
(p. 127), the salmon run up the streams 
every summer. Sometimes the streams are 
almost full of these fish, all struggling to 
get up to the place where the eggs are laid. 
It is a wonderful sight to see 
such a salmon "run," as it is 
called. Immense quantities of 
Alaskan salmon are canned at 
canneries scattered along the 
coast. The Alaskan steamers 
are loaded with canned salmon 
every fall, taking them to 
Seattle or other ports, for ship- 
ment to all parts of the world. 

Another ocean animal found in 

Alaskan waters is the whale. This 

,„, „., ,. animal (Fig. 202"), 

(2) Whaling ... . v ° ,. '' 

which is sometimes 

over a hundred feet long, is really 

a land animal that has taken up life in the sea, as 

seals and walruses have done. Therefore, unlike 

the true fishes, which secure air from the water 

by means of their gills, the whale must now and 

then rise to the surface for air. It is when rising to 

breathe, or " blow," that the huge creatures are killed. 

(3) Sealing 

Many different kinds of seals 
are found along the Alaskan coast. One 
of these, the fur seal, which 
lives in Bering Sea, is of great 
value because of its soft fur, which is much 
used for winter coats. During the greater 
part of the year the fur seals swim about in 

Fig. 203. — A group of fur seals on the shore of the Pribilof Islands. 

search of food ; but in the spring, during 
the breeding season, they resort to the 
Pribilof Islands (Fig. 203). 

The United States government prohibits all per- 
sons from killing the fur seal, except one company, 



which pays a special tax for the privilege of securing 
a certain number each year. At the proper season 
the men select a number of seals and drive them off 
for slaughter, much as sheep would be driven. There 
are so few of these seals, and they are so easily killed, 
that if the government did not protect them, all 
would soon be destroyed. 

At present the fisheries are by far the 
most important of Alaskan industries. 
Thus far their products 
have amounted in value to 
over $150,000,000, nearly 
one half of which has been 
received for the salmon. 

Valuable as the fisheries 
are, it is the minerals, espe- 
„ „. . cially gold, that 

2. Mining , J °, ' , 

have attracted 
most attention to Alaska. 
In 1896 rich gold deposits 
were discovered in the 
gravels of a small stream, 
the Klondike, a tributary to 
the Yukon River in Canada, 
just across the Alaskan 
boundary. In a single year 
fifty thousand men rushed 
to this new gold field (Fig. 
204), as people did to Cali- 
fornia in 1849. 

Since then gold has been 
found in many parts of 
Alaska, as at Nome, in the 
Tanana Valley, and else- 
where ; and every year 
thousands of men go there. But most of 
them return in the fall, partly to escape 
the cold winter, and partly because the 
gravels cannot be washed when the ground 
is frozen. In some places, where the ground 
is frozen even in summer, it has been neces- 
sary to thaw it out by means of fires before 
the gravel could be washed. In 1910, Alaska 
ranked fourth in the production of gold in 
the Union, the value of the output being 
over 816,000,000 (Fig. 272). 

One great difficulty has been to reach the gold 
fields and to carry supplies to them. The early 

miners were exposed to great hardships on their 
journey to the Klondike region. Now, however, by 
the help of a short railway across the mountains, 
one can go into the interior of Alaska much more 
easily. In summer many go up the Yukon River 
in boats ; but this is impossible in winter when the 
river is frozen. Trace this course. How does the 
Yukon River compare in size with the Ohio (Ap- 
pendix, p. 431)? 

Partly because of the difficulty of taking in sup- 

Fig. 204. — Miners fording the icy waters of an Alaskan river on the way to 
Klondike. Two of them are harnessed in a wagon containing their 

plies and machinery, there has, as yet, been little 
gold mining in the solid rock. There are, however, 
some such mines already opened, the largest being 
on Douglas Island near Juneau, where there is 
the largest stamp mill in the world. Nor has there 
been much mining of other minerals, although enor- 
mous deposits of copper and coal are known to exist 
in Alaska. 

No doubt the salmon industry will in- 
crease in importance in the 
the minino;. When, as at 

° ,. , , 1. In connection 

present, supplies have to be wit h fishing and 
drawn in by dogs, or on the mining 

c Prospects for 
Tins is true also of the f F uture 



backs of men or of horses, even across 
glaciers and lofty mountains, the expense 
of transportation is ver}' great. However, 
railroads are now being built to the richest 
gold and copper regions ; and when these 
are finished, the amount of metal mined 
will be greatly increased. 

There are other valuable resources in 
Alaska. Among them are the extensive for- 
2. in connection ests ' especially along the south- 
with other eastern coast, and in some of the 

resources warmer valleys of the interior. 

Although the country is very mountainous, there is 
much good soil; and in some places the climate is 
suitable to farming. Besides, even where the sum- 
mers are too short for crops, grass often grows 
luxuriantly. It is possible, therefore, to raise sheep 
and cattle here, and no doubt this will some day be 
one of the industries of Alaska. 

Reindeer also thrive in this country. On the 
tundras in northern Asia the reindeer is a domestic 
animal, supplying the people with meat, milk, and 
hides, besides serving as a draft animal. The rein- 
deer has already been introduced into the tundras 
of Alaska, and will make it possible for people to 
live there much more comfortably. 

There is no doubt, therefore, that Alaska 
will prove much more valuable to us in the 
future than it has thus far been. 

In such a new country there are, of 
course, no large cities. The oldest and 
Principal best known is the quaint town 

towns of Sitka, the former capital. 

Juneau, which was made the capital a few 
years ago, besides being near valuable gold 
mines, is on the route to the Klondike. It 
is, therefore, an important center. Not far 
north is Skagway, where miners leave the 
steamer to take the White, Pass Railway to 
the headwaters of the Yukon. 

There are also many mining towns, such as 
Dawson, in the Klondike region of Canada, and 
Nome, on Bering Sea. In 1898, the beach sands at 
Nome were found to contain gold, and in a single 
season a good-sized city had grown on the beach. 
Large numbers of men lived in tents, and others in 
rough wooden shanties. In 1900, there were over 
twelve thousand people here ; but ten years later, 
there were only about one sixth as many. In such 
a mining district a town may grow up in a year and 
become deserted in a single season. 

2. Porto Rico and Cuba 

We have just seen that the United States 

has secured possession of distant Northern 

lands ; it has still more recently 

. . . r J Their history 

come into control of some 

tropical islands. As a result of our war 

with Spain, in 1898, Porto Rico was ceded 

to the United States and Cuba was given 

its independence, under the general guidance 

of the United States. 

Since that time, Porto Rico has made 
great advance ; but Cuba has not done so 
well. After the war, our government 
occupied Cuba for a while, then handed 
over the control to the Cuban people, who 
established a republican form of government. 
But soon trouble arose, and in 1906 the 
United States had to interfere again. In 
1909 the Cubans were again given control. 
Cuba is not a dependency of our country, 
as Porto Rico is, but the United States has 
a right to interfere there when it seems 
necessary in order to preserve peace. Since 
it is thus under our jDrotection, we are more 
interested in Cuba than in other islands 
of the West Indies, with the exception of 
Porto Rico ; and it seems better to describe 
Porto Rico and Cuba together than to class 
Cuba with the other West Indian Islands 
in which we have no special interest. 

Cuba is the largest island in the West 
Indies, being nearly as large as Pennsyl- 
vania, although much longer Area and sur- 
and narrower. Porto Rico is face features 
somewhat smaller than Connecticut. Each 
of these islands is quite mountainous, the 
peaks in Cuba ranging from 2000 to 4000 
feet above sea level, while one of them 
reaches an altitude of 8600 feet. 

Both islands lie entirely within the trop- 
ical zone, and on the lowlands neither snow 
nor frost are known. Ou ac- 
count of the warm climate 
many people from the United States go to 
Porto Rico and Cuba to spend the winter. 
There is an abundance of rain in most 
parts of the islands ; but the rainfall is 




especially heavy on the northeastern, or 
windward, slopes, where the damp winds, 
which blow from the northeast, first reach 
the land. The summer is the rainiest sea- 
son, for then the winds blow with greatest 
strength and steadiness. 

While there are mountain ranges in each 
of the islands, a large portion of Porto 
Rico and Cuba lias been cleared 
and cultivated. This is espe- 
cially true of Porto Rico, which is really 
an island of farms. Crops grow luxuriantly 
partly because of the excellent soil, and 
partly because of the favorable climate. 
Indeed, agriculture is the chief industry on 
both islands. 

As in all the West Indies, the principal 
crop is sugar cane (Fig. 207), and the 
1. The f ann industry is carried on much as 
products it is in Louisiana (p. 75). 

A second important crop is tobacco, for 
which Cuba is especially noted. Tobacco 
is also raised extensively in Porto Rico. 
At Havana, and other places, it is manu- 
factured into cigars, which bring high 

allspice. Such fruits as bananas, oranges, 
limes, pineapples (Fig. 208), and cocoanuts 
are grown in great quantities ; and there 


Bob .-.. 

**- ^^Tzfor* 



. \ am 

: " ■ 




Fig. 20f>. — A native hut in Cuba. 

are also many vegetables. There is much 
pasture, too, and man)' cattle are raised. 

Our soil and climate have enabled us to 
raise almost all the farm products that we 
have needed, except such as 2 Theirspecia i 
may be produced within these value to the 

islands. They United States 

can send us tea, coffee, sugar, 
spices, and tropical fruits. 
They can also send us fruits 
and vegetables in midwinter. 
Thus it is of great value to 
us that we have such close 
relations with these islands. 

When first settled, the West 
Indies were covered by a dense 

tropical forest, and 

Other raw 

Fio. 207. 

-A train on a sugar plantation in Porto Rico drawing the sugar 
cane to the sugar mill. 

prices, — the Havana cigar being consid- 
ered the best that is made. 

Upon the hillslopes much coffee is pro- 
duced, and some tea and cocoa. Spices, 
including nutmeg, cinnamon, and ginger, 
are products of the West Indies ; also pep- 
per, cardamom, vanilla, and pimento or 

some of the woods 

... . products 

still remain, espe- 
cially among the higher mountains. 
In Cuba, for instance, there is still 
much valuable timber, such as ma- 
hogany, ebony, and fustic, which 
produces a valuable yellow dye. 

Besides the raw products of the soil, there is some 
mineral wealth in Cuba. Copper is found here, and 
also iron, the latter having been mined for a long 
time in the neighborhood of Santiago. 

Railways connect some of the cities, and 
also reach out into the agricultural districts, 



thus serving to bring the crops to the chief 
ports for shipment. However, many of the 
Conveniences towns are not connected by 
for transpor- rail ; and since there are few 
tation good wagon roads, they have 

almost no communication with the outside 
world, except by boat. 

During its occupation of Cuba, the United States 
has had one good macadam road built from the east- 
ern to the western end of the island. Steamboat 
lines now run from American ports to Havana and 







g^^*-^ JmW^^^l 



. ^.. . ^H : 

Fig. 208. — Pineapples growing in Porto Rico 

other West Indian ports. Thus the United States has 
done much to improve the conveniences for the trans- 
portation of goods; and by that means a much better 
market is secured for the products of these islands. 

Owing partly to lack of coal, and partly 
to the bad government of the Spaniards, 
Principal there has been very little inanu- 

cities facturing. There are, how- 

ever, several important cities along the 
coast. The largest of these is Havana, 
in Cuba, for a long time the center of the 
Spanish rule in America. Another Cuban 
city is Santiago, where the Spanish ships 
were sunk in the war of 1898 ; and a third 
is Matanzas. 

The two principal cities of Porto Rico 
are San Juan, on the northern coast, and 
Ponce, on the southern. The former is the 
largest city and capital of the island. 

Portions of Porto Rico and Cuba are 
densely populated, although in Cuba's wars 

with Spain thousands upon thousands were 
killed in battle or starved to death. Much 
property was destroyed, and inhabitants 
altogether the island was so of the Islands 
badly governed that it will be many years 
before a full tide of prosperity returns. 

Many of the natives are of mixed blood. 
The Indians did not prove good slaves to 
their Spanish conquerors, and negro slaves 
were brought from Africa. Therefore, 
while pure-blooded Spaniards are numer- 
ous, many of the inhabitants 
of Porto Rico and Cuba are 
negroes, either full blooded or 
half-breeds. Under Spanish 
rule these natives were very 
poor and densely ignorant ; 
but they are capable of ad- 
vance under proper guidance. 

3. Panama Canal Zone 
(Fig. 209) 

One of the most interest- 
ing regions controlled by the 
United States its location 
is the Panama and extent 
Canal Zone, a strip of land and water about 
fifty miles long and ten miles wide. This 
zone extends from the Caribbean Sea across 
the isthmus into the Pacific Ocean. It in- 
cludes some other land in the vicinity of the 
canal and the islands in the Bay of Panama. 
According to a treaty between the United 
States and the Republic of Panama, the 
government of this zone is placed under the 
control of the United States for an unlimited 

At the entrance to the Canal, on the 
Caribbean Sea, is located the city of Colon, 
formerly called Aspinwall. It its cities and 
is a city with large shipping ports, 
docks and well-paved streets. The shipping 
business is very important. French, Ger- 
man, English and American passenger boats 
call here regularly, and freight vessels from 
many nations are daily seen at Cristobal, 
the port just at the entrance to the Canal. 







WiUIaml EmcmlDiCo.. H*w Tork 

Fig. 209. — Jlap of Panama Canal Zone. 

Panama, across the isthmus, at the south 
end of the Canal Zone, but only two hours 
away, is a splendid city of old fortifications, 
monuments, and churches. It is the central 
market for most of the native products and 
the distributing point for the entire isthmus. 
Near the city, at the entrance to the Canal, 
is Port Ancox, where the large ocean- 
going vessels and other ships engaged in 
foreign commerce are accustomed to call as 
they enter the Canal. 

The cities of Panama and Colon are under 
the government of Panama, but the United 
States government has the right in both 
cities, as well as in the Canal Zone, to make 
provision for the health of the inhabitants. 

These two cities are also connected by the 
Panama Railroad, a work which was begun 
about 1850, and, after much hardship, com- 
pleted nearly five years later. When the 
canal was built it was necessary to remove 
this railroad and rebuild it. 

The Canal itself is a magnificent public 
work. Its channel is broad and deep, and 
from 300 to 500 feet wide at the bottom. 
It has huge locks 110 feet wide and 1000 
feet long, arranged in pairs so as to provide 
for vessels going in either direction. The 
Canal also passes through two large artificial 
lakes, one of them over thirty miles long, 

made by a dam across the Chagres River ; 
and through a tremendous cut in the hills 
at Culebra. 

4. The Hawaiian Islands (Fig. 214) 

Far out in the mid-Pacific, not quite a third 
of the distance from our western coast to the 
Philippine Islands, is a moun- Their location 
tain chain fifteen hundred miles and mountain- 
long, most of which lies be- ous cnaracter 
neath the ocean. Several large volcanic 
peaks rise above the water, forming a chain 
of Islands, known as the Sandwich, or Ha- 
waiian, Islands. The largest of these islands 
is Hawaii, which is nearly as large as Con- 
necticut. Each of the islands is made chiefly 
of melted rock, or lava, which has risen 
from within the eartli (Fig. 210). Two of 
the Hawaiian volcanoes are still active, and 
the fiery hot lava flows out from them every 
few years. The larger, Mauna Loa, rises 
nearly fourteen thousand feet above the sea. 

The latitude of the Hawaiian Islands 
(Fig. 2) is about the same as that of Cuba 
and Porto Rico. Being in the 
midst of the broad Pacific, and 
therefore surrounded by warm ocean water, 
the climate is warm and equable. From 
day to night, and even from summer to 
winter, the thermometer varies only a few 

Their climate 



Fig. 210. — The 

' Lake of Fire " in the crater of one of the Hawaiian volcanoes. This is red hot lava, 
or melted rock, that rises from within- the earth. 

degrees. As in the West Indies, the north- 
east winds blow steadily and bring an 
abundance of rain to the windward slopes. 
The southwestern, or leeward, slopes are 
much drier, and in some places even arid. 



■ ~2T/ ^■h 





■■ J! 



■ , 


Fig. 211. —The grass hut of a native in the Hawaiian 

The Hawaiian natives, who are Malayans, 
are an intelligent race, resembling those 

of other Pacific islands. The Chinese 
form a large part of the foreign popula- 
tion ; but there are also many p eop i e in. 
Japanese, Portuguese, and dustries, and 
Americans. chief cities 

In 1893, the ruler, a native queen, was de- 
posed, and the white population set up an 
independent government and offered the 
islands to the United States, as a territory. 
After some delay the offer was accepted, 

Fig. 212. — Natives planting rice in a flooded field in the 
Hawaiian Islands. 

and the islands have been under our control 
since 1898. 



Man}' years ago white men introduced 
the crops of the Old World, and the larger 
islands have become quite productive, the 
principal crop being sugar (Fig. 213). 
Coffee, tropical fruits, and rice (Fig. 212) 
are other products, the last being culti- 
vated especially by the Chinese. 

The two leading cities are Honolulu, 
on the island of Oahu, and Hilo, on Hawaii. 

would last less than two weeks, while the voyage 
requires move than three weeks. Therefore the gov- 
ernment needs to have a place along the route where 
it can store large quantities of coal. 

Coaling stations are also wanted for passenger 
and freight steamers; and there is need of a place 
where all kinds of ships can stop for repairs. All 
large naval powers have such stations in various 
parts of the ocean. Great Britain, the greatest 
power upon the sea, has them in all parts of the 

Fig. 213. — Natives cutting sugar cane on a plantation in the Hawaiian Islands. 

The Hawaiian Islands were one of the 
principal sources of food for the early Cali- 
Value of the fornian miners ; and great 
islands to the quantities of rav7 sugar are 
United States now brought from the islands 
to be refined on the Pacific coast (p. 139). 
San Francisco has long been the chief 
market place for the products of these 

The territory has another and still greater value. 
During our war with Spain the islands were used as 
a coaling station for our war ships bound to the 
Philippine Islands, which then belonged to Spain. 
The distance from San Francisco to the Philippines 
is more than seven thousand miles. If we wish to 
send a war ship there from the Pacific coast, it is im- 
portant that it find a place, on the way, at which it 
can obtain coal. Such a ship might carry, perhaps, 
eight hundred tons of coal ; but as from sixty to 
seventy tons may be burned each day, this supply 


5. Other Small Island Possessions 

For a number of years the United States, 
German}', and England had control over 
the Samoan Islands, far to the 
southwest of the Hawaiian Is- 
lands (Fig. 211). This arrangement did 
not prove satisfactory, and now Tutuila, 
one of the islands, is owned by the United 
States. It is of little value to us except 
for the coaling station at the harbor of Pago 
Pago. Apia, the chief city in the Samoan 
Islands, is on the island of Upola, which 
belongs to Germany. 

As one of the results of the war with Spain, we 
obtained the island of Guam (Figs. 417 and 214), 
one of the Ladrones, or Robbers' _ 
Islands, some distance east of the 
Philippines. Like Tutuila, Guam is of little service 
to us except as a coaling station for vessels. 



Our country has obtained possession of several 
other small islands in the Pacific. Among these are 
„ . Marcus Island, northeast of Guam ; 

Wake Island, between Guam and the 
Hawaiian Islands ; Midway Islands, northwest of the 
Hawaiian Islands; and two small islands, Baker and 
Howland, nearly on the equator south of the Midway 
Islands. None of these are of special importance. 

6. The Philippine Islands (Fig. 214) 

During the Spanish War, Admiral Dewey 
destroyed the Spanish war ships in the 

„ . . harbor of Manila, and took pos- 

How acquired . . ,. _, ... . A T 

session 01 the Philippine Is- 
lands for the United States. At the close 

Fig. 215. — A family of Filipinos, or natives of the Philippine Islands 
belonging to the Malay race. 

of the war we paid Spain $20,000,000 to 
give up all claim to them, and since then 
they have formed a part of our territory. 

This group of islands, or archipelago, 
consists of more than three thousand is- 
Surface lands, many of which are very 

features small. The largest, Luzon, is 

about the size of Kentucky; and the second, 
Mindanao, is almost as large. 

Like the West Indies and the Hawaiian Islands, 
the Philippines are portions of mountain ranges in 
the sea. This mountain chain is still growing, and 

as the rocks slowly move and break, earthquake 
shocks are caused. Some of them have been very 
destructive; for instance, the earthquake of 1863 
destroyed a large part of Manila. Volcanoes, some of 
which rise to a height of eight thousand to ten thou- 
sand feet, are numerous here, and some of them are 
very active. 

While parts of the islands are mountain- 
ous, there are many valleys' in which the 
soil is deep and fertile, being formed by the 
decay of lava, limestone, and other rocks rich 
in plant food. 

Since none of the islands are very large, 
there can be no great rivers. Still, there 
are some with deep mouths, making good 
harbors ; and steamboats are 
able to navigate the lower por- 
tions of all the larger rivers. 

As in the West Indies, the 
climate of the Philippines is 

tropical — always 

r , J Climate 

warm, and some- 
times very hot, especially at a 
distance from the sea. 

The year is divided into the dry 
and rainy seasons, the former coming 
during the winter months, the latter 
in the summer. The dr}' period 
lasts as long as the winds blow from 
the northeast, and then the fields 
often become parched and cracked, 
and the roads very dusty. In the 
summer, how r ever, the winds change 
to the southeast. They are then so 
damp that there is a deluge of rain 
which changes much of the country 
to a swamp, making travel almost 

The climate, on the whole, is so damp that there 
can be no cellars under the houses, for they would 
be too wet to be healthful (Fig. 216). Indeed, the 
houses themselves are usually raised above the 
ground, and the family lives in the second story. 
The lower part is often used for storage, as a cellar 
is in our country. 

Forests cover a large part of the archipel- 
ago, for trees thrive here, often forming a 
tropical jungle. Among the vegetation 
valuable woods are ebony, the and animal 
rubber tree, from which gutta ™ 
percha is obtained, and a palm from whose 




sap alcohol may be made. Cinnamon, cloves, 
and pepper grow in these islands, and cocoa- 
nut and banana trees are also very common! 

As in other tropical forests, there are im- 
mense numbers of animals, especially insects, 
serpents, and beautiful birds. Among the 
serpents are the huge python and the deadly 
cobra de capello. There are also deer, apes, 
wild hogs, wild buffaloes, huge 
bats, and man-eating croco- 

The inhabitants of the Phil- 
number over eight 
millions, about six- 
sevenths of whom 
are civilized. Two very differ- 
ent races occupy the islands, — 
(1) the aborigines, or original 
Inhabitants; and (2) the 
Malays (Fig. 215). The 
former, a race of small, dark- 
skinned savages, are called 
Negritos, a Spanish word mean- 
ing little negroes. They have 
been forced to retreat to the 
forests by the more powerful 
and intelligent Malays. Be- 
sides the Negritos, the Malays, 
and the half-breeds, many 
Chinese traders and Spaniards 
live on the islands ; and now 
there are also many Americans. 

Under the rule of the Spaniards, the more 
civilized tribes cleared the land and engaged 
Principal in farming. Their wants are 

products few, however, and very little 

work supplies them with what they need. 
Cocoanuts and bananas are easily obtained, 
and rice, yams, and other food plants may be 
easily raised. There is, therefore, no special 
reason for working hard ; and, in fact, in 
that warm, humid climate hard work is al- 
most impossible. Many of the natives, how- 
ever, are industrious and produce more than 
they need for themselves. 

The leading exports are hemp, sugar, 
tobacco, and copra. Of these, hemp is the 
best known. It is produced from the fibre 

of the wild plantain, which is much used in 
rope making. Rope of an excellent grade, 
called Manila rope, is manufactured in 
Manila. Knotted hemp is another form in 
which hemp is exported. It is made by the 
natives, who tie long fibres together so as to 
form thread or yarn. 

Refined sugar (Fig. 255) has displaced 


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i.. "'VAidi, ., , ,\. ■„■,. >:, ', 

k ■ 


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mv. .'..-: ^ 




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Fig. 21G — A native house in the Philippine Islands built of bamboo and 
covered with a thatch roof. Because of the dampness the houses do not 
rest on the ground. 

raw sugar as an export. With the establish- 
ment of sugar mills on the island it became 
possible to reorganize the sugar industry 
and to produce sugar of a superior grade. 

Cigars, many of which are made in Manila 
(Fig. 217), are the most important tobacco 

Copra, the dried meat of the cocoanut, is now ex- 
ported in large amounts. The cocoanuts are raised in 
great quantities in the interior of the country and are 
then shipped down the river in rafts to the cities to be 
dried. The copra from these nuts is sent to Europe, 
where it is used in soap making. The oil obtained 
from them is used in place of lard and kerosene. 

One of the most remarkable plants is the rattan, 
which the natives put to a thousand uses, such as 
making ropes, houses, canoes, frames, carts, beds, and 



chairs. Many of the natives make a living by split- 
ting and marketing the cane. The bamboo is also 
of great value. This plant grows from one inch to 
eighteen inches in diameter, and from five to seventy 
feet in height. It is used in making the frames, sides, 


Fig. 217. — Native women of the Philippine Islands making cigars in Manila. 

and even the roofs of houses, and also rafts, boats, 
agricultural implements, bows, bowstrings, arrows, 
spoons, forks, and many other articles. 

The natives have domesticated a native wild ani- 
mal, the water bnffalo (Fig. 218), which is of much 
value as a draft animal. It is of 
special service in the rice fields, 
whicli are kept flooded during the 
growing season. The buffalo is 
quite at home in the mud, even 
preferring wet walking to dry; and 
in fact, it must have a daily plunge 
in the mud and water. 

for a long time the center of the Spanisl 
government in the Philippines. It is still 
the center of government in the archipelago. 
Under Spanish rule large portions of the 
islands were left in a wild 
state ; and little p r0D able 
attempt was made future 
to use the re- progress 
sources to their fullest extent. 
The islands are able to pro- 
duce far more farm products 
than at present. The riches 
of the forests have been little 
used ; and the minerals, in- 
cluding gold, silver, coal, 
petroleum, marble, and sul- 
phur, have likewise been 
largely neglected. 

There is a promising future 
in the development of these 
resources, and the civilized 
natives are already helping 
greatly in the work. Many of 
them are educated and cul- 
tured, living in excellent 
homes. They are now partly 
governing themselves, having 
a legislature of their own ; but the United 
States still holds control. We are helping 
to educate the people, and to establish a 
good government. 

In the entire group of is- 
lands, there are many cities 
Cities having a popula- 

tion of more than 
ten thousand ; but there is 
only one of special impor- 
tance. This is Manila, on 
the island of Luzon. This city, which has 
over two hundred thousand inhabitants, is 
situated upon an excellent harbor, and was 

Fig. 218. — Native Filipinos plowing with the buffalo. 

Alaska: Questions. 1. How was Alaska ob- 
tained, and how was the purchase at first regarded? 
2. Describe the climate. 3. What are the prin- 

£ !25 > *Js 

!5 Jo sssgsi 
" 3 3 1 1 1" 



cipal surface features? 1. What can you tell about 

the scenery'' 5. What about the food fish there? 

6. State the principal facts about the 

Review Ques- whaling . 7 . The sealing . 8 . The 

tions and ra j n i ng . 0. What about the future 

development of the territory ? 
10. Name and locate the leading towns. 

Suggestions. 11. Collect some whalebone. 
12. How does the area of Alaska compare with that 
of the L'nited States proper? 13. Measure the 
length of the Yukon, and compare it with the 
Mackenzie. 14. Draw an outline map of Alaska. 

Porto Rico and Cuba: Questions. 15. Give 
some facts in their history. What is our relation to 
Porto Rico? To Cuba? 16. What are their areas 
and principal surface features? 17. Describe the 
climate. 18. Name the farm products. 19. How 
are these products of special value to the United 
States? 20. What other raw products are found? 

21. What about the conveniences for transportation? 

22. Name and locate the principal cities. 23. What 
about the inhabitants of the islands? 

Suggestions. 21. Estimate the length and the 
average breadth of Cuba. 25. AVhat products of 
Cuba and Porto Rico are also raised in the United 
States? Where? 26. State some advantage that 
Cuba enjoys over Louisiana in the production of 
sugar. 27. Make a sketch map of Cuba and Porto 

Panama Canal Zone : Questions. 28. Locate 
this zone. 29. How was this strip of land obtained, 
and what is its extent? 30. What advantages have 
been secured by the canal? 

Suggestions. 31. What difficulties were caused 
by the climate in the work of digging the canal? 
32. Read magazine articles telling about the work. 

The Hawaiian Islands and other Small 
Islands: Questions. 33. Where are the Hawaiian 
(Islands located? 34. What are their surface fea- 
tures? 35. Describe their climate. 36. State the 
iprincipal facts about their inhabitants, industries, 
iand principal cities. 37. What is the special value 
of these islands to the United States ? 38. Name 
iand locate other island possessions. 39. How are 
they important? 

Suggestions. 40. Why should you expect much 
the same products in the Hawaiian Islands as in 
Cuba? 41. Why is not the summer very hot in these 
Jtropical regions? 42. What city on our eastern coast 
should be associated with San Francisco as impor- 
tant for refining sugar? 43. Explain the presence 
of many Chinese and Japanese in these islands. 

The Philippine Islands: Questions. 44. How 
were these islands acquired ? 45. Describe their sur- 
face features. 46. Their climate. 47. What vege- 
table and animal life is found here? 48. State the 
:chief facts about the inhabitants. 49. What are the 
principal products? 50. What about the cities? 

51. Explain the possibilities for progress in these 

Suggestions. 52. Compare the latitude of the 
islands with that of the West Indies and of the 
Hawaiian Islands. 53. Xame several other places 
thus far studied that have volcanoes. 54. Collect 
pictures of scenes in the Philippines. 55. Obtain a 
piece of Manila hemp rope for the school collection ; 
also a piece of bamboo and of rattan. 56. Find out 
about Dewey's capture of Manila. 57. Make a sketch 
map of the islands. 

58. Xame the principal dependencies of the United 
States. 59. Locate each on the map of the world 

(Fig. 2). 60. Walk toward each. 

General Re- 

61. >»ame the principal products of 

u an t r. * j v. view Questions 

each. 62. In what zones does each x 

lie? 63. How did we obtain each? 64. Xame and 

locate the principal cities in our dependencies. 

V. Countries North of the United 


i. Canada and Newfoundland 

1. Trace the boundary line between United States 
and Canada. 2. Which of our states border on Can- 
ada ? 3. What has caused so many _. . 
lakes in the Dominion ? 4. Xame 
and locate the eight largest (including the Great 
Lakes). 5. Xame and locate the four largest rivers. 
Into what ocean does each drain ? 6. Where are the 
largest cities? 7. What are the names of the larg- 
est? 8. What reasons can you see for their location? 
9. Trace the Arctic Circle across Canada. 10. Com- 
pare the latitude of Labrador with that of England. 
11. Locate the Gulf of St. Lawrence; Hudson Bay; 
Greenland; Xewfoundland ; Xova Scotia. 12. Xame 
the divisions of Canada. 

With the exception of Alaska almost all 
of the land north of our country belongs to 

While the British were founding the thir- 
teen colonies, the French occupied the coast 
of eastern Canada and made History 
settlements at Quebec, Mon- l Contest be- 
treal, and other points along ^Fr^ch^d 
the St. Lawrence Valley. Even the result 
now a very large majority of the inhabitants 
of the Province of Quebec speak French 
as their mother tongue. The French and 
English were often at war ; but finally 
England, aided by her colonies, won con- 
trol of the French possessions north of the 



United States. Only the small islands of 
Miquelon and St. Pierre were retained by 
France, and they are still used by the 
French as fishing stations. 

After our Revolutionary War, Canada still 
remained in possession of Great Britain. 
At first there were several 
colonies with separate govern- 
ments, though all were under 
the control of Great Britain; 
but in 1867 a union was formed called the 
Dominion of Canada. There are nine 

2. Name of the 
Union, and the 
provinces that 
make it 


,r "Sat 


^BEl ' '^B 

Fig. 220. — Lake Louise, nestled among the snow-capped mountains of western 
Canada, along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. 

divisions, or provinces, in the Dominion, — 
Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New 
Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Colum- 
bia. Each has a government of its own, 
as our states have ; but the united provinces 
have a central government with the capital 
at Ottawa, which corresponds to our cap- 
ital at Washington. 

Besides these provinces, there are the 
Yukon Territory, and several undeveloped 
territories. The names of the latter are 
given on the map (Fig. 219), but they 
have few inhabitants and are of little 
importance at present. Name these divi- 

Newfoundland has refused to join the 
Dominion, so that, while still a colony of 
Great Britain, it is not a part 3 Newfound- 
of Canada. Newfoundland in- land 
eludes not only the island by that name, 
but also the east coast of Labrador. 

The surface of southern Canada very 
closely resembles that of our Northern States. 
Eastern Canada, for instance, 
is much like New England. Surface 
That section of Canada which , „ 

,. , . . _., . . XT 1. Resemblance 

lies north of Cnio and New between south- 
York is em Canada and 
t i northern United 

more level, states 
like those 

states ; and it is the 
most important farming 
region in the Dominion. 
Farther west, north of 
Dakota and Montana, 
are broad plains (Fig. 
226), increasing in eleva- 
tion to the very base of 
the Rocky Mountains. 

Among the Western moun- 
tains are many canyons, gla- 
ciers, and snow-capped peaks 
(Fig. 220). The scenery of 
this region is wonderful, and 
the Canadian Pacific Railway 
(Fig. 280) passes through the 
best of it. A portion of this 
wonderland has been set aside 
as a national park by the Canadian government. 

The Great Glacier (Fig. 18) covered the north- 
eastern part of Canada, for it had its source in the high- 
lands of Labrador. As in our coun- __ 

,, ., c i t n i ■ 2. Effects of the 

try, the soil of much of Canada is Great Gi aC i er 

glacial drift; the Great Ice Sheet 

also formed many lakes there, and caused great 

numbers of rapids and waterfalls. 

The climate of southern Canada, like the 
surface features, corresponds to that of our 
Northern States, though it is 
slightly cooler. The climate 
of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and south- 
ern Quebec, for example, resembles that o£ 
New England, while Ontario has a climate 
similar to that of New York, Ohio, and 
Michigan. Farther west, in Manitoba, we 



find nearly the same climate as in Minne- 
sota and North Dakota ; and west of this, 
in Saskatchewan and Alberta, come the 
arid lands. In British Columbia, on the 
west coast, there is heavy rainfall and an 
even temperature, as in Washington. 

Toward the north, however, the country grows 
rapidly colder, until, in the extreme northern por- 
tion, the climate is frigid, and there are broad ex- 
panses of frozen tundra. 

The Labrador current, which cools the tempera- 
ture of Xew England so much (p. 33), sweeps from 
the Arctic Ocean past Labrador and greatly chills 
the coast of that region, as well as Newfoundland 
and Nova Scotia. There is no such ice-laden current 
in the Pacific, and for that reason the climate is 
far -warmer there. Notice, for instance, how much 
farther north Vancouver and Juneau are than any 
city in eastern Canada. 

The forests which cover northern New 
England extend into the hilly and moun- 
Lumbering tainous section of New Bruns- 

1. Extent of wick and southern Quebec 
the forests (Fig. 221). In fact, from 

there westward to the Pacific this wooded 
tract, sweeping northward around the vast 
plains of Manitoba, is from two to three 
hundred miles wide. This forest, which is 
one of the largest in the world, includes 
fully a million square miles, or over a 
fourth of the entire area of Canada. 

In the east, the principal trees are spruce, balsam 
fir, pine, and maple ; in the west they are spruce, 
mammoth cedar, sometimes sixty feet in cireum- 
ference, and Douglas fir, which in some cases grows to 
a height of two hundred feet (Fig. 222). Most of 
this vast forest is a wilderness, about which very 
little is known. Wild animals still live here in 
great numbers, and there are few parts of the con- 
tinent where the hunting for large game is so good. 
Among the animals are the deer, moose, bear, fox, 
wolf, wild cat, beaver, and mink. Furs are one of 
the principal products of the region. From very 
■ early days the Hudson Bay Company has had trad- 
ing stations in this wilderness for the purpose of 
obtaining the furs from Indians and other hunters 
"and trappers. 

Lumbering is carried on in much the 
same manner as in the north- 

fumberilSand ern P art of the United States 
lumber centers (pp. 3-3 aud 125). In the east 

one of the rivers down which the logs are 
floated to the sea is the St. John. Upon 
this river are Fredericton, the capital of 
New Brunswick, and St. John, the largest 
city in that province. In these two cities 
the logs are made into wood pulp and 
lumber. Immense quantities of both these 


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Fig. 221. — Lumbermen chopping down a tree in the 
forest of eastern Canada. 

products are shipped from the seaport of 
St. John. 

The woods of Canada are at present one 
of its greatest sources of wealth ; indeed, 
there are hundreds of sawmills at the 
rapids on the streams, and even in the large 
cities. Among the latter, Montreal, 
Toronto, and Ottawa are important, 
especially in the manufacture of lumber 
into such articles as doors, blinds, barrels, 
and furniture. 

It was the excellent fishing on the shal- 
low banks off the eastern coast of Canada 
that early attracted the French to America, 



lakes and streams. In addition, 
there is much fishing on the west 
coast, especially for salmon. 

It is interesting to watch the salmon as 
they run up the streams to spawn. At 
times, in order to get beyond waterfalls, 
they must leap several feet into the air 
(Fig. 223). Sometimes they fail, but, 
returning to the task, they try again and 
again until successful. When the young 
have reached the proper size, they go 
downstream to the ocean, where they live 
until they are ready to spawn. It is be- 
lieved that they always go back to the 
same river in which they were born. 

While traveling up the streams, the sal- 
mon are easily caught in nets set across i 
the current, or by dip nets in the hands of i 
fishermen, or sometimes by salmon wheels- 
Immense numbers of salmon are canned in 
western Canada (Fig. 224), as in Wash- 
ington and Alaska. 

We have already learned (p. 150) about 
the seal fishing in Alaska. Seals are also 
found on the eastern side of 

Canada, but their fur is of 

2. Sealing 

Fig. 222. — One of the large trees in the forest of western Canada. 
The hoy sitting on the trunk gives a scale hy which you can 
judge the size of the tree. Coutrast its size with that shown in 
Figure 221. 

and fishing is still a flourishing industry 
along that coast. Fully fifty thousand 
Fishing people in Newfoundland and 

l. Catching of the eastern provinces, espe- 
foodfish cially Nova Scotia and Prince 

Edward Island, are engaged in cod fishing. 
One of the best-known fishing ports is Yar- 
mouth, in Nova Scotia, although a great 
deal of fishing is carried on from Halifax, 
and other smaller places in Nova Scotia. 
St. John's, Newfoundland, is another im- 
portant fishing port. 

There is also much inland fishing, for the 
streams and lakes still abound in trout, 
pickerel, whitefish, bass, and salmon (Fig. 
223). Every year large numbers of men 
go from Canada and the United States to 
enjoy the sport of fishing in the Canadian 

little value. There is, however, a la3'er of 
fat, or blubber, just beneath the skin, a-s in 
the whale. This can be made into oil, and 
it is mainly for the blubber that these east- 
ern seals are caught, though the skins are 
also used for making leather. Vessels go 
out from St. John's, Newfoundland, every 
spring to hunt the seals in the ice that floats 
down in the Labrador current (Fig. 225). : 

What was said about the agriculture and 
grazing in our Northern States applies 

Fig. 223. — Photograph of a salmon leaping up over 
waterfall in a stream on the coast of Labrador. This 
fall is over ten feet high and yet the salmon are able 
to leap up over it. 



almost equally to Canada. For example, 

the warm, damp ocean winds favor the pro- 

. . .. duction of wheat and the hardy 

Agriculture . . . •> 

1 Wheat and "lMts in British Columbia as 

haidy fruits in well as ill Wasll- 

thewest ington (p. 127). 

Farther east, on the plains 

at the base of the Rocky 

2. Ranching in Mountains, the 

the arid lands climate is too 

arid for farming. Here, there- 
fore, ranching is the prin- 
cipal industry, as in Montana 
and western Dakota (pp. 99 
and 133). Immense herds 
of sheep and cattle are reared 
on these plains. There are 
several towns here, the largest 
being Calgary. 

In central Saskatchewan the climate be- 
gins to be more favorable for agriculture, 
8. The greatest anc ^ there, as well as in Mani- 
grain region, and toba, enormous quantities of 
its leading city wheat are T!l i se d. This wheat 

belt is a continuation of that found 

In the midst of this wheat region is Win- 
nipeg, in which flour is manufactured, as 
in Minneapolis. This city is situated on 
the banks of the Red River of the North, 


Fig. 225. ■ 

Minnesota and eastern Dakota. Although 
the winters are long and cold, the summers 
are warm, so that the hardy grains, espe- 
cially wheat (Fig. 226"), oats, and barley, 

Fig 224- — Salmon in a salmon cannery, just brought from the water. 

which empties into Lake Winnipeg. Find 
out, from the map (Fig. 219), what other 
large river is tributary to this lake ; also 
the name of its outlet. 

The country north of Lake Superior is 
hilty and for the most part forest-covered, 
being quite . _, 

& -1 4. The most 

like north- populous farm- 

ern Minne- lug section, and 

n its products 

s o t a and 

Michigan. There is, 
therefore, little agricul- 
ture here. 

Farther east, on the 
peninsula between 
Lakes Erie, Huron, and 
Ontario, is some of the 
best farm land in Canada. 
This region is in the 
province of Ontario, 
which is the most popu- 
lous of the Canadian 
provinces, containing 
about one third of all the 
people in Canada. What large cities do 
you find here? More than two thirds of 
the inhabitants of Ontario, however, dwell 
either on farms or in small towns in the 
farming districts. 

-Seal hunters killing seal on the floe ice in the Labrador current 
north of Newfoundland. 



Fig. 226. — Fields of wheat, some cut, some uncut, on the level, fertile plains of southern Manitoba. 


Ontario is no farther north than cen- 
tral and western New York ; and its cli- 
mate is greatly influenced by the Great 
Lakes. Here grapes, peaches, corn, and 
even tobacco are raised ; also quantities of 
oats, wheat, barle} 7 , and flax. Some of the 
finest horses in America are reared in On- 
tario, and the province is further noted as 
a dairy region. 

There is a strip of excellent farming 
country almost the entire length of the St. 
5. Farming in Lawrence River, and along a 
part of the southern shores of 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
Prince Edward Island has many fine farms, 
and portions of Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick also are farming districts. One of 
the best and most beautiful farming regions 
in all Canada is in southwestern Nova 
Scotia, noted especially for delicious apples. 
It was here that the French settlements 
were made, about which Longfellow has 
written in his " Evangeline " ; and this is 
often called " The Land of Evangeline." 
Western Canada, like western United 
States, is a noted mining 
region. Among the minerals, 
gold and silver are especially 


1. In British 
Columbia and 
Yukon Territory important, 


lead and 

copper ores, building stone, coal, and other 
mineral products are also obtained. Valu- 
able deposits of coal are found both among 
the mountains and in the plains farther 
east. You have already Tearnedrthat the 
famous Klondike region is situated in Yukon 
Territorjr, near the Alaskan boundary. 
Although so near the Arctic Circle, Daw- 
son City, in the Klondike, has grown 
rapidly because of the gold mining. 

Gold and silver are found in the province : 
of Ontario, in the vicinity of the Lake of 
the Woods. One of the most 2 . i n Ontario 
remarkable silver deposits on and soutneast- 
the continent has recently been ern Canada 
discovered at Cobalt, north of Toronto. 
Nickel is also mined in Ontario, and some 
oil fields have been developed. 

Although iron ore has been discovered in 
certain places, the scarcity of coal, near at 
hand, has prevented Canada from producing 
much iron. The coal of western Canada is 
too distant for use in the Eastern cities, and 
the coal beds of the East have never been 
thoroughly developed. In Nova Scotia, and 
on Cape Breton Island, which is a part of 
Nova Scotia, there are extensive beds of 
soft coal, like that of western Pennsylvania 
and the Central States. This coal is 

COUNTRIES north OF the united states 


shipped to the cities of the St. Lawrence 
Valley. A few years ago blast furnaces 
were erected at Sydney, Cape Breton Is- 
land, and an important iron-manufacturing 
industry has arisen there. This has in- 
creased the value of the Nova Scotia coal. 

the other hand, ship canals have been built 
around the rapids and falls (Fig. 227), so 
that good-sized boats are able to go from 
the open ocean to the western part of Lake 
Superior, a distance of twenty-two hundred 
miles. This gives the Canadian route a 


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Fig. 227 

-The Wellaud Canal, between Lakes Erie ami Ontario. At this point there are two locks in the canal. 
Point them out. Why are they needed ? 

There appear to be two outlets by water 
for central Canada, — one by way of the 
Transports- St. Lawrence, the other by 
tion way of Hudson Bay. The 

latter is of little use, however. Explain 

Canada shares with the United States the 
advantages of navigation on all the Great 
Lakes, with one exception. Which is it ? 
Fortunately for Canada, the lower St. Law- 
rence lies wholly within that country. But 
this river has some serious drawbacks. One 
is the ice that stops navigation in winter. 
A second is the presence of numerous rapids 
over which vessels cannot pass in going up- 
stream. In addition, dense fogs are com- 
mon in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and along 
the Newfoundland coast, where the damp 
air from the ocean is chilled in passing over 
the cold Labrador current (Fig. 312). On 

great advantage over the Erie Canal route 
upon which only small canal boats can go. 

There are many other large rivers in 
Canada besides the St. Lawrence River. 
Name them,- and tell why most of them are 
of little value. 

Railways have been of great importance in 
Canada, as in the United States. The lead- 
ing railway is the Canadian Pacific, which 
extends from St. John, New Brunswick, 
entirely across Canada, to Vancouver, on 
the Pacific coast. It is the shortest route 
from England to China and Japan, and much 
freight is sent that way. Another important 
line is the Grand Trunk Railway. 

Montreal (Fig. 228), the principal city 
in Canada, is on the St. Law- 
rence River (Fig. 229), at the Leading citles 

,, , ,, v S... D - 1. Along the St. 

mouth of the Ottawa River, Lawren * e and 
and just below the Lachine Ottawa rivers 



Rapids. Thus goods from Europe may be 
carried by ocean vessel to Montreal, fully a 
thousand miles inland; then, by transfer to 
other sbips, they may be taken on canals, 
rivers, and lakes as far as Dulutb. By this 
means, and by railways also, raw products 
from the North, East, South, and West col- 
lect at Montreal, either to be manufactured, 
or to be shipped farther. In its extensive 

articles of wood, various steel and iron 
products, and cigars. 

Farther down the river is Quebec, which 
was once the center of the French govern- 
ment in Canada, and the principal city. It 
is situated on a high bluff rising above the 
St. Lawrence, and is fortified so as to com- 
mand that river. The better location of 
Montreal, farther inland, has drawn the com- 

Fio. 228. — Map to show the location of Montreal, Ottawa, and Quebec. 

connection with the interior of Canada, by 
water and by rail, Montreal reminds us of 
New York ; but since it has a less produc- 
tive territory to draw upon, it has grown 
far less rapidly than New York. 

As in the large cities of the United States, 
there are many kinds of manufacturing in 
Montreal, including the making of sugar, 
boots and shoes, cotton and woolen cloth- 
ing. India-rubber goods, furniture and other 

merce away from Quebec. The advantage 
of Montreal's situation has been greatly in- 
creased by the building of ship canals around 
the rapids ; also by the dredging of the St. 
Lawrence, thus deepening the channel so as 
to admit ocean vessels as far as the city. 

Quebec is one of the quaintest and most 
interesting cities on the continent. It 
resembles a bit of the Old World, trans- 
planted to America, and a visitor from the 



Fig. 22'J. - 

■A view of Montreal from the hill called Mount Royal, which rises directly hehind the city. 
is the broad St. Lawrence. Notice the long bridge crossing it. 

In tliK distance 

United States feels that he is indeed in a 
foreign country. There is some manufac- 
turing there, such as the making of boots 
and shoes. 

Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion, is 
above Montreal, at some large falls in the 
Ottawa River. On account of this fine 
■water power, it has much manufacturing, 
and is especially noted for its lumber man- 
ufactories. It has beautiful government 

buildings, known there as the Parliament 
Buildings (Fig. 230). 

What Canadian cities on the Atlantic coast have 
already been mentioned, and in what connections? 
One of these, Halifax, in Nova 
Scotia, is one of the oldest cities in 
Canada. Although it has an excel- 
lent harbor, Halifax has never become a great city. 
The reason is easily seen on examining the map 
(Iug.219). The narrow peninsula of Nova Scotia is 
not large enough to supply raw materials and man- 

2 Along the 
Atlantic coast 

Flo. 230. — The Parliament Buildings at Ottawa. 



ufactured articles in sufficient quantity to make it a 
great shipping point, and the country farther west 
is too difficult to reach. It is much cheaper to send 
Western goods to Montreal, for shipment eastward, 
than to carry them by rail as far as Halifax. 

New York and Montreal show clearly the reasons 
why some cities flourish ; and Halifax is an equally 
good illustration of the reason why other cities fail 
to grow so rapidly. 

Toronto, the second city in size in Can- 
ada, is located on an excellent harbor on the 
3. Along the shores of Lake Ontario. Being 
Great Lakes i u the midst of a fertile farm- 
ing country, and having water connection 
with coal on the east and south, and with 

Fig. 231 . — A Greenland Eskimo in his skin-boat, or kayak. In the distance 
are icebergs which have broken off from the great Greenland glacier. 

lumber and other raw products on the west, 
Toronto has become a great manufacturing 
center. At the same time it is one of the 
most attractive cities on the continent. 

Not far from Toronto, on the extreme western 
end of Lake Ontario, is Hamilton, a manufacturing 
and trade center ; and there are other cities on the 
same peninsula, the largest being London. At the 
eastern end of Lake Ontario, near the Thousand 
Islands, is Kingston, which has cotton and woolen 
mills, car shops, and locomotive works, besides 
being a lake port and railway center. Windsor 
(Fig. 154), opposite Detroit, shares some of the 
advantages of that city, being a shipping point and 
a manufacturing center. Port Arthur, whose 
location corresponds to that of Duluth in the United 
States, is a shipping point for grain, cattle, and other 
Western products. 

What have you already learned about Winnipeg ? 

Vancouver, on the Pacific coast, has already been 

mentioned. In what connection ? Across the strait 

on the island of Vancouver, is the . „ 

city of Victoria. How do these 

two cities compare in size with the two largest on 

Puget Sound ? (See Appendix, pp. 428 and 430.) 

2. Greenland 

The Eskimos (Fig. 231) living on the west coast 
of Greenland are under the control of the Danes, 
who trade with them for skins, walrus, ivory, blub- 
ber, and eider down. The most northern of the 
Danish trading stations is UpERNrviK, which is 
the most northern point in the world where white 
men live. Some uncivilized Eskimos, however, have 
homes still farther north. 

Most of Greenland is a barren 
waste of ice and snow — one of the 
most complete deserts in the world. 
There is no living thing to be found 
in the ice-covered interior. The 
extent of this land, and other facts 
about it, you have already studied 
in connection with the Great Glacier 
(p. 7). 

1. What two nations struggled 
for possession of Canada, and what 
was the result ? 

2. How many prov- * evlew 
inces are there in v uestl0ns 
Canada, and what are their names? 

3. What can you tell about New- 
foundland? 4. Show how fully the 
surface features of southern Canada 
correspond to those of our Northern 
States. 5. What have been the 
effects of the Great Glacier here? 

6. Describe the climate. 7. Where are the forests ? 
8. What is the method of lumbering, and what are 
the leading lumber centers? 9. Where are food 
fish caught? AVhat kiuds are caught? 10. What 
about the sealing? 11. What are the farm prod- 
ucts in the West? 12. State the principal facts 
about ranching. 13. Where is the principal grain 
region, and what is the leading city there ? 14. 
Where is the most populous farming section, and 
what are its products ? 15. What about farming in 
southeastern Canada? 16. What can you tell about 
mining in British Columbia and Yukon Territory. 
17. What mineral products are found in Ontario and 
southeastern Canada? 18. Whatare the conveniences 
for transportation? 19. Locate and tell the princi- 
pal facts about the leading cities along the St. 
Lawrence and Ottawa rivers. 20. Along the Atlantic 
coast. 21. Along the Great Lakes. 22. Locate and 
tell about other cities of importance. 23. What is 
the condition in Greenland? 



1. Compare the area of Canada with that of the 
United States (Appendix, pp. 424 and 420). 2. Com- 
pare the populations (Appendix). 
Suggestions ;J Read ^ story of „ Evangeline .» 

4. Lake Erie is how much higher than Lake Onta- 
rio? How are ships able to pass from one lake 
to the other? 5. Why should Buffalo grow more 
rapidly than Toronto? 6. Of what advantage is it 
to the United Kingdom to hare such a large, pro- 
ductive colony as Canada? 7. What books on 
Arctic travel have you read? Tell some of the things 
you have learned from them. 8. Read Nansen's 
" First Crossing of Greenland " or Peary's " Xorth- 
ward over the Great Ice." 9. Recall facts that you 
have already learned about the Eskimo. 

VI. Countries South of the United 

Mexico. 1. Describe the relief of Mexico. 2. Name 

the two large peninsulas. 3. What river forms a 

part of the northern boundary? 

* ' 4. What salt waters border Mexico? 

5. Find the capital. 6. Find the seaport Vera Cruz. 
7. Compare the coast line with that of the north- 
eastern part of the United States. 

Central America. 8. Xame the countries. 9. What 
sea lies to the east? 10. What large lake do you 
find? 11. Examine the small map of the Panama 
Canal. Describe the route proposed. 12. Xame the 
two cities at the two ends of the canal. 

West Inr/ie.i (Fig. 205). 13. Find the Bahamas;- 
the Lesser Antilles; the Greater Antilles. 14. Xame 
the four largest islands in the West Indies. 15. In 
what zone do the West Indies lie ? 10. What 
waters touch the shores of the West Indies ? 
17. What nation owns the Bahamas? 18. What 
other nations have possessions in the West In- 
dies? 19. Locate the Bermuda Islands on the map, 
Figure 9. 

i . Mexico 

After Columbus discovered the "West 
Indies, the neighboring coast of the main- 
History land was visited and settled. 
1. The inhabit- Thus the Spaniards came into 
^ ts possession of Mexico and some 
of the country to the north which now be- 
longs to the United States. 

The explorers found so much gold and 
silver in Mexico that many Spaniards 
settled there. They opened mines, and 
started coffee plantations, farms, and cattle 
ranches. Many of the Spaniards inter- 

married with the Indians, so that Mexico 
has a varied population. There are savage 
Indians, half-civilized Aztecs, Spanish and 
Indian half-breeds, and some pure-blooded 

Spain governed Mexico so badly that 
the people finally rebelled, and in 1821 won 
their independence. They %. The gov- 
then established a republic ernment 
with a government modeled after our own. 
There are twenty-seven states, each with 
a government and capital, somewhat like 
our states ; and there are three territories. 
There is also a central government, with 
the capital at Mexico City, where the 
president lives. 

For a long time Texas, New Mexico, and Colo- 
rado, together with the country west of them to the 

Pacific, were a part of Mexico. „ 

„. ., . , j , 3. Loss of 

1 exas won its independence by + err j torv 

war, and joined our L'nion (p. 88) ; 

and as a result of our war with Mexico, called the 

Mexican War, the United States obtained all the 

territory which in Figure 283 is marked " Mexican 

Territory ceded 1848." 

Mexico consists of four sections, at dif- 
ferent heights above sea level. The lowest 
of these is a coastal plain, and 
other lowlands, near the sea. Surface 
The second includes the slopes ^ The fonr 
that extend toward the high- sections at 


lands of the interior. The 
third is the highland itself, a 
broad table-land, or plateau, occupying a 
large part of the interior of the country 
(Fig. 10). The fourth consists of moun- 
tain ranges and peaks, which are a con- 
tinuation of the Cordillera of our Western 
States. Among the mountains, as in the 
United States, are volcanic cones (Fig. 
233), two of them, Orizaba and Popocate- 
petl (Fig. 210), being among the highest 
peaks on the continent. 

The divide of this narrow part of North 
America extends from north to south, send- 
ing some of the streams east- 
ward, others westward. Thus 
all the streams of the country are short. 
They have a rapid fall in descending from 



the interior plateau, and have cut deep 
canyons in its edges. In addition, the 

Fig. 233. — Colima, a Mexican volcano, in 
eruption. This great column of steam 
and volcanic ash has been expelled with 
terrific force, rising to a height of over 
a mile. 

streams pas's through such an arid coun- 
try that they have little water. Rivers of 
this kind are not useful for navigation. 
This lack of large, navigable 
rivers has greatly interfered 
with the development of 
Mexico. Suggest why. 

As in our Southern States, the 
land has been rising instead of 

sinkinsr. Therefore 
3. The coast .. . • , 

,. . . . the coast is regular, 

line and harbors , 

and there are few 

good harbors. There are two 
large peninsulas projecting from 
the mainland. One of these is 
Yucatan; the other is Lower Cali- 
fornia, a southern extension of the 
mountains of our Western States. 

near Vera Cruz and in Yucatan, have the 
hot climate of the tropical zone (Fig. 23-4), 
with abundant rain brought by the damp 
winds that blow across the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Caribbean Sea. 

On the slopes west of these plains the 
temperature is not so hot, but there is much 
rain. This belt has a subtropical climate. 

The interior plateau is so high that the 
climate is temperate, even in the part that 
lies south of the Tropic of Cancer ; but 
there is so little rain that the country is 
arid (Fig. 299). The climate becomes 
steadily cooler the higher one goes. In- 
deed, even within the tropical zone, ther 
are places among the mountains where the 
snow never melts, and where there are true 
glaciers. On these high mountain slopes 
the rainfall is quite heavy. 

In the greater part of Mexico forests are 
rare, except upon the higher mountains. In 
fact, there is so little forest on products from 
the arid plateau that the in- forest trees 
habitants find difficulty in ob- and other re- 
taining wood for fuel. Much tive P lants 
of this is dug from the ground ; for some 
of the arid-land bushes, such as the mes- 
quite, have long, thick roots which make 
excellent firewood. The other plants found 


Mexico has four different 

kinds of climate, correspond- 
ing somewhat 
closely to the four areas of 

different altitudes. The low coastal plains, 

234. — A view in the tropical lowlands of Mexico near the coast, called 
the " hot lands." The road is bordered by banana trees. 

in the arid lands 
Western States (p. 

resemble those of our 



In southern Mexico and on the damp 
lowlands, on the other hand, there are 
dense tropical forests. In these are found 
many valuable woods, such as mahogany, 
rosewood, and logwood. The rubber tree 
also grows here, and large quantities of rub- 
ber are obtained. 

One of the most valuable of the native plants is 
the heniquen, a variety of hemp, which thrives in 
Yucatan. Among the exports of Mexico, this and 
other fibers rank next in value to 
mineral products, most of the fiber 
going to the United States. 

Another product is the vanilla 
bean, which grows upon a climbing 
plant. In the seed-pod are nestled 
the fragrant beans which are used 
for making flavoring extracts, for 
perfumeries, and for medicine. Pep- 
per, made from the dried berry of a 
tropical plant, is obtained in Mexico. 
Indigo, useful as a dye, is likewise 
obtained from a berry in this region : 
and sarsaparilla is extracted from 
the roots of a tropical plant that 
grows here. 

some varieties of agave contain a fiber which is made 
into paper and a strong thread; and from the juices 
of one kind, called the maguey, soap may be made. 
So valuable is the maguey that it is carefully culti- 
vated upon plantations (Fig. 235). 

The Mexican farming methods, which are very 
crude, are a mixture of ancient Aztec customs and 
those introduced from Spain several 
centuries ago. One may still see the 
wooden plow which barely scrapes 
the ground ; and also the wooden- 
wheeled cart drawn by oxen. There are, however, 

(2) Farming 
methods; and 
home life 


1. On the arid 


(1) Products 

by irrigation 

Although the climate of a 
large part of Mexico is arid, 
agriculture is the 
principal industry 
of the people. This is partly 
due to the snows and rains 
among the mountains, which 
supply water for irrigation. On the irri- 
gated farms the products of the temperate 
zone are raised, such as wheat, corn, and 
beans — the latter being one of the staple 
foods of the Mexicans. Much fruit is also 
produced, especially apples, pears, peaches, 
and grapes. 

A species of native arid-land plant, called agave, 
is of great value. The stout, sharp-pointed leaves 
of the agave rise in a tuft from near the ground ; in 
the center stands the flower stalk, which sometimes 
reaches a height of forty feet, and which bears a 
cluster of white flowers on the top. This is also 
called the century plant, because it requires so long 
(irom ten to seventy years) to mature and produce 
this flower stalk. From the juice of the agave the 
Mexicans obtain analcoholic drink known as pulque, 
and another known as mescal. The tough leaves of 

Irrigated fields on the plateau of Me 
on the right are maguey. 

rows of plants 

many farmers who have adopted the same methods 
of farming as we have ; and every year their 
number is increasing, for Mexico is now advancing 

The home life of the people is interesting. Their 
houses have but one story, and are commonly built 
of sun-dried bricks, or adobes (Fig. 192), held to- 
gether by layers of mud. Often there is but one 
room (Fig. 206), the ceiling being made of brush, 
and the floor of nothing but earth or stones. In 
this one room the whole family cook, eat, and 
sleep. Their food consists of very simple materials, 
such as unraised bread, baked in the fireplace, 
beans, and sometimes meat, commonly cooked 
with red pepper. Men, women, and even children 
use tobacco. 

While this description is true for the poorer 
classes, it of course does not apply to the wealthier 
and educated Mexicans. But even these have adobe 
houses, which somewhat resemble those of southern 

So much of Mexico is arid that large 
sections are suited only to grazing. For 



Fig. 236. — Interior of a Mexican adobe house. 

this reason, one of the leading industries is 

ranching. As in our Western States, there 

are extensive cattle and sheep 

( ) ane mg ranc l ies ; an( j hides, meat, and 

wool are important exports. 

Many horses and mules are raised ; but the little 
Mexican jackass, or burro, is one of the most com- 
mon draft animals (Fig. 237). It is the size of a 
small pony, and is made to do all kinds of work. 
The burro is a very patient beast, and is able to 
carry heavy loads and endure much hardship. 

Hogs are fattened in large numbers, and there are 
many goats. The latter are much prized, not only 
for their meat and hides, but also for their milk, 
■which is used as a food and in making cheese. 

On the damp lowlands, the farm prod- 
ucts are quite different from those on the 
2. On the lower, arid plateau. There rice, sugar 
humid lands cane, and cotton are produced ; 
also tropical fruits, such as oranges, ba- 
nanas, cocoanuts, and pineapples. Upon the 
slopes between the tropical lowlands and 
the temperate plateau much cotton, tobacco, 
and coffee are raised. 

Coffee, one of the most' valuable products of 
Mexico, requires a rich soil, abundant moisture, a 
warm climate, and plenty of shade. In order to 
secure shade, the coffee bush, which reaches a height 
of from ten to fifteen feet, is planted in the shade of 
higher trees. A white blossom appears as early as 

March, and after the flower falls off, 
the coffee berry begins to grow (Fig. 
238). It resembles a dark red cran- 
berry. The coffee is inside of this 
berry in the form of two kernels, 
and the husk must be removed in 
order to prepare such kernels for 

One of the principal objects 
of the Spaniards in exploring 
the New World Mining 
was to obtain gold i Extent of 
and silver ; and minerals 
they were rewarded in their 
search by the discovery of rich 
mines both in Mexico and 
South America. Some of 
these mines had been worked 
by the Indians ; others were 
found by the Spaniards them- 
selves. Mexico is still a great mining 
country, rivalling the United States in the 
production of silver. 


mr ■■ * 

- * 


**---^fc.~ a $^^^R^^^^^^^^^Hi 1 ~~ TK * 

5s2j&sl|lt?i -l^w 


It"- ■ — 3r " 


Fig. 237. — A Mexican burro carrying heavy sacks. 



Much gold, copper, lead, and zinc are also 
produced, and recently great quantities of 
petroleum have been found on the coastal 
plain, as in Texas and Louisiana. A large 
amount of iron is known to exist in several 
parts of the country. At one place, near 
Dur.yngo, there is an iron mountain which 
contains an enormous amount of 
very rich ore. Here blast furnaces 
have been erected, and steel rails 
and other iron goods are manufac- 
tured. Find this city on the map. 

One great obstacle to raining in Mexico 

is the lack of good coal. Another is the 

lack of easy transportation. 
2. Difficulties A third ; s the fact that 

m the develop- , c , , 

. , . . much ot the region cannot 
ment of mining ... ° , 

easily be explored lor ore. 

In fact, some parts of the country are still 
occupied by tribes of savage Indians, who 
not only prevent miners from coming in, 
but even defy the government. Still an- 
other difficulty is the old-fashioned methods 
of mining employed by many of the Mexi- 
cans. Some of these are the same as those 
used by the Indians centuries ago. But 
the methods are being improved, for many 
of the leading mines are now owned by 
Europeans, Americans, or educated Mexi- 
cans. Mining is now rapidly developing 
in Mexico, and minerals form more than 
half of the exports. Fibers are the second 
export in importance, and coffee the third. 

Because of the ignorance of the 
working people, and the scarcity of 

„ , coal, there is not a 

Manufacturing , , j. 

great deal of manu- 
facturing in Mexico; and that which 
is done is largely carried on by hand. 
Some of this hand work is very 
beautiful, for even the uneducated Mexicans 
are quite artistic. 

There are large tobacco factories in the 
tobacco district, and smelters in the mining 
regions. Some earthenware is also manu- 
factured, and some cotton cloth. Indeed, 
cotton manufacturing is growing rapidly in 
importance, the cotton used being that 
which is grown in Mexico. More money 
is now invested in cotton mills than in any 
other form of manufacturing. 

There are no large manufacturing towns 
such as we find in many parts of the United 
States ; but Mexico is making rapid prog- 
ress. There is much water power where 
the streams descend from the plateau, and 
this is being used for producing electricity. 
Railroads, too, are being built in many parts 

Fig. 238. — Coffee tree and berries growing in the shade of 
higher trees. 

of the republic. But, most important of 
all, those now in control are encouraging 
all kinds of industry and providing better 
facilities for education. 

Wherever possible, the Mexicans have col- 
lected in cities or towns (Fig. 239). This 
has been necessary in many Leading cities 
sections in order to obtain the i. i n the 
water supply needed for irri- interior 
gation. It is usually too great a task for a 
single farmer to build a ditch; and there- 


Fig. 239. — A view of Leon, one of the cities on the plateau of Mexico. Notice how low the houses are. 
Most of thern are one-story adobe buildings. 

fore a number combine and thus live close 

There are a few large cities, the greatest 
being the capital, Mexico City (Fig. 240), 

built on the site of an ancient Aztec Indian 
city. It is situated on a high plateau and 
therefore, although so far south, has a cool 
climate. In this city, as elsewhere in Mex- 

Fig. 240.— A view of a part of Mexico City, with the snow-capped cone of the volcano Popocatepetl rising in the distance. 



ico, there are many fine churches and other 
notable buildings. Another city in the 
interior of Mexico is Puebla, founded in 
1531. It also is situated near one of the 
ancient cities, or pueblos, of the Aztecs. 
Guadalajara is a third important Mexi- 
can city. Locate each of these cities. 

Since the eastern coast of Mexico is low 

and sandy, it has no good harbors. The 

two largest cities 

2. On the coast there ^ T ^ 

Pico and Veea Cruz, whose 
harbors are protected by break- 
waters. There are some good 
harbors on the western coast. 
One of these is Acapulco, 
but since it is backed by 
high mountains and a thinly 
settled country, that port has 
never become of much im- 

2. Central America 

Of the six Central American 
republics, the smallest is Sal- 
Names of the vador 5 the next ' 
Costa Rica. 

Nicaragua, Hon- 
duras, and Guate- 
mala are about equal in size. 
These are all in North America ; 
but the Republic of Panama is 
partly in North America and 
partly in South America. It 
has a special interest for us. Why (p. 154) ? 
These ajx countries are independent of 
each other, and each has a form of govern- 
ment modeled after that of the United 
States. In addition to these countries, on 
the eastern side of the Yucatan Peninsula 
is British Honduras (or Belize), a colony of 
the United Kingdom. 

The inhabitants of the Central American republics 

are mainly Indians, Spaniards, and half-breeds. The 

great majority are uneducated, and 
Character of ■ .,• , T , 

many are even uncivilized. Largely 

* * on account of the ignorance of the 

people these countries are not good examples of 

republics. An ambitious general, finding a few 
followers, may at any time try to overturn the gov- 
ernment. There has been rebellion after rebellion 
in these nations; presidents have been driven away 
or murdered; and the countries have quarreled with 
one another. 

Most of Central America is mountainous, and is 
subject to volcanic eruptions and to 

earthquakes of great violence. The 

Character of 

earthquake shocks have leveled e re S lon 
towns and killed thousands of people. For instance, 

countries and 
their govern- 

241. — Loading bananas on a banana plantation in Costa Rica. The 
bananas are then taken to the coast and placed on steamers to be 
shipped to the United States. 

San Salvador, the capital of Salvador, -was so 
frequently destroyed by earthquakes that the inhabit- 
ants decided to choose a new location for their city ; 
but this is scarcely better than the old one. 

Since these countries lie in the tropical zone, the 
climate is hot. The rainfall is heavy, especially on 
the eastern coast, where there are dense jungles. 

A large portion of these countries is occu- 
pied by dense tropical forests, from which 

are obtained mahogany, rose- 

, , , r , • i The products 

wood, logwood, fustic, and r 

other valuable cabinet and dye woods. The 
rubber tree also grows here, and the produc- 
tion of rubber is an important industry. 



As in Mexico, coffee is raised on the 
hill slopes in the shade of the forest trees. 
Costa Rica is one of the most important 
coffee-producing districts (Fig. 242). Ba- 

1. Jamaica 

(1) Government 
and people 



Fig. 2i2. — Drying coffee berries in Costa Riea. There are 
berries here spread out in the sun to dry. After they 
husk is removed and the bean is then shipped away. 

nanas (Fig. 241), sugar, tobacco, indigo, 
and cocoa are other products. 

Some gold and silver are obtained, the former 
near Bluefiekls, the latter in Honduras. Manu- 
facturing is little developed. 

The largest city in Central America is New 

Guatemala, the capital of Guatemala. This city, 

which was formerly situated at the 

The leading \,& se f two very active volcanoes, 

y was changed to a safer site; hence 

the name New Guatemala. 

3. The West Indies (see the Map, Fig. 205) 

A chain of islands reaches from the 
Yucatan and Florida peninsulas to the 
mouth of the Orinoco River 
on the South American coast. 
These islands inclose the Carib- 
bean Sea ; and, also, with the 
aid of the peninsulas of Florida and Yucatan, 
the Gulf of Mexico. All of this archipelago, 
excepting the Bahamas, lies entirely within 
the tropical zone. 

These islands, scores of which are very 
small, are called the West Indies, because 

tons of coffee 
are dried, the 

Location and 
names of the 
groups of 

Columbus thought he had reached India. 

With the exception of the Bahamas, they 
are also known as the Antilles. Those on 
the north, including the larger ones, are 
called the Greater Antilles ; and those on 
the south, the Lesser Antilles. 
Two of the Greater An- 
tilles have already been de- 
scribed (p. 152). The Greater 
What do j'ou re- Antilles 
member about them ? 

South of Cuba lies the island 
of Jamaica, the third in size in 
the West Indies, 
and a possession 
of Great Britain. 
The inhabitants 
either negroes or mulattoes, 
there being fully forty blacks 
to one white person. 

This island is mountainous 
in the center, but has excellent 
soil on the lower 
slopes and in the valleys, and (2) Prod ™ ts 
is very productive. The chief occupation 
is agriculture, and the women are employed 
in outdoor work as much as the men. Oue 
of the main products is sugar cane. Early 
vegetables and fruits, such as oranges 
and bananas (Fig. 243), are also raised. 
Jamaica ginger, of which every one has 
heard, is obtained from the root of a plant 
that grows in this island. 

The climate and scenery are very attractive, and 
many people from the United States go there for a 
part of the winter. Regular ocean steamers carry 
passengers, together with great quantities of tropical 
fruits and vegetables. ^, 

As in other islands of. the West' Indies, earth- 
quakes are common. One of these, 
in 1906, caused great destruction in (3 > Earthquakes 
Kingston, the capital and leading city. 

Haiti was the first large island discov- 
ered by Columbus, and on it he made settle- 
ments and opened mines. Like 2. Haiti 
the other Greater Antilles, this (l) Government 
became an important Spanish colony; but 
Spain lost one island after another,. the last 
to go being Cuba and Porto Rico (p. 152). 



(2) Products 

Haiti has long been independent, and there 
are now two republics in the island — Haiti 
and Santo Domingo. The cap- 
ital of the former is Pokt au 
Prince ; and of the latter, 
Santo Domingo. They are not 
very progressive republics, and, as in 
Central America, revolutions are very 
common. Most of the inhabitants are 
negroes and half-breeds, descendants 
of the slaves of the Spanish settlers; 
but there are more white people 
in Santo Domingo, winch is more 
progressive than Haiti. 

Many of the natives obtain their 
living in the most primitive fashion, 
like the negroes of 
Africa ; but others, 
especially near the seacoast, are 
engaged in raising sugar, tobacco, 
coffee, and bananas. There are 
valuable woods covering much 
of the island, and some mineral 
wealth ; but little is done with 
these resources. 

Most of the islands among 
the Lesser Antilles are posses- 
The Lesser sions of Great 
Antilles Britain, though some belong 

(1) Government to other nations. For in- 
«* product, gfcancej Martillique and Guade . 

loupe belong to France ; St. Thomas and 
St. Croix to Denmark ; and some to 
Holland. The products of the Lesser 
Antilles are similar to those of the other 
West Indies, the most important 
sugar cane. 



and earth 

These small islands are volcanic cones. Most of 
the volcanoes are now extinct, but in Martinique 
and in St. Vincent there have been 
violent volcanic outbursts. One of 
the most terrible volcanic eruptions 
ever recorded occurred in Martinique 
in 1002. After being quiet for about fifty years, 
Mont Pelee (Fig. 244) suddenly burst forth and 
completely destroyed the beautiful city of St. Pierre, 
which was situated at its base (Fig. 245). In a few 
seconds all of the inhabitants, over twenty-five thou- 
sand people, were killed by the cloud of steam and 
hot ash which descended upon them. 

North of Haiti and Cuba are several 
hundred small islands called the Bahamas, 

which be- 
long to Great 
Britain. A 
number of 
these are in- 
habited, and . 
on one is 
situated the 
city of Nas- 

These islands, like the coast 
of southern Florida (p. 72), have 
been made by 
coral polyps. One The Bahamas 
of the products is 1. Government 
the sponge, which and chief cit y 
grows in the clear, 2. How the 
warm waters of the islands were 
Bahama banks. To made i als ° 
obtain sponges, the °^^ onS *** 
inhabitants either 
cruise about in boats, raking them 
up, or they dive into the clear water, 
tearing them from the bottom. 

On the land, early vegetables, 
pineapples, oranges, and cocoanuts 
are raised by the inhabitants, who 
are chiefly negroes. One of the in- 
dustries, as on the neighboring coast of Florida, is 

!43. — Bananas as they grow, 
hanging in great bunches from 
the broad-leafed banana tree. 

Copyrighted 1902, by William IT. Rail. 
Fig. 244. — A view of Mout Pelee. When this picture 
was taken a small eruption was just beginning, and 
the steam and ash are seen rising from the crater. 



Fig. 245. — The ruined city of St. Pierre after the terrible volcauic eruption of 1902. 

Location and 

caving for winter visitors. Why should people 
wish to go there? 

4. The Bermudas (Fig. 9) 

Far out in the Atlantic, six hundred miles east of 
the Carolinas, and alone in mid-ocean, is a cluster of 

islands, known as the Bermudas. 

The largest is only fifteen miles long 

and one or two miles wide. Being 
in the open ocean, and surrounded by warm ocean 
currents, these islands have a delightful and equable 
climate. In midwinter, when people in the same 
latitude in the United States are shivering with 
cold, those in the Bermudas are able to sit out of 
doors in comfort, both day and night. 

This group of islands, which belongs to Great 
Britain, is inhabited mainly by negroes and mulat- 
Peopleand toeS ' wh ° are e »S a g ed in raising 

occupations earl y ve S etabIes for the American 

market, especially potatoes and on- 
ions. Another important product is the Easter lily, 
great fields of which are cultivated for the Easter 
season. Many persons from the United States are 
attracted here every winter, most of whom stay in 
the largest city, Hamilton. 

Mexico: Questions. 1. Give some facts about 
the history of Mexico. 2. Explain about the four 
sections in Mexico that have different altitudes. 

3. Tell about its rivers. 4. Its coast line and har- 
bors. 5. Its climate. 6. What are the products 
from the forest trees, and other na- 
tive plants ? 7. What agricultural 
products are obtained by irrigation? 
8. Describe the farming methods 
and the home life in the arid lands. 

Review Ques- 
tions and 

9. Where is 

ranching carried on? What animals are raised? 
10. What products are obtained from the lower 
humid lands? 11. What about the extent of min- 
erals in Mexico? 12. Mention several difficulties in 
the development of mining there. 13. What is the 
condition of manufacturing? 14. Name and locate 
the leading cities in the interior. 15. On the coast. 

Suggestions. 1G. Find out why coffee raising 
requires special care. 17. Find an article of furni- 
ture made of mahogany. 18. Walk toward Mexico 
City. li). What reasons can you give for its loca 
tion? 20. Who is the president of Mexico? 
21. Make a sketch map of Mexico. 

Cextral America : Questions. 22. Name the 
countries here, and tell their form of government. 
23. What is the character of the people. 24. De- 
scribe the region. 25. What are the products? 
2G. Name and locate the leading city. 

Suggestions. 27. What disadvantages do you 
see in the lack of a central government for all the Cen- 
tral American republics? 28. In what other ways, 
besides saving coal, will the canal across Panama 
prove of advantage? Let a committee be appointed 



from your class to obtain definite facts about tbe 
matter. 29. Why will harbors at each end of the 
canal be necessary? 30. .Make a sketch map of 
Central America. 

The West Indies and the Bermudas: Ques- 
tions. 31. Locate the West Indies, and give the 
names of their principal groups. 32. Tell what you 
can about the government, people, and products of 
Jamaica. 33. The earthquakes there. 3-1. What can 
you tell about Haiti? 35. State 
important facts about the 
Lesser Antilles. 313. About 
the Bahamas. 37. How are 
the Bermudas important? 
Locate them. 

Suggestions. 38. How 
does each of the largest four 
of the West Indies compare 
in area and population with 
New York State ? (See tables 
in Appendix, pp.424 and42fi.) 
39. Find out more about the 
eruption of Mont Pelee. 

VII. Review of 
North America 

The natural advan- 
tages that North America 
The story of possesses as 
a home for 

ered by the Great Glacier (p. 7) ? Mention 
some of its important effects (pp. 9-11). 

In what ways has the sinking or rising of 
the coast been important (p. 11) ? State 
the present size and shape of the continent 
(p. 12). Show the importance of its posi- 
tion (p. 12j. 

Fig. 24ti. — Distribution of population in the United States, 1U10. 

our continent 

man have been the result of slow changes 

extending through millions of years. 

How has our coal been formed (p. 2) ? 
How about other minerals (p. 4) ? 

What great mountain systems have been 
produced (p. 4) ? What about their 

Describe the plants and animals of the Far 
North (p. 14). Of our arid West (p. 16). 
What about the plants and its plants, ani- 
animals in other parts of the mals, and peo- 
temperate zone (p. 17)? ples 
About those of the torrid zone (p. 19) ? 

New York 





y. 113,014 






Fig. 247. — The six states with largest population (10101. 

height? What are the names of the prin- 
cipal ranges in the Cordillera? What do 
you know about the formation of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley (p. 5) ? 

What portion of the continent was cov- 

Describe the manner of life of the Indians 
Cp. 22). Why did they never become 
more powerful (p. 23) ? 

What European nations tried to obtain 
possession of large portions of this continent 



(p. 24) ? Give some reasons why the Eng- 
lish succeeded most fully (p. 26). 

i. The United States 

At present there are probably as many as 
a hundred and twenty -five million persons liv- 

lair 125 5 120° 115* 110° 100° 100" 

Fig. 248. — Map showing distribution of cities. 


1. Distribution 
of people in 
North America 

ing in North America, distributed among the 
four chief sections as follows : 
Central America, over five 
million ; Canada, over seven 
million ; Mexico, over fifteen 

million ; and the United 

States (not including de- 
pendencies), more than 

ninety-one million (Fig. 

246). From these figures 

it is clear that about three 

fourths of all the inhab- 
itants of the continent 

are living in the United 


Figure 246 shows more 

clearly than Figure 248 

2. Distribution the density 

of people in of popula- 

United States tion j n the 

different parts of the 
Union. Where are the 
most thickly settled por- 
tions ? The most S2>arsely p IO , 249. _ . Map show 

settled? How can you explain such dis- 
tribution (p. 28) ? Name in their order 
the six states having the greatest popula- 
tion (Fig. 247). Find the center of popu- 
lation (star in Fig. 246). 

Figure 248 gives the location of the cities, 
the largest having the largest 
dots. In the Ap- 3 Numberin 

pendix (p. 426) is cities, and in 
a table of the the country 
twenty-five largest cities. Find 
the dots (Fig. 248) that repre- 
sent several of these. In what 
respect are the two figures (246 
and 248) alike ? 

The great cities are so numer- 
ous, and have been so often 
mentioned, that there is danger 
of valuing them too highly, as 
compared with the country. 
At the time of George Wash- 
ington very few people lived in 
cities. Even at present about 
two thirds of our ninety-one 
million inhabitants live either in the coun- 
try, or in towns with a population of less 
than eight thousand. In Mexico and , 
Canada the proportion living in the country 
is still greater. In other words, the great 

113' 113° 111" 107° 103° DO 

ing the regions of corn production in the United States. 



majority of persons in North America are 
country people. 

There are over five million families 
occupying farms in the United States. 


414,812,000 Bushels 

also extensively engaged in the wheat in- 
dustry. Figure 251 shows the principal 
wheat regions. Where are they? What 
can you tell about wheat in the valley of 








Fig. 230. — The six leading corn-producing states (1910). 




About how many persons does that repre- 
sent ? Why should so many people live on 
farms ? The leading occupations of persons 
living outside of the 
cities are agriculture, 
lumbering, fishing, and 
mining. The most im- 
portant of all is agricul- 

Figure 249 shows the 
regions that are most 
Agriculture extensively 
1. Grains engaged in 

raising corn. What 
states are included ? In 
1910 over two and a half 
billion bushels were pro- 
duced; how many bushels 
is that for each of our in- 
habitants? How is corn 
cultivated, and what are 
its uses (p. 95) ? Which 
are the six leading states in corn production, 
and how do they rank (Fig. 250) ? 

Many of the states that raise corn are 

the Red River of the North (p. 96) ? What 
are the uses of wheat ? What states on the 
Pacific coast produce wheat ? Name the six 

09 - 05- 01 : 

_, l^A II'.' llil 111 1"! I'M '.'.' '.'., '.'1 ^1 

f |£eaa (Ann CI iitaAeffl 

{----■J O-i <° &*° 

^Bs200 bushels and over 


si -R 

1" r 

Fig. 251. — The wheat regions of the United States. 

leading wheat states in the order of their 
importance (Fig. 252). 

Corn and wheat are our most valuable 



South Dakota 


North Dakota 

94,080,000 Bushels 







Fig. 252. — The six leading wheat-producing states (1910). 



food crops. Why is so little of either raised 
in the western half of the United States 

Fig. 253. — Map showing the cotton-producing states. 

(p. 120)? Why so little in New England 
(p. 38) ? What other grains do we raise, 
and for what is each used ? 

According to Figure 256 what states are largely 

engaged in tobacco growing ? What _ 

• °,° % .. s , t ,3. Tobacco 

is the appearance of the plant, and 

how is it prepared for use (p. 52) ? 

Name fruits and vegetables that are extensively 
raised in the United States. Figure 257 shows the 
sections that produce large quantities 
of fruit. What fruits are grown along ' ' 
the coast of the Middle Atlantic 
States (p. 53) ? In Florida, Cuba, and Porto Rico ? 

Why is the region near the Great Lakes especially 
suited to fruit raising (p. 97) V What fruits are ex- 
tensively grown there (p. 97) ? Why is truck farm- 
ing especially important in New England (p. 39)? 
Where are early vegetables extensively raised 
(pp. 53 and 77) ? 

Name and locate the principal irrigated sections 
in our Western arid lands (Fig- 258). What are 
their products (pp. 129-133) ? 

Following are three figures showing the principal 
states from which other important farm products 
come : — 

How does the value of hay (Fig. 259) in New 
York compare with that of corn in 5 other leading 
Iowa, and of wheat in Minnesota? farm products 





South Carolina 

3,140,000 Bales of 500 lb. 







Fig. 254. — The six leading cotton-producing states (1910). 


The cotton belt is confined entirely to the 
southeastern portion of the country, as 
2. Cotton, shown in Figure 253. Why? 
sugar cane, Name the principal 
and nee cotton-raising states 

and give their rank (Fig. 254). 
What do you know about the 
growth and uses of cotton 
(pp. 74 and 75) ? 

Where in these states are 

Note that the states raising most corn (Fig. 250) 
correspond rather closely with those raising most 
hogs (Fig. 260). Why is that? Name the six lead- 
ing dairy states (Fig. 261). 


sugar cane 


rice grown 

Porto Rico Louisiana 







Texas 1L000 

How is each cultivated (pp. 76 

and 77)? ,How does Louisiana F, °- ' m - The six leading sugar-producing sections in the United S 

rank with our dependencies in 

its dependencies. Colorado, beet sugar; others, cane sugar (1910). 

the production of sugar cane (Fig. 255) ? 
What are the other sources of sugar ? 
Where is beet sugar produced (p. 75) ? 

Point out, on the map (Fig. 40), the 
portions of the country largely given up 
to grazing. Why these ? Relate how cattle 



6. Grazing 

jgg« na; vzv 117' iw iou J iqj' ioi' u 1 

ranching is carried on (p. 99) ; also sheep 

ranching (p. 133). Which states are most 
in these in- 
dustries (Figs. 262- 

263)? What are the 

uses of ranch cattle 

(p. 110) ? Of sheep 

(p. 134) ? In which 

states are most horses 

raised (Fig. 264) ? 
Figure 265 shows the 

distribution of the for- 
ests in the 

Lumbering tj u i t e d 

States. Describe the 
industry as it is carried 
on in Maine (p. 33) ; 
in the Southern States 
(p. 73) ; in Wisconsin 
(p. 102 ) ; in the North- 
west (p. 125). Why 
these differences? 
Which are the most common kinds of trees in 
each section (Fig. 266)? What are the 
products of the forests besides lumber 

(Fig. 266) ? Where are the leading forest 
reserves (p. 126)? Of what value are they? 

109° 105 

Fig. 256. — Map showing the tobacco-producing states. 


-Map showing the leading fruit-growing regions of the United States. 

(pp. 41 and 82) ? What states produce 
the greatest amount of lumber at present 

In what sections is fishing especially important 
(Fig. 2G7) ? What fish are caught on our Eastern 
coast (p. 37)? Ou our Pacific 
coast? Tell what you can about the ° 

fishing industry in Alaska. 
Describe how cod fishing is 
carried on (p. 37) ; salmon 
fishing (p. 127) ; the oyster 
industry (p. 51). 

About four hundred 

thousand men in our 

country are „. . 

J Mining 

employed in 

mining. How many 

different metals can 3-011 

name ? How many other 

mineral products can 

you mention ? 

Of all the minerals, 

the fuels are probably 

the most 


Why ? What kinds are 

there? Figure 268 

shows how extensive the coal beds are. 

Name the states in which the greatest 

1. The fuels 



quantities of coal are mined (Fig. 269). 
Of what importance is it that there are coal 

* n I ' X J iT^"*^ — i — -— — 


- V 

te-* V.-^'***. J N.MEX. V j 


j^TvO^retM that can 



Fig. 258. — Map showing irrigation in United States. 

fields in so many parts of the country ? 
What kinds of coal are there ? What 
are the differences between them (p. 3)? 

2. Iron ore 

the mineral products. Why so important? 
Where are the principal iron-producing re- 
gions (Fig. 268) ? How is pig 
iron made (p. 57) ? Why is 
not the Lake Superior district a favorable 
place for smelting iron ore ? Name the six 
states that lead in production of iron ore 
(Fig. 270). 

Describe three methods of gold mining 
(p. 122). What can you tell about gold 
and silver mining in Cali- 3. Precious 
fornia and Colorado (p. 123) ? metals 
In what other parts of our country are the 
precious metals found (Fig. 271) ? How 
does the value of the gold produced in the 
six leading states (Fig. 272) compare with 
that of the silver in the six leading states 
(Fig. 273)? 

What states are most noted for copper mining 

(Fig. 271) ? Describe that industry in the two 

leading sections (pp. 105 and 124). „ „ 

, TT1 ° , , . . -4. Other min- 

W here and how is stone quarrying , . . 

■ j ■ -w n , ?, Li eral products 
carried on in K ew England (p. do) l 

How is salt obtained in New York (p. 54) ? What 

other valuable mineral products can you name 

(pp. 57, 80, 106, 123) ? 

New York 




Fig. 259. — The six leading 

Describe a coal mine (p. 55). What are 
the uses of coal ? 

Name the chief sections in which petro- 
leum and natural gas are found (Fig. 271). 
Tell also how they have been produced 


hay-producing states (1010). 

The four occupations that have been 

named furnish the raw materials for our 

food, clothing, and shelter. In 

. , , i r Occupations of 

the main, these four occupa- . coun try and 

tions, as stated, lead people to of city 

and what 



are (p. 




of iron 











260. —The six leading hog-producing states (1010). 

New York 

783,479,286 Sal Ions 







Minnesota Pennsylvania 





Fig. 261. — The six leading milk-producing states (1910). (Based on statistics giving number of dairy cows and 

production per cow.) 



New York 



. $129,130,917 







Fig. 262. — The six leading cattle-producing states (1910). 








New Mexico 





Fig. 263. — The six leading sheep-producing states (1910). 


Fig. 264. — The six leading horse-producing states (1910) . 

Board Feet 

Board Feet 

Board Feet 

Board Feet 

Board Feet 






Principal Species, 
Douglas Fir 

Principal Species, 
Yellow Pine 

Principal Species, 
Yellow Pine 

Principal Species, 
Douglas Fir 

Principal Species, 

Fig. 266. — The five leading lumber-producing states (1910). 



live in small towns or in the country. The 
three other great occupations require per- 
sons engaged in them to live for the most 

Fig. 2(i7. — Map showing distribution of fish 

part in cities. These are manufacturing ; 
the transportation of goods; and buying 
and selling, or trading. 

Figure 27-4 shows the principal manufac- 
turing sections in the United States. What 
groups of states do they include ? How 
does it happen that New Eng- 
land very early developed 
cotton manufacturing, although it raises no 
cotton (p. 40) ? What other kinds- of 
manufacturing are important there (p. 41)? 


Name several of the leading manufacturing 
centers there, and tell the kinds of work-in 
each. What states lead in textile manufac- 
tures (Fig. 275)? 
Where are the cotton 
and wool obtained ? 

What kinds of manu- 
facturing are very im- 
portant in the Middle 
Atlantic States, aside 
from textile goods 
(p. 57)? What great 
advantage over New 
England have those 
states for manufacturing 
(p. 54) ? What reasons 
can you give why Penn- 
sylvania leads in iron 
manufacturing (p. 56) ? 
How are iron and steel 
made (p. 57) ? Name 
three kinds of iron 
(p. -58). Name the six 
leading states in the 
production of pig iron 
(Fig. 276). In iron man- 
ufacturing (Fig. 277). 

Tell about the manu- 
facture of pottery in 
the Middle Atlantic 
(p. 59) and in the Cen- 
tral (p. 107) States ; 
about the manufacture 
of glass (p. 59); of ce- 
ment (p. 60) ; of bricks 
(p. 59). 

Tell about the advance 
in manufacturing in the Southern States 
(p. 81). What great advantage does 
Birmingham enjoy for the manufacture of 
iron goods (p. 82) ? I Name other impor- 
tant kinds of manufacturing in the Southern 
States (p. 82). What are the leading man- 
ufacturing centers there, and for what 
goods is each important ?) 

Into what goods are corn, wheat, and 
barley manufactured in the Central States 
(p. 106) ? Name the great centers for the 



manufacture of flour (p. 113). What can 
you tell about the manufactures from forest 
products in the Central 
States (p. 106)? For 
what kinds of manufac- 
turing is Chicago impor- 
tant (p. 109)? St. Louis 
(p. 113)? Cleveland 
(p. 112)? Kansas City 
(p. 114) ? 

How has the abun- 
dance of fruits in the 
Western States led to 
much manufacturing 
(p. 132)? Name some 
f 1 o u r-m a n u f a c t u r i n g 
center in the Far West 
(p. 137). Name impor- 
tant centers for smelting 
of ores (p. 137). For 
what manufactures is 
San Francisco important (p. 139)? 
land (p. 140)? Seattle (p. 141)? 


the Pacific coast (pp. 138-141). Our seven 
leading ocean ports, in the order of their im- 

Fig. 20S. — Map showing the distribution of deposits of coal and iron in the 
United States. 


235,006,762 Short Tons 






Ind. Ala. 





Fig 260. — The six leading coal-producing states (1910). 

Manufacturing employs more workmen in the 
United States than any other industry, except agri- 
culture. More than seven million men are 
engaged in it. 

The six wealthiest states are shown in 
Figure '278. Xote that all these states are 
extensively engaged in manufacturing, as 
shown in Figure 274. 

The importance of being able to ship 
goods by water is clearly shown by 
Transporta- the fact that most of 
tion of goods ,, ur twenty-five largest 
1. By water cities (see Appendix, p. 
426) are situated on a water route of some 
kind. Name the leading harbors along the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Name those on 

portance, are New York, Boston, Philadel- 
phia, Baltimore. New Orleans, San Francisco, 
Galveston. Locate each. 

What can you say about the impor- 
tance of the Great Lakes for shipment of 
goods? How are these lakes connected 
by water with the ocean (p. 60) ? By 
examining P'igure 279, name the prin- 
cipal navigable rivers in our country. 

The Great Lakes carry about twice as 
much freight as the Mississippi system. 
Mention some of the principal kinds 
carried on each. 

Where is the Erie Canal? Why has it 


31,966.769 Long Tons 



N.Y.Wis. Va. N.J. 

New York $3,848,683 
Wisconsin $3,610,349 
Virginia $1,845,144 
New Jersey $1,582,213 





Fig. 270. — The six leading iron-producing states (1910). 

been so important ? Why has it become of 
less importance than formerly ? Where 
else are canals found (pp. 108 and 167) ? 



12.r l-u" 115" I10 J 105° 100' 

1 I flna and Petroleumj 

EH^-' "'"' and Silver 
E5U C "PI" r 

Fig. 271. — Mineral regions of the United States. 

What about the direction 
of a majority of the railway 
lines ? Count the number 
of railways that extend east 
and west across the western 
half of the continent (Fig. 
280). In what city on the 
Pacific coast does each of 
the transcontinental lines 
terminate ? 

The number of miles of 
railroad that each section of 
states has, in proportion to 
its area, is shown in Figure 
282. The names of the 
principal railroads in the 
East are shown in Figure 
281. Note how the roads 
come together at the great 
centers of manufacturing 
and commerce. 

Figure 280 shows an enormous number of 

railways in the United States. They now 

carry fully three times as much 

freight as all the water routes 

together. In what part of the country are 

Trade is the third occupation that attracts 
great numbers of people to Buying and 
cities. Every one knows that selling, or 
it is important to have stores trade 
scattered about over the country, in towns 


992,969 Ounces /\ 






South Dakota 



Fig. 272. — The six leading gold-produeing states (1910). 

most of them found ? Why there ? Which 
section is next best supplied with them ? 
Which portion has fewest lines? How does 
the location of railway lines on this figure 
compare with the location of cities on 

Figure 248 ? 




12.366,000 Ounces 




Fig 273. —The six leading silver-producing states (1910). 

and villages, where one can purchase the 
articles that he needs from day to day. 

But there could not well be such stores 
unless there were great centers of trade 
where the storekeepers themselves could 
buy the goods that they wished later to sell. 







This is called ivholesale 
trade, and is one of the 
leading occupations in 
the great cities. 

The greatest center 
for the wholesale trade in 
our country is New York 
City. Describe that 
business there (p. 63). 
What goods are sold? 
Name other great centers 
for wholesale trade, and 
some of the goods that 
are sold. What goods 
are extensively sold in 
New Orleans (p. 76) ? 
Memphis (p. 86) ? In- 
dianapolis (p. 116)? 
Denver (p. 136) ? 

Fully four million persons in the United 
States are engaged in transportation of 

I I Lets than t 1000 

L— I ) li«M to i 10000 

33 « 10000 to (100000 

■ 1100000 and °*f 

Fig. 274. — Map showing the leading manufacturing districts in the United States. 

agriculture, lumbering, fishing, and mining. 
The remainder are mainly employed in 

New York 






Massachusetts Ohio 



New Jersey 


Fig. 275. — The six leading manufacturing states (1910). 

goods and in trade, or in commerce, as these 
two kinds of business together are called. 



Illinois Alabama New York 



manufacturing these raw materials into use- 
ful articles, or in buying, sell- Dependence of 
ing, and transport- country and 
ing them. Show cit y u Pon each 
by numerous ex- otller 
amples how neither class can 
well do without the other. 


Virginia 444,976 
Fig. 276. — The six leading pig-iron-producing states (1910). 

The relation between country and city is 
now clear. About one half of our men are 
engaged in obtaining raw materials through 

Differences in 
manner of life 

Although the two classes are so 
dependent on each other, the life of 
one is very different 
from that of the other. 
Recall farm life as de- 
scribed on page 93. What idea have 
you formed of farm life on Southern plantations? 
Of the ranchman's life (p. 101)? Of the miner's 
manner of living (p. 122)? The lumberman's 
(p. 34) ? The fisherman's (pp. 38 and 127) ? 



Recall, on the other hand, what was said about 
life in New York City (p. 64). Give your idea of 



New York 





Mass. Conn 

Fig. 277. — The six states leading in iron manufacturing 

factory life; of life in trade and transportation. 
Which of these several occupations do you consider 
most attractive? Which least attractive? 

home '? How about the knives, forks, 
dishes, and spoons ? How about the clothes 
that you wear ? 

Because of the climate, water power, soil, 
or for some other reason, each part of the 
country is especially fitted for producing 
one or several things ; for instance, eastern 
Kansas for grain, western Kansas for stock, 
northern Maine for lumber, etc. Indeed, 
most of the articles used in each part of 
the country must be brought from other 

Name the materials that the Montana ranchman 
needs from the Southern planter; from New Eng- 
land; from Minneapolis and Chicago. Upon what 

New York 






MasiachujelU California 




T- wiBipJifel'JIriii. IIP i j'ff - " 


Fig. 278.— 

The six wealthiest states. 


It is difficult to say which occupation requires 
the hardest work, for success demands one's best 
effort, no matter what the occupation may be. But 
which are more sure of simple food, clothing, 
shelter, those living in the city or those in 
country? Why? Which are 
more independent in general? 
Why ? Which have the better 
opportunities for amusement? 
Why? For education ? Why? 
For homes with plenty of 
light and fresh air? Why? 

For miny years the popula- 
tion of cities has been increas- 
ing more rapidly than that of 
the country, which suggests 
that people prefer city to coun- 
try life. Can you give any 
reasons for this, in addition 
to those already mentioned? 

No one place produces 

Dependence ilU the mate " 
of different rials needed 
sections upon there. Which 
one another 

parts of the United States are the inhabitants of 
Florida dependent? What do they supply in re- 
turn ? Make a list of the materials used in the build- 
ing of your house ; and, as far as possible, determiue 
where each one may have come from. 

of your foods 
are not raised near your 

Fig. 279. — Map to show the navigable interior water routes of the United States. 





From these facts it is plain that the dif- 
ferent parts of the country are of vital im- 
portance to one another, much as different 
parts of the body are. 

In spite of our broad territory, and the 
enormous number of our products, there are 
Our relation some necessary articles that are 
to our depend- either entirely lacking, or can- 
encies no t b e produced in sufficient 

quantities within 

manufacturing in that country (p. 175). 
Locate the principal cities. 

Name the six republics of Central Amer- 
ica. Describe the surface of the country 
and the climate (p. 177). c en t ra i 
Name the principal industries America and 
(p. 178). Tell about the West Indies 
canal across the isthmus (p. 154). 

Mention the largest islands among the 

Middle Atlantic States 

our own borders. 
Name a few. (See 
Table of Imports, 
p. 411.) Mention 
some that we are 
therefore glad to re- 
ceive from Alaska; 
Cuba, Porto Rico; 
the Hawaiian Is- 
lands , the Philip- 
pines. Mention others that they, likewise, 
are glad to receive from us. State, then, 
how the United States and its dependencies 
are of advantage to each other. 

2. Other Countries of North America 

The principal industries in southern 
Canada and Newfoundland are similar to 
Canada and those in our Northern States. 
Newfoundland What about agriculture there 
(p. 165)? Where is coal mined (p. 166)? 
Precious metal (p. 166)? What about 
grazing (p. 165) ? Lumbering (p. 163) ? 
Fishing and sealing (p. 164) ? Compare 
the raw products of southern Canada 
with those of our Northern States. Name 
and locate the principal cities ; the lead- 
ing trade route. Mention the chief 
kinds of manufacturing. (For above, see 
p. 168). 

Describe the surface of Mexico (p. 171). 
The climate (p. 172). What are the agri- 
cultural products from its arid 
plateaus (p. 173)? From its 
lowlands (p. 174)? From the slopes be- 
tween (p. 174)? Tell about the forests of 
Mexico (p. 172); the mining (p. 175). 
Give some reasons why there is so little 

Central States 


Southern States New England States 



Fig. '282. — The figures represent the number of miles of railway for every one hundred square 
miles of territory in each of the rive groups of states (1910) . 

West Indies. What are their chief indus- 
tries (p. 178) ? 

3. Relation of United States to Other 

What industries in the United States are 
not found, or are little de- 
veloped, in Canada''' In 


Need of our 
sending away 
some goods 
and receiving 

Mexico ? In Central Amer- 
ica? What industries in any 
one of the latter countries are 
not found in the United States ? 

As in the case of any single locality, the 
United States as a whole produces far more 
of some materials than our people can con- 
sume. Other important articles must come 
wholly, or in part, from abroad. Give ex- 
amples of each. 

If we could not secure a market for our 
products in foreign lands, we should suffer 
greatly ; and if foreign countries did not 
provide us with what we need, we should 
suffer again. Other countries are in the 
same condition. Show how that is true 
of Canada ; of Mexico. There is excellent 
reason, therefore, for a constant exchange 
of goods among the nations of the world. 



How does the size of our country give us 
a great advantage in this respect ? 

The goods that we send forth are called 
exports, and those brought in, imports. Ex- 

The names of amine the tables of exports 
such goods, and imports on pp. 410 and 
and their 411 to see some things that we 

value send away and receive, as well 

as the countries with which we trade. 

More than half of all our exports and 
imports are sent by way of New York. 
Why ? Other ports next in importance 
have already been named (p. 189). What 
are their names ? The total value of our 
exports in 1911 was #1,536,561,442 ; of our 
imports, 1824,620,160. 

Some imports are allowed to enter the country free ; 

but upon most of them there is a duty ; that is, a charge 

for entering our country. This duty 
Meaning and • t • c 

. f ls a S0llrce ot income, or revenue, tor 

lt j l( the government. It is also intended 

to protect our industries by prevent- 
ing foreign products from being sold in our country 
at a lower rate than we can produce them. 

However, this sometimes causes hardship. For 
example, a citizen of the United States, living near 
the border of Canada, cannot buy lumber and wood 
pulp from that country without paying a duty upon 
them. This causes us to pay a higher price for many 
articles than we would have to pay if no duty were 
placed upon them. Under such conditions the bound- 
ary line between two neighboring countries becomes 
of real importance as a hindrance to free trade. 

4- Value of Steam and Electricity in Devel- 
opment of North America 

The use of steam upon the water ways 
and railways has been of the greatest in- 
Advances fluence in the development 

made in a of our country. A century 

century a g ft required two days to 

travel from New York to Philadelphia, and 
six days from New York to Boston. In the 
latter case only two trips per week were 
made by stage. The journeys were not only 
very tiresome, but were often dangerous. 

At that time there were but thirteen 
daily papers in the United States, and 
neither papers nor books could be sent by 
mail. Letters cost from six to twenty-five 

cents, according to the distance ; and be- 
cause the expense of carrying them was 
great, they were not sent from the smaller 
towns until a sufficient number were col- 
lected to make it worth while. 

Now we can travel as far in an hour as 
our forefathers could in a day, and with 
much more comfort. There are over two 
thousand daily papers, and these, as well as 
letters, may be sent quickly and cheaply to 
every section of the country. We can send 
a telegram to a distant point in an instant, 
and can talk by telephone with a person 
hundreds of miles away, even recognizing 
the tones of his voice. How wonderful 
these facts would have been to persons liv- 
ing a hundred years ago ! 

The effect of such a mighty change is seen in 
every direction. Each year thousands of car loads 
of fruit are shipped to Eastern cities 

from California. If there were no 
railways, how could such fruits reach 
these cities? What, then, would be 

Influence of 
these advances 
on our mode of 

the effect on southern California ? 
Also, how could the corn of the Central States be 
marketed ? And how could furniture, sugar, and 
coffee be brought to the Western farmer's door ? 
Trace other results of this change. 

If our railway trains and steamboats should all 
suddenly stop running, there would be a famine in 
every large city within a few days. Even now, when 
heavy falls of snow block the trains for a day or 
two, the supply of milk, meat, and other foods 
quickly runs low, and the prices rise to several times 
their usual value. 

If we had no railway trains, there might also be 
extensive famines over large areas of country, as 
there were in Europe in the olden times, and as 
there are even at present in China. Why in China? 
As it is, however, hundreds of articles of food and 
clothing are quickly brought from distant points. 
Mention several such articles. No one section is in 
danger of suffering from want of food, because if 
the supply fails there, it is easily obtained from 
other sections. 

The effect of steam and electricity on the indus- 
tries and inhabitants of cities is striking. Many 
persons living scores of miles away do much of 
their shopping in the cities. Owing to trolley 
lines, elevated railways, and other means of rapid 
travel, those engaged in manufacture or commerce 
are able to live many miles from their places of 
work, and thus secure more healthful homes in 
the suburbs. Because so many people are able 



to have their homes in the suburbs, the cities are 
not nearly so overcrowded as they might other- 
wise be. 

When our Union was formed, more than 
a century ago, many wise persons believed 

that it was bound to be a fail- 
Their influence 0up population was s0 

on government * r 

scattered (rig. 4o) that people 

living in one part were likely to know and 

care little about those in 

other distant parts. It 

seemed probable that 

quarrels and wars would 

arise, due to differences 

of opinion, and therefore 

that our republic might 

be split into several rival 


Just the opposite has 
happened. Our people 
are closely united in in- 
terests, and are working 
well together. At the 
same time our boundaries 
have been so enlarged as 
to include far more ter- 
ritory than was at first 
thought possible (Fig. 

Aside from that, millions of foreigners 
have settled in our country since 1821, 
representing all the principal races of man- 
kind (App., p. 432), and many of the lead- 
ing languages, religions, and political beliefs 
of the world. In spite of all this, we have 
kept in such close touch with one another 
that our Union has grown stronger and- 

Each day, by rail and water, articles are 

sent to all parts of the country. In all the 
states the people read the same news every 
morning ; and whatever books are found 
especially valuable in one section quickly 
become known in others. Thus we not 
only enjoy far better opportunities for 
education than formerly, but we learn to 
knoiv one another ; we have the same 
thoughts, and we feel a common sym- 

Fig. 283. — Map to show when and how the United States obtained its territory. 

path}'. So far as meeting and under- 
standing one another are concerned, our 
country is really far smaller than it was a 
hundred years ago ; we are living together 
like one very large family. 

The governments of Canada and Mexico 
are unions of many states, much like our 
Union ; and the benefits that they have 
received from steam and electricity have 
been similar to our own. 


I. The Earth 

The earth is a sphere with a circumfer- 
ence of about twenty-five thousand miles, 
Form and size and a diameter of nearly eight 
of the earth thousand miles. It is slightly 
flattened at the poles, however. For this 
reason, the line which extends through the 
center of the earth from pole to pole — 
called the eartJis axis — is a little shorter 
than the diameter at the equator. 

The earth is known to be round like a 
ball, not only because people have traveled 
Proofs that around it, but also because its 
it is round shadow, as seen in an eclipse, 

is always round. A sphere is the only 
body that will always cast a round shadow. 
Can you give another proof that the earth 
has the form of a sphere ? 

The earth is rapidly turning, or rotating, 
about its axis. This motion has very im- 
Its daily mo- portant results. In the first 
tion, and the place it causes sunrise and 
results sunset. When we glance out 

of the window of a moving car, the objects 
that we pass often appear to be moving in 
the direction opposite from that in which 
we are traveling. It seems as though we 
were standing still. In a similar way the 
rotation of the earth causes the sun to ap- 
pear to move ; to appear to rise and set. 
Indeed, for a long time people believed 
that it was the sun that moved, and not 
the earth. 

Since we first see the sun in the east, it 
is plain that the earth is rotating eastward ; 
that is, from west to east. This rotation 
gives us the light of the sun for a few 
hours, and then brings darkness. Thus it 

causes day and night. And since one ro- 
tation lasts twenty-four hours, it gives us a 
day of that length. 

It was stated before that the circumference of the 
earth is about twenty-five thousand miles. How far, 
then, must a point on the equator move in one hour? 
In one minute? 

By rotating a globe, or an apple, in the sunlight, 
show how day and nightare caused on theearth. Hold 
the sphere still ; what would be true about daylight 
and darkness on the earth if it did not rotate at all? 
What might be the effect upon life on the earth if 
the same side were always toward the sun? 

The earth has another motion that is of 
very great importance. This is its revolu- 
tion around the sun, which is The yearly 
illustrated in Figure 284. The motion of the 
object shown in the center of eartJl 
the circle is the sun, as you see, and the 
circle itself shows the course that the earth 
takes in its revolution. 

At the same time that the earth is whirl- 
ing on its axis, it is also forever swinging 
around the sun, although the sun is 
ninety-three million miles from it. It takes 
a year to complete one revolution. Indeed, 
the time necessary for this great journey 1 - is 
what fixes the length of our year. The 
path, or orbit, that the earth takes is here 
represented as a circle, although, in fact, 
the earth's path is not a perfect circle. 

In its revolution, the earth is moving at the rate 
of more than one and a half million miles per day. 
What fearful speed ! And this, too, 
while it is whirling, or rotating, on J^POrtance of 
its axis ! One might ask, 


the forces 

such rapid motion, why are we not cal ' ed gravity 
swept from the earth by the wind?" *™ d S ravlta - 
The answer is that the air, as well 
as everything else upon the earth, is drawn toward 
the earth and held in place by the force called grav- 




a rope, to 
sure, but 

ity. It is on account of this force that everything 
on the earth turns with it, in the daily rotation, and 
swings around with it in its annual revolution. 

Again, if the earth is revolving at such speed, why 
does it not fly away into space? As a stone swinging 
round at the end of a string flies off when the string 
breaks, so it might seem that 
the earth would fly off into 
space; for there appears to be 
nothing holdiug it to the sun. 

As a matter of fact, there is 
something holding it. It 
is not a strin 

something far 
stronger. The 
sun is very much 
larger than the 
earth ; in fact, 
it is over 
a million 
times as 
large. It 
the earth, 
and holds it in 
place, in niucl: 
the same way as 
the force of grav- 
ity attracts men 
and houses to the 
earth. This at- 
traction (if gravita- 
tion, which the sun exerts 
upon the earth, is what 
vents our sphere from flying 
off into space ; it holds the 
earth as firmly as the string 
holds the stone 

the shadow, until the farthest point is 
reached on December 21. That is the date 
for our shortest day and longest night. 
Farther north the nights are longer still, 1 
and the Eskimos, who live within the Arc- 
tic Circle, are having 
night that lasts week 
after week. It is upon 
this date, also, that our 
winter begins. 

After De- 
cember 21, 
the Arctic 
region grad- 
ually comes 
into the light 
once more, 
until, on 
M arch 
21, the 

from pole to 
pole. Day 
and night 
are once 
equal every- 
where upon the earth, 
and warmer weather 
returns. That date 
marks the beginning 
of our spring. 

Going farther, on 

Fig. 284. — To illustrate the revolution of the earth 
around the sun. The shaded portion represents ni«ht. 
The revolution of the The end of the axis around which the earth rotates June 21, the north pole 

Effects of the earth is w]lat is the P oint where the lines come to s etnel '- is shown to be just as 

far within the light as it was within the 
shadow on December 21. This is the date 
for our longest day and shortest night. 
Farther north, the days are longer still, 
and within the Arctic Circle the day lasts 
week after week. It is upon this day, also, 
that our summer begins. 2 

1 Exactly at the north pole there are six months of 
day and then six months of night. 

2 Some teachers may wish to introduce here an ex- 
planation of the effects of inclination of the earth's axis, 
and a more complete study of the seasons. This has 
not been included in this book because it is felt that, 

earth's revo- causes our seasons and the chang- 
lution ing length of our day and night. 

In Figure 284 the lowest sphere, bearing 
the date September 23, represents the 
earth as receiving the light of the sun from 
pole to pole. On that date day and night 
are equal everywhere upon the earth. It 
marks the end of summer and the begin- 
ning of our autumn. 

Following the earth in its revolution (to 
the right), we find that, as the months pass, 
the north pole falls farther and farther into 



After this date, until September 23, the 
continued revolution of the earth grad- 
ually brings the north pole again toward 
the shadow. Then, on September 23, the 
light of the sun once more extends from pole 
to pole, so that day and night are again equal, 
and a year is completed. 

Thus the seasons follow one another, and 
our days and nights constantly change in 

and when the north pole is in darkness, the south 
pole is bathed in the sunlight. 

Figure 285 shows the zones on the earth. 
How many are there ? Name and locate 
each. The cause of the zones Cause of the 
is found in the slant at which zones, and 
the rays of the sun strike the their bounda- 
earth. In the torrid zone they ries 
are always either vertical, or nearly so. 

Fig. 285. — A map of the zones. 

length. And it is all because, as the earth 
revolves about the sun, the part of the earth 
that receives the sun's rays is continually 

While these changes are in progress in the north- 
ern hemisphere, there are also changes in the season, 
and in the length of day and night, in the southern 
hemisphere. These changes are o£ the same kind, 
but the seasons are exactly changed around ; that 
is, it is winter there when it is summer with us; 

unless the teacher has the necessary apparatus, a mere 
study from the text is too difficult. The authors believe 
that it is a subject that is better fitted for the high 
school age. 

In the temperate zone, they strike the earth 
at a greater slant ; and in the frigid zones 
at a much greater slant still. On this ac- 
count, the heat grows less and less as one 
approaches either of the poles. 

The boundaries of the tropical (torrid) zone are 
easily fixed, because they mark the points farthest 
north and south where the sun's rays are vertical at 
some period of the year. On December 21, when the 
north pole is farthest within the shadow (Fig. 284), 
the sun's rays are vertical as far south as the Tropic 
of Capricorn. On June 21, on the other hand, when 
the north pole is farthest within the light, the sun's 
rays are vertical as far north as the Tropic of 



The north frigid (Arctic) zone is the region 
around the north pole that lies entirely in 
darkness on December 21. On June 21, this 
same region lies entirely in the light. The 
south frit/id zone is the corresponding region 
about the soutli pole. 

The two temperate zones are merely the 
wide belts that lie between the torrid zone, 
on the one hand, and the frigid zones on 
the other. There is one, called the north 
temperate zone, in the northern hemisphere, 
and another, called the south temperate 
zone, in the southern hemisphere. 

Name the boundaries of each of the zones. It is 
convenient to use such boundaries; but there is 
really no sharp difference on the two sides of anyone 
of them. Indeed, the real boundaries are quite ir- 
regular (Fig. 28.3) ; for in some parts of the temper- 
ate zone there is a very hot climate; and on the 
highlands of the tropical zone, the climate is often 
temperate, or even frigid. These are exceptions, 
however, and generally the climate is torrid in the 
tropical zone, temperate to the north and south of 
it, and frigid around the poles. 

Our seasons are likewise due to the slant 
at which the sun's rays strike the earth at 
How the different times of the year, 

earth's revolu- On December 21, the midday 
tion causes our S un is low in the heavens, in 
seasons j.j ie re gj on w here we live, and 

then its rays reach us at the greatest slant. 
That, then, marks the beginning of our 
coldest season. On June 21, on the other 
hand, the midday sun is high in the heavens, 
and the rays are then most nearly vertical. 
That, then, marks the beginning of our 
warmest season. Spring comes as the rays 
become more nearly vertical ; and autumn 
as they grow less so. 

The revolution of the earth around the sun is, 

therefore, of the greatest importance. It causes our 

seasons by continually changing the 

, ' _ . slant at which the sun's rays fall 
lution afreets 

our daily lives 

upon us. That affects us in a thou- 

sand ways. It determines, for in- 
stance, the time when our lamps shall be lighted, 
when crops shall be planted and harvested, and 
when the navigation of many of our rivers and lakes 
shall be opened and closed. It even leads to changes 
in the kind of clothes that we wear, and greatly 

influences the sports that we enjoy. Name some of 
its other influences. 

1. State the form and size of the earth. 2. Give 
proofs that it is round. 3. Tell what you can about 
its daily motion, and the results. . 

1. What is its yearly motion'.' ^ evi ^ w 
5. How are gravity and gravitation " 
important forces? 6. State the effects of the earth's 
revolution. 7. State the cause of the zones. 8. Of 
their boundaries. 9. How does the earth's revolu- 
tion cause our seasons? 10. How, then, does this 
revolution influence our daily lives? 

1. Show by a globe, or a ball, how the two move- 
ments of the earth, rotation and revolution, can 
be going on at the same time. 

2. Are the days growing longer ^Kge 8110113 
or shorter at present? 3. During w : hich months do 
they grow longer ? During which months shorter ? 

I. At what time of day does your shadow always 
point directly north? 5. Notice how your shadow 
changes with the season in early morning; at noon; 
in the evening. 6. Tell about the direction and 
length of a man's shadow at noon on December 21 
at various points between the poles. 7. On June 21. 
8. On September 23. 9. How long is our longest 
night? Our shortest? 10. Which zone has the 
slightest change of seasons? Why? 11. Is it once 
or twice each year that the vertical rays of the sun 
fall upon any one place in the torrid zone ? 

II. Latitude, Longitude, and Stand- 

ard Time 

i. Latitude and Longitude 

In a study of geography, it is often 
necessary to locate places exactly. This is 
not so easy as it might seem. Ne ed of some 
For instance, suppose we wish way of locat- 
to state where London is sit- ing places 
uated ; how would it be done ? exactl y 
Of course, by taking a long time, it would 
be possible to describe the general location 
of this city ; but some more accurate way 
should be found. 

The difficulty is much the same as that 
which arises in locating a place in a large 
city, where there are thou- how houses 
sands of houses. No one per- are located 
son knows who lives in most in Clties 
of them, and if a stranger were looking for 
a friend, he might have much trouble in 
finding his house. 



- — ifTl — i f""i' — n"ir 

Fig. 28(i. — Map of a part of a city, central 
to illustrate the need of naming 

A very simple means has been found for 
locating city houses. For example, a street 
running east and west may be selected to di- 
vide the city into two parts, as Washington 

Avenue does in 
north „ . „ „ 

jlj UuuuUl ligure 286. 

] Onn a Q L Any place north 

lOIlDOnOC of this street is 

JOGOLtjOOC spoken of as be- 

□"□"□ Q Q Q [- ing on the north 

WEST WASHINGTON AVE. _ EAST cm'/Ta • onir nlnno 

no — id — trf — i i — p — id q sza6 , any pitice 

i — i s i ouT i H rn rl n r ST *i r south ot it as 
JUU«LJ|UUUL being on the 

=^f -^J=Ji;b5 1 i r =^?T. 1 7= south side. The 

streets to the 
north of this 
are numbered 
as North 1st, 
North 2d, North 3d, etc. ; those to the 
south of it as South 1st, South 2d, South 3d, 
and so on. Then if a man says that he 
lives on North 4th Street, we know at once 
that he lives on the north side, and that 
his house is on the fourth street from this 
central one. 

But we need also to know on what part 
of North 4th Street this house is to be found. 
To answer that question, another street 
running north and south, and crossing the 
east and west ones, may be selected to di- 
vide the city into east and west parts. In 
Figure 286, Jefferson Avenue is such a 
street. The streets on the two sides of it 
are numbered as East 1st, East 2d, West 
1st, West 2d, etc. (Fig. 286). 

Then if a man lives on the corner of 
North 4th and East 3d streets, we know 
not only that his home is north of a certain 
line, but east of a certain other line. If the 
Mocks, as the spaces between two streets 
are called, are always the same, it will be 
easy to tell the distance from each of the 
central streets to the house. Thus the 
house can be located exactly. 

Such a plan is not necessary in small towns and 
villages, because the people there know one another, 
and are able to direct strangers easily. Few, if any, 

cities follow exactly the scheme here given ; but all 
have a plan somewhat similar to this. If you live 
in a city, perhaps you can tell just how houses are 
located there. 

Places upon the earth are located in much 
the same manner as in the city just de- 
scribed. The equator, which How p i aces 
extends around the earth mid- can be exactly 
way between the poles, cor- located on the ' 
responds to the dividing street earth 
(Washington Avenue) that ^T^cated 
runs east and west. The dis- in a north and 
tance between the equator and south ^ lei:tim 
the poles, on either side, is divided into 
ninety parts (Fig. 287), corresponding, we 
might say, to the blocks in a city. The 
earth is so large, however, that these 
" blocks," or parts, are very much larger, 
each being about sixty-nine miles wide. 
That distance is called a degree, and the 
sign for degrees is a little circle (°) placed 
at the right of a figure. (For example, 60° 
means 60 degrees.) 

Lines are drawn upon maps and globes 
to represent these degrees. The lines on a 

Nort h A>/e9° „„•„ ^t 
ltr -^"^ ^^ cf >° N. Lat. 

20° J. Lat. 
33V S Lat. 

Fig. 287. — The globe, showing the two hemispheres and 
some of the circles of latitude. 

globe extend completely around it from 
east to west, and are therefore circles. The 
first circle north of the equator, marked l°,is 
about sixty-nine miles from that dividing 
line ; the one marked 2° is twice that dis- 
tance, and so on. The north pole is 90° 



from the equator. The same plan is fol- 
lowed south of the equator ; and the south 
pole is also 90° from the equator. Thus 
the distance from pole to pole is 180°. 

All points on any one of these circles are 
the same distance from the equator, and 
from each of the other circles. That is, the 
circles are parallel with one another ; and 
on that account they are called parallels. 

If one fiii'ls that a certain place is on the 8th or 
the 50th, or some other circle north of the equator, 
he knows how many miles it is north of that divid- 
ing line ; for every degree is about 69 miles. San 
Francisco, for example, is close to the 38th parallel ; 
Chicago is close to the 42d; and St. Paul is on the 
45th (Figs. 125 and 160). Knowing this, it is easy to 
see that Chicago is 4°, or about 276 miles, farther 
north than San Francisco. It is also easy to see 
that St. Paul is 3°, or over 200 miles farther north 
than Chicago. 

Thus, by the help of the parallel lines one 
can find how far any place is north or south 
of the equator. Instead, however, of saying 
that places are so many degrees north or 
south of the equator, we usually say that they 
are in so many degrees north or south latitude. 
San Francisco, for instance, is near 38° north 
latitude (abbreviated JV. Lat.~). Both ways 
are correct, but the latter is merely the 
shorter way of saying it. Latitude is noth- 
ing more than distance north or south of 
the equator, measured in degrees; and the 
parallel lines are called parallels of latitude. 

Of course there are no marks upon the earth to show 
where these circles run. They are drawn on maps, 
where they are of great use because they help to 
locate places. 

Small maps and globes cannot well show the en- 
tire ninety parallels on each side of the equator. 
That would make too many lines. For this reason, 
only every fifth or tenth parallel is usually put on 
such maps. Examine some maps (such as Figs. 9 
and 125), to see which ones are given. Near what 
parallel do you live ? 

As in the city, some means must also be 
„ „ , found for locating places east 

2. How places ° . . 

can be located and west ; for two points might 

in an east and k e j n JQO nortn l at itucle and 
west direction , .,, , , , . ., 

still be several thousand miles 
apart. Show that this is so. 

Imaginary lines are used for this purpose, 
as before ; but this time they extend around 
the earth from pole to pole (Fig. 288 J. 
These lines, extending through both poles, 
are called meridians. 

In a city it makes little difference what 
north and south street is chosen from which 
to number the others. It is necessary only 
that a certain one be agreed upon. The 
same is true of these meridians. No one is 
especially important, as the equator is, and 
any one of them might be chosen from which 
to start. Indeed, different nations have 

Fig. 288. — The earth, cut in halves along the Greenwich 
meridian, showing some of the meridians. The me- 
ridian 20° is usually considered the dividing line be- 
tween the eastern and western hemispheres. 

selected different circles as the one from 
which to begin numbering. In France 
the meridian extending through Paris is 
chosen , in England that through Green- 
wich, near London ; and in America the 
one passing through Washington is some- 
times used. 

It is, however, important that all people agree on 
some one meridian to start from, so that all maps 
may be made alike. On that account, many coun- 
tries begin their numbering with the meridian which 
passes through Greenwich. The maps in this book 
follow that plan. 

It is necessary in locating places on the earth to 
study the movements of the sun and the stars; and 
this is done in a building, called an observatory, in 
which there are telescopes and other instruments. 
Since there is such an observatory at Greenwich, 
this seemed to the English people to be a fitting 
place from which to beg : n numbering the meridians. 



Commencing with the meridian of Green- 
wich, we measure off degrees both east and 
west of it. On maps and globes these dis- 
tances are represented by circles extending 
completely around the earth, through both 
poles. Thus there is a meridian 1° west, 
another 2°, a third 3°, etc. Going eastward, 
the meridians are numbered 1°, 2°, 3°, etc., 
in the same way. Any place on the 3d 
meridian ivest of Greenwich is 3° west of 
the principal meridian ; if on the 60th me- 
ridian, it is 60° west. 

Again, however, instead of saying that 
a place is so many degrees east or west of 


*<*r a 



Fig. 289. — A view looking down on the north pole, to 
show how the meridians come to a point at the north 
pole. Notice that if the 0° meridian were continued, it 
would unite with the meridian 180°. 

the principal meridian, we say it is in so 
many degrees east or ivest longitude. This 
is merely the shorter way of saying it. 
The place on the third meridian, just men- 
tioned, is, therefore, in 3° west longitude, 
and the other place is in 60° west longi- 
tude. Longitude is nothing more than dis- 
tance east or ivest of the principal meridian, 
measured in degrees. 1 The circles that form 

1 The ancients thought that the world extended 
farther in an east and west direction than in a north 
and south direction. Therefore they called the east 
and west, or long direction, longitude ; the north and 
south direction, latitude. 

the meridians are also known as circles of 

Any place on the 20th meridian east of Greenwich 
is in 20° east longitude (E. Long.). New York is 
in 7-1° W. Long., while San Francisco is in about 
123° W. Long. Which meridian passes near Chi- 
cago ? Denver ? 

The distance around the earth from .north, to 
south, through both poles, is four times 90°, or 360° 
in all. The equator is likewise divided into 360 
parts, or degrees. There are therefore 360 meridi- 
ans, if they are drawn one degree apart. They 
are numbered up to 180° in both directions (Fig. 
289). Thus, 180° E. Long, is the same as 
180° W. Long. 

The meridians are not parallel, like the circles of 
latitude. They are farthest apart at the equator, 
where the width of a degree of longitude is about 
69 miles. But all the meridians come together at 
the poles, as you can see on a globe or on Figure 
289. Therefore the width of a degree of longitude 
becomes smaller toward the poles. 

On maps showing only a small part of 
the earth, the circles of latitude and longi- 
tude are too far apart to be of why an( j ^ ow 
much use. It is therefore degrees are 
necessary to have still other divided into 
circles. For this purpose the sma er pa s 
degrees are divided into parts, called min- 
utes. There are sixty minutes in a degree, 
as there are sixty minutes in an hour. The 
minutes themselves are also divided into 
sixty parts, called seconds. 

The sign for a degree is °; for a minute '; for a 
second ". Thus, 60 degrees, 40 minutes, and 20 
seconds north latitude is marked 60° 40' 20" N. Lat. 
Examine some map of a small section of country to 
find these signs. 

Knowing the latitude and longitude of any place, 
it may, by the aid of a map, be as easily located 
as a house in a great city. For instance, Denver 
is about 40° N. Lat., and 105° W. Long. It is there- 
fore far to the north and west of New Orleans, which 
is about 30° N. Lat., and 90° W. Long. 

Find the latitude and longitude of some of the 
large cities on the map (Fig. 40). Notice also that 
only every fifth meridian is marked on this map. 
Compare this with the map of New England 
(Fig. 45). Since the latter map represents a smal- 
ler section, more meridians can be drawn upon it. 
Now look at the map of the Holy Land (Fig. 465), 
which represents a still smaller section. There both 
degrees and miuutes are shown. 



2. Standard Time 

If you were to travel from New York to 
San Francisco, you would find on arriving 
The differences there that your watch was 
in time be- three hours too fast. The 
tween places reason [ s that the rotation of 
the earth is from west to east. This causes 
the sun's rays to fall upon the Atlantic 
coast more than three hours earlier than 
upon the Pacific coast. Hence, when it is 
noon in New York, it is only about nine 
o'clock in the morning at San Francisco. 
The time steadily changes in going either 
east or west, so that no two places on an 
east-west line have exactly the same time 
by the sun. 

Formerly every city used its own sun 
The trouble time, or local time. This was 
caused by such a source of great trouble to 
differences travelers ; for their watches 

were always wrong when they arrived at 
new places. When railroads were built, 
and people began to travel more, and to go 
longer distances, the many different kinds 
of local time became even a greater incon- 

In order to avoid this trouble, our conti- 
nent has been divided into belts, in each of 
How this which the railways, and most 

trouble is now of the towns, have agreed to 
largely use the same time. Since this 

av01 e time is the standard for all, 

these belts are called the Standard Time 
Belts. The one in the extreme East, in- 
cluding eastern Canada, is called the Colo- 
nial Belt; the belt next west of this, which 
includes New England, New York, and 
some of the other Eastern States, is called 
the Eastern Time Belt. What are the 
others called (Fig. 290) ? 

In traveling across the country from Xew York 
City to San Francisco, one starts with his watch set 
at the standard time for the Eastern Time Belt. 
After a while he comes to a place where the time is 
changed one full hour ; then lie sets his watch hack 
an hour in order to have the Central Time. Going 
still farther west to the Mountain Belt, the watch is 
again set back one full hour. What is done when 

the Pacific Belt is reached? By this arrangement, 
the same time is used over a very broad belt, and 
only a few changes of the watch have to be made. 
State how a watch would have to be changed when 
one goes eastward from San Francisco to Xew York. 

Our study of longitude helps us to under- 
stand what determines the places for chang- 
ing this time. The earth How the time 
makes one complete rotation for each time 
every 24 hours, so that the sun belt is fixed 
passes over 360 degrees in the course of the 
day of 2-1 hours. Dividing 360 by 24 gives 


Fig. 290. — To show the Standard Time Belts of the United 

15 ; that is, the number of meridians, one 
degree apart, that the sun passes over in a 
single hour. Therefore, when it is noon in 
a place on the 75th meridian, as at Phila- 
delphia (Fig. 200), it is eleven o'clock just 
15° west of this, or on the 90th meridian. 
When it is noon at one point on a merid- 
ian, it is noon all along that meridian. 

This explains what has determined the 
boundary lines of the time belts. The time 
selected for the Eastern Belt is that of the 
75th meridian : for the Central Belt, that 
of the 90th meridian, which is just one hour 
later. What meridian is selected for the 
Mountain Belt (Fig. 290) ? For the Pacific 

Each of these meridians runs through the 
middle of the belt whose time it fixes. 
Thus, the eastern boundary of the Central 
Time Belt is halfway between the 75th and 
90th meridians, that is, 82*° W. Long. ; 



Why the 
boundaries for 
these time 

and the western boundary is halfway be- 
tween the 90th and 105th meridians, or 
971° W. Long. 

As a matter of fact, the railways do not change 
their time exactly on these meridians. It often 
happens that the meridians chosen 
for boundaries pass through very 
unimportant points, or even cross 

belt.-; are not the raihva y s far out in the °P en 
reeular country. Instead of following the 

exact boundaries, therefore, the rail- 
ways often select well-known cities as the places 
where the changes shall be made. For instance, 
Buffalo, Pittsburgh, and Atlanta are the principal 
cities that lie on the boundary between the Eastern 
and the Central time belts. Railway time-tables 
show a change of one hour at these points; and pas- 
sengers going east or west change their watches one 
hour here (Fig. 290). Name cities located on 
other boundaries. Thus it happens that the bound- 
aries where the railways actually change their time 
are somewhat irregular. But that makes little dif- 
ference, so long as there is a general agreement as 
to the location of the boundaries. 

It is true that the Standard Time is incorrect for 
most places. It is the sun that really fixes our time, 
and at most points Standard Time cannot agree 
with the sun, or local time. Yet Standard Time 
relieves us of much trouble, and that is the chief 
reason for its use. 

In order that our system may agree with that 
of other parts of the world, the time of the Green- 
wich meridian is taken as a basis. Thus the 
whole world may be divided into Standard Time 
belts, with a change of an hour at every fifteenth 

1. Explain the need of some way of locating places 
exactly. 2. How may houses be located in large 
. cities ? 3. How can all places be 

- . located in a north and south direc- 

tion on the earth? 4. How in an 
east and west direction ? 5. Locate several places 
accurately by using a map. 6. Define latitude; 
longitude. 7. What is meant by a degree ? 8. How 
many degrees of longitude are there on the equa- 
tor? 9. How many miles is each of these degrees? 
10. Why are meridians not parallel? 11. How 
many degrees of latitude are there from pole to pole ? 
12. How are degrees subdivided ? Why? 13. Ex- 
plain about the differences in time by the sua, in 
different places. 14. How have these differences 
caused much trouble? 15. How is the difficulty 
now largely avoided? 16. Explain how the time 
for each time belt is determined. 17. Name the 
time belts in North America, and locate each. 
18. Why are the boundaries not regular? 

1. Find how the streets of Washington have been 
numbered and lettered. 2. What is the latitude and 
longitude of Boston ? Of Washing- Suggest - ons 
ton? Of Chicago? Of your home? 
3. Find some cities that are on or near the 42d 
parallel of latitude. 4. What place is in 25° N. 
Lat. and 81° W. Long. ? What place is near 40° N. 
Lat. and 75° W. Long. ? 5. Find places that have 
nearly the same latitude as your home. 6. Show on 
a globe, or map, where a ship would be in the 
Atlantic when in zero latitude and zero longitude. 
7. Examine a globe to see what meridian is a con- 
tinuation of zero longitude on the other side of the 
earth. 8. Find the latitude of the Tropic of Cancer ; 
of the Tropic of Capricorn ; of the Arctic Circle ; 
of the Antarctic Circle. 9. Where and how much 
would you change your watch in traveling from San 
Francisco to Chicago? 10. Examine some railway 
time-tables to see how they indicate the changes in 
time. 11. What is the difference, where you live, 
between Standard Time and solar or sun time ? 
12. Find out whether the true Standard Time is 
telegraphed to your city each day, and if so from 
what place. 

III. Winds and Rain 

i . Winds 

In our study of North America, we have 
learned that the winds of different sections 
came from different directions. The problem 
For example, in the West before us 
Indies, Central America, and southern 
Alexico, the winds usually blow from the 
northeast; but on the western side of the 
continent, all the way from San Francisco 
to Alaska, the wind blows quite regularly 
from a westerly quarter. In the eastern 
part of the United States, on the other 
hand, the winds are irregular in direction, 
although they blow more often from the 
west than from any other quarter. We 
will now study the causes for < these dif- 
ferences, and also learn what the principal 
winds on the earth are. 

It will help us to understand this subject 
if we first find what currents of air a hot 
stove causes in a room (Fig. The currents 
291). The first thing that of air caused 
happens when a fire is kin- by a hot stove 
died is that the air near the stove is 



'0.' . 


■r ,-. 

warmed. This causes it to expand and 
become lighter. Then the cooler, heavier 
air in other parts of the room settles down 
and flows in toward the stove, forcing up- 
ward the warm, light air 
near the stove. This 
warm, rising air grows 
cooler as it comes in con- 
tact with the cool ceiling 
and the walls of the room. 
This makes it dense 
and heavy again ; it 
then settles toward the 
floor at some distance 
from the stove, and once 
more moves toward the 

In other words, the cur- 
rents of air keep circling 
around in the room, ris- 
ing when warmed, and 
settling when cooled. In 
such a room, you can 
easily observe how warm 
the air is near the ceiling, 
where it has risen above 
the stove ; and how much 
cooler it is near the floor at some distance 
from the stove. 

The greater winds of the earth may be 
compared to this movement of air in a room. 

lighter, just as the air does about the hot 
stove. The cooler, heavier air to the north 
and south of the torrid zone then flows 
in and pushes the light air up and away. 






'"•■0 • : 

i',^ ^^/^ 


-.— cold^; 


Fig. 291. 


J- 1 -Oy 

v /U M 

'• •■•' < 

V' \ % 



Fig. 292. — Piairram to show, liy arrows, the movement 
of the greater winds of the earth. 

Here, however, the broad torrid zone, which 
is warmed by the sun's rays, 

d°Il winds of takeS the plaCe ° f the St0 ^' e ' 

the earth ^ n tne torrid zone the hot 

resemble these sun heats the air, thus caus- 

currents ing it to expand and become 

The arrows show the currents of air in a room that are caused 
by a liot stove. 

Such a flowing of the air is what we call 

This vast movement of the air is illus- 
trated in Figure 292. The letter E stands 
for the equator. The arrows represent the 
cooler air, north and south of the equator, 
as crowding in toward that section, then 
rising, and returning once more to the north 
and south. 

The air that flows toward the torrid zone 
causes very regular winds that are called 
trade winds. They start in both u ameso fthe 
the north and south temperate principal 
zones, hundreds of miles away, winds on the 
and blow toward the equator earth 
day after day and month after month. 

Since the heated air must escape some- 
where, it rises far above the surface of the 
earth, and then flows back in the same 
direction from which it came. This forms 
the return trade, or anti-trade winds (Fig. 



292). The atmosphere extends many miles 
above the earth, so that there is plenty of 
room for two winds, one above the other, 
blowing in opposite directions. 

In Cuba, the Caribbean Sea, and elsewhere, where 
the trade winds are felt at the surface, one notices 
that the clouds, far up in the sky, move steadily in 
the opposite direction. They are being borne along 
in the anti-trades. When volcanoes in Central 
America have been in eruption, the ashes that were 
hurled out from them have been carried hundreds 
of miles in the opposite direction from that of the 
trade winds at the surface. 

Being cooled on account of its great 
height, the air of the anti-trades slowly 

outward and down, and once more (4) in- 
ward toward the heated part. Make a 
drawing to illustrate these four directions 
of movement of the air. 

There are differences, however, and one of them 
is especially important. In the room, the currents 
move directly toward the stove ; then, 
after rising, moves directly away 
from it. If the earth stood still, the 
trade winds also would blow directly 
toward the equator from the north 
and south ; and the anti-trades would 
blow directly away from it. 

As you know, however, the earth rotates from 
west to east at a rapid rate. This rotation causes 
the trade winds to be turned from their straight 

Effects of 
earth's rota- 
tion on direc- 
tion of these 

Fig. 293. — A diagram to show the principal wind belts of the earth. 

settles, some of it coming to the surface at 
about a third of the distance to the poles. 
There it spreads out, a part continuing on 
toward the poles, a part returning to the 
equator as the trade winds. Point out the 
arrows that show these movements in 
Figure 292. 

Thus, as you see, these currents in the 
atmosphere closely resemble those in the 
room. In both cases air moves (1) in to- 
ward a heated place, (2) then up, then (3) 

course toward the equator. Those in the northern 
hemisphere are turned to the right, so that they blow 
from the northeast instead of from the north. Those 
in the southern hemisphere are turned toward the 
left, and therefore they blow from the southeast in- 
stead of from the south. 

The anti-trades are also turned toward the right 
in the northern hemisphere, where they blow from 
the southwest, and toward the left in the southern 
hemisphere, where they blow from the northwest 
The exact reason for this effect of rotation is far 
too complex to state here ; so that only the facts 
are given without explanation. 



It is now easy to see why the West 
Indies, Central America, and southern 
' The great Mexico receive such regular 

wind belts winds from the northeast. 

They lie in the belt of the northeast trade 
winds just described. 

The prevailing west winds of the Pacific 
coast are a part of the air of the anti-trades 
that has settled to the surface and is moving 
on toward the east. If you watch the higher 
clouds, you will find, in most parts of the 
United States, that they are moving toward 
the east. Even at the surface, the winds 
blow from the west more often than from 
any other quarter. In the northern part 
of the United States and in Canada, the 
winds blow so often from the west, north- 
west, or southwest, that this whole region 
is known as the region of the prevailing 

Regular winds, such as are found in 
North America, are likewise found in most 
other parts of the world. In other words, 
there are several belts of regular winds 
extending around the earth. Figure 293 
shows these clearly. Point out the belt of 
trade ivinds north of the equator. Point 
out the prevailing ivesterlies. Point out the 
two similar wind belts on the south side of 
the equator. 

Notice how much more distinctly these 
belts are shown over the ocean than over 
Why the the hind. There are several 

winds are reasons why winds blow much 

most regular more steadily over the ocean 

over the ocean j.i ^i 1 i rri 

than over the land. The prin- 
cipal one is that the temperature of the 
water does not change so quickly as that 
of the land. On the land one place may 
become much w r armer than another not far 
away, and then winds blow toward the 
warmer section. This often changes the 
direction of the regular winds on the land. 

That the winds blow very steadily over the ocean 
is most clearly shown (Fig. 293) in the southern 
hemisphere, where there is little land. There, in 
the belt of prevailing westerlies, the wind is almost 
all the time from the west. Indeed, it is said that 

vessels, choosing a course south of Africa and South 
America, can sail around the world with fair winds 
almost all the way, if they go toward the east; but 
if they sail in the opposite direction, the winds are 
against them. 

Besides the four belts of winds just men- 
tioned, there are three other belts in which 
it is either calm, or else there _, 
are only light, variable winds. ca i ms - an a 
The most important of these the belts of 
is called the belt of calms light and vari- 
(Figs. 292 and 293), which is able winds 
several hundred miles in width. This 
belt is situated where the trade winds 
from the northeast and those from the 
southeast die out. It is in this belt that 
the heated air in the torrid zone is rising-. 
Since it is moving upward, no wind can be 
felt, and this is, therefore, a belt of pre- 
vailing calms. What winds there are, are 
usually light and changeable. 

Northern Mexico and southern Califor- 
nia are situated in another belt of light 
winds with frequent calms. This is the 

U — " — — iiu — ^~ — ^y~ 


Fig. 294. — Diagram to show the position of the trade 
winds belts and the belt of calms in summer. 

belt where the air of the anti-trades is 
settling toward the earth ; and settling air, 
like rising air, does not cause winds. This 
region is known as the horse latitudes. 1 
Point out the belt on Figures 292 and 293. 

1 Called horse latitudes because sailing vessels, carry- 
ing horses from New England to the West Indies in 
the early days, were so delayed by the calms that the 
horses had to be thrown overboard when the drinking 
water gave out. 



Show the corresponding belt on the south 
side of the equator. 

The belt of most intense heat is not always in 
exactly the same part of the earth. In June, when 
the sun is vertical at the Tropic of 
Cancer, the belt of greatest heat lies 
north of the equator ; and in Decem- 
ber, when the sun's rays are vertical 
at the Tropic of Capricorn, it lies 
farther south. As the belt of greatest heat thus 

Effects of 
earth's revolu- 
tion on all 
these belts 

Fig. 295. —Diagram to show the position of the belt of 
calms and the trade winds in winter. 

shifts with the season, the belt of calms moves also. 
That causes the trade wind belts to move, likewise. 
Indeed, all the belts slowly shift northward in sum- 
mer and southward in winter (Figs. 294 and 295). 

2. Rain 

Knowing the wind belts that encircle the 
earth, we have a key to the principal rain 
Relation of belts ; for the winds are the 
winds to rain water carriers of the earth. 
Water that is evaporated from the surface 
of the oceans and of the lands, is borne 
along in the air in the form of vapor. It 
descends to the earth as rain or snow, fall- 
ing in great abundance in some places, and 
scarcely at all in others. 

To understand the cause for the change 
of vapor to rain or snow, it is necessary, 
Principal first of all, to know that there 

cause of rain can be more water vapor in 
warm than in cool air. Quite warm air 
can hold much more vapor than cold air. 

For this reason, whenever air is cooled 
sufficiently, some of the water vapor which 

it bears is condensed. For example, vapor 
condenses on a cold glass because the air 
next to it is cooled ; and dew forms on 
grass when the air near the ground grows 
cool in the evening. In a like manner, the 
vapor in our breath is condensed, thus form- 
ing a little cloud, when we breathe into the 
cold air of a winter day. Rain is also caused 
by the cooling of air which contains vapor. 

One important cause for the cooling of 
air is that it expands on rising above the 
surface. Perhaps you have noticed how 
cool the air feels as it rushes out from a 
bicycle tire when you open the valve. 
The coolness is due to the expansion of the 
air as it comes out. In a similar way, 
when air rises above the surface of the 
earth, it exj:>ands, because there is less air 
above to press upon it. Then it grows 
cool ; and while doing so, some of its 
vapor may be condensed to form clouds 
and raindrops. 

This is the chief reason why winds from 
the ocean cause rainfall on mountain slopes 
and plateaus. The air is forced to rise in 
order to pass over the highlands, and that 
allows it to expand and grow cool. For 
the same reason, air that rises in the warm 
fiarts of the earth, like the belt of calms, 
also gives up vapor to form rain. Briefly, 
— ivlien air rises, it expands and cools; and 
then rain usually follows. 

On the other hand, air that is settling 
grows warmer ; and, instead of giving up 
its vapor, it becomes dry and One reason for 
clear. This may again be il- dry weather 
lustrated by the bicycle ; for when air is 
pumped into the tire, the pump becomes 
warm as the air is made denser, or is com- 
pressed, by pumping. In a like manner, 
air that is descending toward the earth's 
surface is compressed and warmed because 
of the great pressure of the atmosphere 
above. Since there can be more vapor in 
warm than in cool air, such settling air 
currents become steadily drier. They cause 
clouds to disappear, and water to be evap- 
orated from the ground. This is the rea- 



son why the horse latitudes are arid belts; 
for, as ) r ou remember, the air in these belts 
is settling from above. Briefly, — ivhen air 
descends, it becomes denser and grows warmer; 
then the shy is clear and the weather dry. 

These facts have been well illustrated in 
the rains of North America. The northeast 
The regular trade winds ' having gathered a 
rain belts large amount of vapor from the 

1. In North ocean, deposit it on the wind- 
America ward slopes of the West Indies, 
southern Mexico, and Central America 
(Fig. 296). The southwestern slopes of the 
West Indies, however, receive a much 
smaller quantity of rain ; and the western 
coast of Mexico is quite arid. 

Farther north the prevailing westerlies, 
having traveled a long distance over the 
Pacific Ocean, likewise cause heavy rains 
along the western coast of North America 
(Fig. 297). But these winds also lose 
much of their moisture in passing over the 
Western highlands ; and the land farther 
east, therefore, re- 
ceives very little 

Northern Mexico 
and the southwest- 
ern part of the 
United States, lying 
within the horse 
latitudes, where the 
air is descending, 
also receive very 
little rain and are 
arid (Fig. 297). 
This is true even 
at the seashore 
in southern Cali- 

Other regions ly- 
ing within the regu- 
lar wind belts show 
the same conditions 

2. In other of rainfall. For example, note 
regions north what heavy rains the northeast 

of the equator trade windg brh]g tQ northern 

South America (Fig. 296), to southeastern 

Asia (Fig. 299), and to the islands near by, 
such as the Philippine Islands. 

Fig. 297. — The heavy rainfall where the prevailing westerlies 
blow over the rising coast. What is the condition farther 
east? What is the case where the trade winds blow ? Why? 

Fig. 29(5. — The rainy east coasts and arid west coasts of 
the trade wind belts. Also the rainy belt of calms of 
South America. 

Iii western Asia and northern Africa, on 
the other hand, these winds deposit little 
moisture, as is 
clearly shown by 
Figures 298 and 
299. One cause for 
this is that, before 
reaching these re- 
gions, the trade 
winds have been 
blowing a long dis- 
tance over the land, 
and not over the 
oceans. For this 
reason they have 
little vapor to de- 
posit. Another very 
important reason is 
that the air is mov- 
ing from a cooler to 
a warmer region, 
and is steadily be- 
coming warmer. 
Instead of being forced, therefore, to give 
up its moisture, it takes more vapor. Thus 
in this region the trade winds take up 
water wherever they find it ; and instead 



of causing rain they are really drying winds. 
This accounts for the Sahara and some other 

The prevailing westerlies reach Europe, as 
well as North America, and cause abundant 

Fig. 298. — To illustrate the desert regions in the trade wind 
and horse latitude belts of Africa. Also to show the 
heavy rainfall in the belt of calms. Find the similar 
belts on Figures 296, 299, and 300. 

rainfall on the western coast. Since there 
are no lofty mountains on the west coast of 
Europe, however, there is no arid and desert 
land in this part of the west wind belt. On 
the other hand, the three peninsulas of 
southern Europe, like southern California, 
lie partly within the horse latitudes ; and 
for this reason there is little rain, especially 
in their southern portion. 

South of the equator the southeast trade 
winds cause heavy rains on the east coast 
3. in regions °f South America (Fig. 296) ; 
south of the then, crossing the continent, 
equa or they give up more vapor in 

ascending the eastern slopes of the Andes. 
The air is so drained of its vapor here, 
that when it descends on the western side 
of the mountains, there is little left. For 
this reason the southern parts of Peru and 
northern Chile, even within sight of the 
Pacific Ocean, form one of the most desert 
regions of the earth. Southern Chile, on the 
other hand, being in the belt of the prevail- 
ing westerlies, has plenty of rain (Fig. 299). 

Most of Australia is in the southeast 
trade wind belt. Therefore, rainfall is 

ample on the eastern coast ; but since the 
highlands on this continent are close to 
the east coast, nearly all the remainder of 
the country suffers for want of rain (Fig. 
300). The southwestern tip of Australia, 
the island of Tasmania, and the southern 
island of New Zealand, like southern Chile, 
are reached by the prevailing westerlies ; 
and for that reason they receive abundant 

The belt of calms is the most rainy of all 
the belts (Figs. 296, 298, and 300), because 
its hot, moisture-laden air is 4. in the belt 
rising and cooling. After a of calms 
clear night in that region, the sun usually 
rises in a cloudless sky. As the morning 
advances, and the heat grows more intense, 
the damp air rises more rapidly ; then small 
clouds appear, and they grow steadily until 
rain falls from them. Showers occur al- 
most every day, increasing in the afternoon. 
When the sun sets, and less air rises, the 
clouds melt away, the stars appear, and the 
night is as clear as before. Our hot, muggy 
summer days, with heavy thunder showers 

Wll.Li.ME ENS. 

Fig. 300. — Showing the heavy rainfall on the east-facing 
coast of Australia where the trade winds blow. Notice 
also the arid interior and west coast. What is the con- 
dition in the belt of calms ? What resemblance do you 
see to Figure 297? 

in the afternoon and evening, illustrate the 
weather that is repeated, day after day, in 
this belt of calms. 

You have already learned (p. 210) that the wind 
belts shift northward in summer and southward in 




"winter. Many places in the torrid zone are within 
the belt of calms during the summer months, and 
are swept by the trade winds in the 
5. The shifting . mon ths. This is of special 

of these ram • . \ 

belts importance, because tne rain belts 

shift with the wind belts. That 
divides the year in such places into two seasons : 

(2) The reason 
for such 

When such 
the North- 

FiG. 301.- 

Winds and rainfall in South America and Africa from December 
to February. 

(1) a wet season, when the region is in the belt of 
calms; and (2) a dry season, when the trade winds 

The part of northern Africa that lies just south 
of the Sahara Desert affords an instance of this 
(Figs. 301 and 302). Find another instance in 
northern South America. Note what an enormous 
area in each of these continents is 
wet during one part of the year and 
dry during the other. 

Thus far only the regular 
wind and rain belts have 

been considered. 

From what has 

been said, one 

might expect 

that the west 

winds, so dry 
after passing over the high- 
lands of western United States, 
would continue eastward and 
cause our Central and Eastern States to be 
arid. As a matter of fact, we know that 
abundant rain falls in this section, as shown 
by Figure 303. We know, too, that there are 
no very regular winds over this entire area ; 
on the contrary, both winds and temperature 
are quite changeable. In any particular 

south wind on one day ; the next day a coo 
dry wind may blow from the northwest 
after two or three days this may give plac 
to a cloud} r sky and rain, brought on by soul 
or east winds ; and then fair, cool weather, 
with northwest winds, may again set in. 

The reason for such change- 
able weather here is that this 
region is crossed 
by great storms, 
moving from 
west to east, 
storms begin in 
west, there is a large area there 
with lighter air than that over 
the surrounding region. Such 
an area is called a loiv pressure 
area (Fig. 304). The heavier 
air, from the surrounding 
country, flows toward this low 
pressure area. This causes winds which 
on the south side blow from the south, on 
the east side from the east, and so forth 
(Fig. 304). 

The air that flows in from all sides rises 
near the center of the low pressure area. 

Regions of 
irregular rains 
1 . In eastern 
United States 
and Canada 
(1) Kind of 
weather here 

locality it may be warm and pleasant, with 

Fig. 302. — Winds and rainfall in South America and Africa from June to 
August. Compare with Figure 301 to see how the belts of heavy rain 
have migrated as the wind belts have shifted with the change of season. 

As it rises, the vapor condenses, forming 
clouds and rain, as in the belt of calms. 
Such an area of low pressure, with its clouds 
and rain, is known as a cyclonic storm area 
(Fig. 305). 

Instead of remaining in one place, the 
cyclonic storms travel steadily onward, 
usually beginning in the northwest, and 



always passing eastward (Fig. 306). The 
paths followed by the storm centers gener- 
... ™ ally pass over the Great Lakes, 

(3) The move- , ■, ,-, 

pent of the cy- and down the St. Lawrence 


clonk- storms, Valley to the ocean. 

and their extent , , 

move eastward because the 

prevailing westerlies carry 
them along ; indeed, these 
great cyclonic storms appear 
to be whirls, or eddies, in 
the prevailing westerlies, 
somewhat like the eddies in 
the current of a stream. 

These storms bring most 
of the rain that falls in the 
United States and Canada, 
east of the Rocky Mountains. 
The area of country upon 
which the rain may be falling 
from the clouds of one of the 
cyclonic storms is sometimes 
very great. Indeed, places 
fully a thousand miles apart 
sometimes receive rain at 
the same time, from the same 
storm (Fig. 305). As the 
storm moves eastward, the weather begins 
to clear on the western side (Figs. 304 
| and 306). 

The vapor that causes the rain in these storms is 
I brought from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic 

places, tornailoes, often called cyclones, in which the 
winds blow so fiercely that houses are torn to pieces 
(Fig. 307). 

After a low pressure area has passed eastward, 
and the storm is over, the wind generally blows from 
the west. This causes cool, dry weather in summer, 
and cold snaps in winter. The latter are often so 

Fig. Mi. — A weather map of the United States on a winter's day. The lines 
are lines of equal air pressure, — the lower the figure, the lighter the air 
(29.5 representing lighter air than 2D.7). The pressure is determined by an 
instrument called the barometer. 

severe that they are called cold waves; and these, 
sweeping over the East, and even in the South, often 
do great damage to fruit trees and delicate plants. 

While the cyclonic storms are quite ir- 
regular, they are almost certain to come 

Fig. 305. — A diagram section through a cyclonic storm area. The arrows show the direction of the winds : the shaded 
area represents cloud and rain. Such a storm covers a very large area, often from the Mississippi River (M) to 
the Appalachian Mountains (A). 

Ocean, being carried by the winds for hundreds of 
miles, even into Canada. 

Xot only are rains caused by these storms, hut 
hot spells, and other changes as well. Warm winds,. 

,., m . .. blowing from the south toward the 

(4) Their differ- , „ b ., c 

- . j- . '".t low pressure areas, are the cause ot 
ent effects on the , r . , ' , , 

ireut/ier * ne "winter thaws and the summer 

hot spells, which are common in the 
Eastern and Central States. It is during the hot 
spelLs that thunder storms come ; also, in some 

whenever a wide area of low air pressure 
appears in the "West. Thus, by watching 
the pressure of the air, as (5) Possibmty 
shown by instruments called of predicting 
barometers, it is possible to thesestorms 
predict such a storm ; and since they 
always move toward the east, it is possible, 
by further study of the barometer, and of 



the winds, to predict their course some- 
what accurately, and thus warn people of 
their coming. 

This work is so important that the United 
States government employs a large force of 


Fig. 306. 

- Weather map for the day following that of Figure 304. 
carefully, and tell how it differs from Figure 304. 

(6) How the pre- 
dictions are 
made, and how 
people are 

the central 

men, stationed in different parts of the 
country, to observe the pres- 
sure of air, direction of wind, 
etc. The observations are 
made at the same time at all 
stations, and telegraphed to 
office at Washington. A 

special branch of the government, called 

the Weather Bureau, has been established to 

have charge of this work. 

The storm predictions are telegraphed from Wash- 
ington to all parts of the country, so that one knows 
what kind of weather to expect a full day before it 
comes. These predictions are usually printed in the 
newspapers, as you no doubt know. 

Maps, called weather maps, are also sent out in. 
great numbers. Figures 304 and 306 are made from 
such maps. Figure 304 shows a cyclonic storm in 
the Northwest, the arrows indicating how the winds 
blow, from all sides, toward the center of low pres- 
sure. Farther east is a region of high pressure. In 
Figure 306, the high and low pressure, areas are 
again represented; but, since it is a day later, they 
have botli moved eastward; and the following day 
they would be still farther east. 

From these maps you can see how the direction 

of the wind, for any one locality, changes as the low 
pressure areas pass over the country. By them, 
also, any person may see what the weather promises 
to be in all parts of the country, and may follow 
the changes from day to day. 

By the predictions of the Weather Bureau, farm- 
ers and gardeners are warned 
against damaging 

frosts, and sailors <"> / alue * 

such warnings 
against severe 

storms. Hundreds of thousands . 
of dollars are saved in this manner 
everj' year. Especially valuable 
service has been rendered by the . 
Weather Bureau in predicting 
the fierce hurricanes that start in 
the West Indies and sometimes 
do great damage there, as well as 
on our own coast (Fig. 308). | 
These resemble the cyclonic 
storms, but are much more de- 
structive. They often pass along 
our eastern coast, and then east- 
ward out into the Atlantic. 

Since the storms and high pres- 
sure areas have so great an influ- 
ence on our weather, you will find 
it of interest to study the weather 
yourself. Watch the changes in 
wind, temperature, clouds, and rain; and if there 
is a barometer at hand, observe how it changes as 
the high and low pressure areas come and go. You 
might also examine the weather map and watch 
the weather that follows, to see how accurately the 
map predicts the weather. 

Study this 

Fig. 307. 

- A house, one side of which was hlown off 
during the passage of a cyclone. 

Since Europe, like the United States, is 
mainly in the belt of prevailing westerlies, 



it also is visited by cyclonic storms. Many 
of the storms that cross our country pass 

2. Regions of over tne ocean, and travel far 
irregular rains into Eurasia before they die 

in Europe Qut> Ther6) ag j^^ fche area 

upon which rain may be 
falling during' one of 
these storms is some- 
times very great. As 
in our country, the 
weather is made change- 
able by these storms ; 
it may be warm and 
pleasant one day, stormy 
the next, then clear and 
cool, or cold. 

Similar cyclonic storms 
develop in the prevailing 

wester! v belt 

3. Such regions 

in the southern 

shore soon becomes warm on a hot summer morn- 
ing, while the water near by remains cool. The 
air over the warm land is heated, as 

over a stove, so that it expands and . 

grows light ; but that over the 

water remains cool, like the sea itself. 

1 . Sea and lake 

of the south- 
er n he m i- 
sphere ; and 

there, too, they cause changes 

in temperature, wind, and 

rain. For this reason the weather of southern 

South America, Australia, and the islands of the 

Southern Ocean resembles our own. 

I I Vet * LiaM Rainfall l^^Hravy Rainfi 
^^M'Jmttt Rainfall Mfff,: 

Fig. 309. 

-The winds and rainfall during the summer 
.monsoon of India. 

There are other causes besides cyclonic storms for 
P • , interference with the regular winds 

i™ ««. • j °f the earth, and therefore with the 
by other winds . , ' 

rainfall. One of these is the dif- 
ference in temperature between land and water. 

Laud warms and cools much more quickly than 
water. For this reason the land along the sea- 

Fig. 308. — A scene in Galveston, showing the vast destruction done by a hurricane 
in 1900, when many of the houses were torn to pieces during the storm. 

This cooler air, being the heavier, then pushes 
in toward the shore ; and thus a breeze from 
the sea, or a sea breeze, is created. In summer 
such a breeze is frequently felt at the seashore 
and along the shores of large lakes; and it often 
changes a very hot day into a cool one. Often, also, 
it brings a shower of rain, especially in the warm 
lands of the torrid zone. At night the land cools 
more rapidly than the sea; and the cool air from 
the land blows out toward the sea, forming a land 
breeze. Then the weather is clear. 

The sea breezes blow only for short distances. 
But when a large bod}' of land, like a continent, 
becomes warm, air from the cooler 
ocean may blow toward it for hun- 
dreds of miles. In winter, on the 
other hand, when the land becomes cooler than the 
ocean, the cold air over a vast area may move toward 
the sea. Such winds exist in Mexico and our Gulf 
States ; but they are far more important in Asia. 

The interior of that vast continent is so far from 
the ocean, that there are naturally great changes in 
temperature from summer to winter. During the 
winter, the heavy air over the cold land settles down 
as drying air, and presses outward beneath the 
warmer air which lies over the ocean. This produces 
dry winds from the land (Fig. 310). In summer, 
on the other hand, the air over the cool water 
crowds in, raises the heated air of the continent, 
and produces ocean winds and rain (Fig. 309). 

2. The mon- 
soons of India 



Winds which thus blow in opposite directions in 
different seasons, are better developed in India than 
in any other part of the earth; and it was here that 
they received the name, monsoon winds. The name 
monsoon is now given to this class of winds wherever 
they may blow. 

The rainy season comes in India when the summer 
monsoons blow (Fig. 309) ; and the rainfall is es- 
pecially heavy where the moisture-laden air ascends 
the steep slope of the Himalayas. Indeed, the region 
north of the Bay of Bengal receives the heaviest 
rainfall of any part of the earth (Fig. 309). Here, 
in the month of July alone, there is three times as 

Fig. 310. — Map of the winter monsoon winds and rainfall 
of India. Compare with Figure 309, and notice how 
very light the rainfall is in one season, and how heavy 
it is in the opposite season. 

much rain as falls in the eastern part of the United 

States during the entire year. The winter monsoon, 

on the other hand, is so dry that vegetation withers 

and the soil becomes parched and cracked, as in a 


1. Explain the currents of air that are caused by 

a hot stove in a room. 2. Show how the principal 

. winds of the earth resemble these 

evl ®. currents. 3. Name the principal 

Questions windg of tfae eapth 4 what {g the 

effect of the earth's rotation on the direction of these 
winds? 5. Locate the principal wind belts on the 
earth's surface. 6. Why are the winds most regular 
over the ocean ? 7. Locate the belt of calms ; and 
the two belts of light and variable winds. 8. What 
is the effect of the earth's revolution on the location 
of these wind belts? 9. What is the relation of 
winds to rain? 10. Explain the principal cause of 
rain. 11. Give one reason for clear, dry weather. 

12. Locate the regular rain belts in North America. 

13. In other regions north of the equator. 14. In 
regions south of the equator. 15. In the belt of 
calms. 10. Explain about the shifting of these rain 
belts. 17. Describe the more irregular weather in our 
Eastern States and in eastern Canada. IS. Explain 



thereasonsfor such weather. 19. In what direction di 
the cyclonic storms move, and what is their extent 

20. How do cyclonic storms affect our weather? 

21. What about the possibility of predicting thea 
storms? 22. How is that work managed? 23. Ho' 
are the warnings of value ? 24. What about region; 
of irregular rains in Europe? 25. In the souther: 
hemisphere ? 20. Explain the causes of sea breezes 
and land breezes. 27. Account for the different 
directions of the Wind in southern Asia in sumnie: 
and winter. 28. What effect have the summer mon- 
soons of India on rainfall ? The winter monsoons ? 

1. Estimate the number of barrels of water that 
falls on an acre of ground, or upon a city block, in 
one year, where the rainfall is forty „ 
inches. 2. How is a movement of 
air secured in your schoolroom in order to ventilate 
it ? 3. Make a drawing to show the direction of the 
regular winds of the earth. 4. Watch the higher 
clouds to see in what direction they are moving. 
5. Read once more the section on " Air " in the 
First Book, p. 54. 0. Write an account of the 
changes in weather for five days- in succession : 
the "wind direction and force; the clouds; rain 
temperature ; and, if possible, the air pressure. 
7. Read the chapter on winds and storms in Tarr'i 
" New Physical Geography," pp. 255-274. 

IV. Ocean Movements, and their Ef- 
fects ; also Distribution of Temper- 

i. Ocean Movements, and their Effects 

Like the air, the ocean water is in motion 
Its three principal movements are wind 
waves, tides, and ocean currents. Tin 
movements of the water, like those of th 
winds, are of the greatest importance to us 

(1) Wind Waves and Tides 

Waves are formed by winds which blow 

over the surface of the water and ruffle it. 

Sometimes, during storms, the _. , 

W ind waves 
heavy winds pile up the water 

in waves that are from twenty to forty feet 

high. Even such great waves are rare! 

very dangerous to large vessels in the ope; 

ocean ; but upon the seashore they do grea' 

damage to vessels, and even to the coasi 

itself. The constant beating of the waves 

is slowly wearing the rocks away and drag- 



ging the fragments out to sea, thus cutting 
the coast back. 

People living upon the seacoast know 
that the ocean water rises for about six 
Xides hours, and then slowly falls 

1. What the for the same period. This 
tides are rising and falling of the water, 

twice each day, forms'" what is known as 
the tides. 

For a long time men were puzzled to explain this 

movementof theocean. It was called 

j j. , the breathing of theearth ; and to this 

day, certain uncivilized races think 

that the tide is caused by some great animal. 

Bay of Fundy, the tide reaches a height 
of forty or fifty feet. 

The height of the tide also varies from day to 
day; for the moon and sun, which combine to form 
it, do not always work together. At new moon, and at 
full moon, — when the earth, moon, and sun are nearly 
in a straight line, — the moon and sun pull together. 
They then make the tidal wave higher than at the 
quarter, when the sun is pulling in one direction and 
the moon in another. The high range of tides at full 
and new moon are called spring tides ; those at the 
quarters, neap tides. 

In the open ocean, the tides are of little 
or no consequence. But along the coast, 

ill. — The ocean waves running on to the beach in great breakers. 

As a result of much careful study, it has been 
learned that the tides are caused by the moon and 
the sun, especially the former. Each of these bodies 
is pulling upon the earth, by the attraction of gravi- 
tation, much as a horseshoe magnet pulls upon a 
piece of iron. Since the ocean is a liquid, this " pull " 
draws it slightly out of shape. This causes two 
great swells, or waves, many hundreds of miles broad, 
one on each side of the earth. They sweep across 
the oceans, following the moon, and, on reaching the 
coast, cause the rise of water known as the tide. 

The tidal wave is only two or three feet 
high upon islands in the open ocean; but it 
3. Height of the rises a great deal higher in 
tidal wave many bays because the space 

that it occupies becomes narrower near the 
head of the bay. In some places, as in the 

where the water rises and falls against the 
beaches and cliffs, they are of much im- 
portance. Where the coast 4. Effects of 
is irregular, the tide is often tides 
changed to a current, which sometimes 
moves so rapidly that a sailing vessel can- 
not make headway against it, but must 
wait until the tide changes. Such a rapid 
current is found in one of the entrances to 
New York harbor, at what is known as 
Hell Gate, where the channel is narrow 
and rocky. 

These tidal currents move in one direction during 
the incoming, or flood, tide, and in the opposite direc- 
tion during the outgoing, or ehh, tide. They some- 
times drift vessels out of their course and place 



them in dangerous positions. Many a ship has been 
wrecked upon a coast where it was drifted by the 
tidal currents. 

The tidal currents often carry mud and sand 
hither and thither, building sand bars opposite the 
mouths of harbors. This is one of the reasons why 
the government is obliged to spend large sums of 
money every year in improving our harbors. For 
example, the tidal currents bring large quantities 
of sand into the mouth of New York harbor near 
Sandy Hook, and along the coast farther south. 

(2) Ocean Currents 

The winds which blow over the ocean, 
forming waves, also drift the water before 
Main cause of them. You yourself can cause 
ocean currents sucn a movement, in a small 
way, by blowing on the surface of a pail of 

drift of water, pushed along by the prevail- 
ing winds. In this way a great system of 
ocean currents is formed (Fig. 312), whicl 
have an important influence on the temper- 
ature of the earth. 

In our study of North America it was 
several times necessary to refer to two of 
these currents, the Gulf Stream and the 
Labrador Current. We shall now study the 
ocean currents, on each side of our conti- 
nent, more fully. 

In the eastern part of the Atlantic, where 
the trade winds blow, the surface water on 
the two sides of the equator The North 
drifts slowly in the direction Atlantic Eddy 
of the trade winds ; that is, toward the belt 
of calms (Fig. 293). The water then 

Fig. 312. — A chart showing the principal ocean currents and ocean drifts of the world. 

water. This starts a current, or drift, of 
surface water in the direction of the moving 
air. Where the winds blow steadily, as in 
the trade wind belts, there is a permanent 


moves westward, as a great Equatorial Drij 
until it reaches the coast of South America 
which interferes with its course (Fig. 312) 
There the drift of water is divided, a pai 



being turned southward, while the greater 
portion proceeds toward the northwest. 

The part that flows northwest is turned 
toward the right by the effect of rotation, 
as the winds are (p. 208); and the part 
that flows into the South Atlantic is turned 
to the left, also by the effect of rotation. 
The northern drift keeps turning to the 
right, and therefore, instead of continuing 
along the American coast, swings out into 
the Atlantic toward Europe. Continuing 
to turn, it then passes south- 
ward, and finally returns to 
the trade wind belt, where 
it started, having made a 
complete circuit. This cir- 
cular drift of water in the 
North Atlantic is called the 
North Atlantic Eddy (Figs. 
312 and 313). 

Coming from the equatorial 
region, the water in this huge 
eddy is warm, and in it live 
countless millions of animals 
and floating plants. Among the 
latter, one of the most abundant 
is a seaweed, called Sargassum, 
some of which is thrown into the 
middle of the great eddy. There 
it has collected until it now 
forms a grassy, or Sargasso, sea, 
hundreds of square miles in ex- 
tent. Since the Sargasso Sea lies 
directly between Spain and the 
West Indies, Columbus was 
obliged to cross it on his first 
voyage of discovery ; and his 
sailors, upon entering it, were much alarmed lest 
they might run aground, or become so entangled in 
the weed that they could not escape. 

A portion of the drift of water which 
moves toward the northwest along the north- 
The Gulf ern coast of South America, 

Stream enters the Caribbean Sea and 

then passes into the Gulf of Mexico. This 
forms a broad, deep, gently flowing current 
into these inclosed seas, which are so nearly 
surrounded by warm tropical lands that the 
water grows even warmer than it was before. 

After swirling slowly round the Gulf of 
Mexico, the water escapes between Cuba 

and Florida. The current then becomes 
known as the Gulf Stream (Fig. 313), be- 
cause it comes from the Gulf of Mexico. 
Being forced to pass out through so narrow 
an opening, its rate of movement is much 
increased, as water in a hose is made to in- 
crease its speed by passing through the 
nozzle. Measure the distance from Key 
West to Havana (Fig. 205). Near here 
the Gulf Stream flows as fast as four or five 
miles an hour. 

Fio. 313. — A diagram to show the currents of the North Atlantic. In order to 
illustrate the currents clearly it has seemed necessary to make them as if 
they were sharply bounded, like a river in its channel. However, the bound- 
aries of these great currents and drifts are so indefinite that one would not 
be able to detect the boundaries. 

Being turned to the right by the effect of 
the earth's rotation, the Gulf Stream soon 
leaves the American coast and flows north- 
east toward northern Europe. It broadens 
rapidly and joins forces with the western 
part of the great North Atlantic Eddy. 
In crossing the Atlantic, this combined 
current, or drift, is pushed along by the 
prevailing westerlies, so that it reaches the 
shores of northern Europe, and even enters 
the Arctic Ocean. In this part of its course 
the current is called the West Wind Drift. 
Some idea of its volume may be gained from 
the fact that it carries many times as much 



water as all the rivers of the world to- 

Some of this water returns in a cold sur- 
face current, called the Labrador Current, 
The Labrador which flows southward along 
Current our northeastern coast (Fig. 

313). Starting from among the islands 
of northern North America, the Labrador 
Current flows past the coast of Labrador, 
Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Eng- 
land as far as Cape Cod. Like all ocean 
currents in the northern hemisphere, it is 
turned toward the right ; that is, since it 
flows southward, toward the west. This 
causes it to follow our coast very closely, 
keeping nearer our shore than the Gulf 
Stream does. 

Since there are two currents near together, a cold 
one from the north, and a warm one from, the south, 
a vessel sailing from Boston to England must cross 
both. In winter, during a storm, a ship often be- 
comes covered with snow and ice while in the cold 
Labrador Current ; but soon after entering the warm 
current this all melts away. 

Where the cold and warm currents approach each 
other, dense fogs are common. The reason for this 
is that warm, humid winds from the Gulf Stream 
are chilled in crossing the Labrador Current. This 
causes some of the vapor to condense and form fog 
particles. The region near the coast of Nova Scotia 
and Newfoundland is one of the foggiest regions in 
the world, and therefore dangerous to vessels. 

In the Pacific Ocean, as in the Atlantic 
(Fig. 312), the water is driven before the 
Currents in the trade winds. Thus a broad 
North Pacific drift is formed, moving west- 
ward in the belt of calms. Then a warm 
current swings to the right past Japan, 
crossing the ocean toward Alaska. This 
is called the Japanese Current. Continu- 
ing to turn to the right, this ocean drift 
passes southward to complete the vast 
eddy. There is also a cold current from 
the' north, between the Japanese Current 
and the coast of Asia, corresponding to the 
Labrador Current in the Atlantic, though 
smaller and not so cold. 

From what has been said, we see that 
the northeastern coasts of both North Amer- 

ica and Asia are swept by ocean currents 
from the cold north. On the other hand, 
the northwestern coasts of Europe and North 
America are approached by warm drifts of 
water from the south. 

In the South Atlantic, South Pacific, and Indian 
oceans, there are eddies similar to those of the North 
Atlantic and the North Pacific. . 

There is one very important dif- Eddies of the 
ference, however. In the southern 
hemisphere the currents are turned 
to the left, instead of the right, by the effect of rota- 
tion. Some of the water of these eddies joins the 
broad West Wind Drift of the distant southern 
ocean; but much of it turns northward until it 
once more reaches the trade wind belt, thus com- 
pleting the eddies (Fig. 312). 

The cold Labrador Current greatly in- 
fluences the temperature upon the neigh- 
boring land ; for winds that _„ . ,. 
, , ° , _ . . _ Effects of ocean 

blow over the Labrador Our- curren ts on 

rent are cooled, and carry the North America 
chill far inland. This is one 1. Effects of 
of the reasons why the east £ abrador 
winds of New England are so 
cool, and why the New England coast is 
such an agreeable summer resort. 

The Labrador Current bears with it much ice 
from the Arctic region. Some of this is sea ice, 
or "floe ice," which has been frozen during tlie 
preceding winters, and some of it is in the furm of 
gigantic icebergs which have broken off from the 
Greenlaud Glacier. Seals are commonly seen in the 
floe ice, and occasionally a polar bear, which preyi 
upon the seal (Fig. 314). 

Most of the sea ice melts before reaching New- 
foundland ; but the icebergs may be carried south- 
ward one or two thousand miles before the air and 
water melt them away. (See limit of icebergs on 
Figure 312.) Indeed, some icebergs float even as 
far south as the paths followed by vessels which cross 
the Atlantic. Since many of these bergs are larger 
than a large building, collision with one means ship- 
wreck; therefore sailors need to use great caution, 
especially when a ship is in the fog. 

While winds from over the Labrador 
Current are chilly, those that blow from 
over the Gulf Stream are 2. Effects of the 
warm. They are also humid. Gulf stream 
During cyclonic storms, winds from the 
warm waters off our southern coast often 



8. Effects of 
warm currents 
in the North 

carry both warmth and moisture far into 
the interior of the country. These winds 
greatly temper the climate of our Eastern 
and Central states, so that the Gulf Stream, 
as well as the Labrador Current, has an 
important influence on our 

The winds that blow over 
the warm waters of the North 
Pacific cause the 
climate of the 
Alaskan coast to 
be far warmer 
than that of southern Labrador 
in the same latitude. These 
prevailing west winds also 
bring an abundance of vapor 
to the Pacific coast, all the way 
from California to Alaska. 

Where these winds blow, the 
winters are mild and the rain 
heavy ; but the summers are 
cool, because the ocean water, 
though warmed, does not be- 
come greatly heated. On a globe notice 
that the state of Washington, with its 
pleasant climate, is in about the same lati- 
tude as the bleak island of Newfoundland, 
whose shores are bathed by the Labrador 

The warm West Wind Drift of the 
North Atlantic is of special benefit to the 
Old World. When Nansen 
started on his famous journey 
toward the north pole, he 
entered the Arctic Ocean 
where this current does. He 
was able to proceed much farther north 
than would have been possible along any 
other route, because the warm drift of 
water keeps this part of the Arctic free 
from ice in summer. Notice, on Figure 312, 
how much farther north the limit of ice- 
bergs is on the coast of Europe than on the 
American coast. 

The west winds, warmed in passing over 
- „ the West Wind Drift, have 

l. On western , 

Europe made possible the great civil- 

ized nations of northern Europe. Notice on 
a map, how many large cities of northern 
Europe are in the same latitude as desolate 
Labrador. How different these two regions 
are ! One is highly civilized and densely 

Effects of cur- 
rents in other 

1. On the Arctic 

Fig. 314. — A polar bear hunting seal on the floe ice that is floating 
southward in the Labrador current. 

settled ; the other is occupied only by 
scattered savages. This difference is due 
largely to the ocean currents and the winds 
that blow over them. 

When our first settlers came from England, they 
expected to find, in the New World, a climate like 
their own in the same latitude. They were not pre- 
pared for the severe winters which they did find ; 
and largely for that reason the first settlements on 
the Xew England and Canadian coasts were failures. 

The cold current off the northeastern coast of 
Asia affects that region much as the Labrador Cur- 
rent does northeastern Xorth Amer- 

3. On north- 
eastern Asia 

ica. The winds that blow over it 
chill the Siberian coast, and cause 
the harbors, like that of Vladivostok, to be icebound 
in winter. This explains why Russia desired to hold 
the Chinese harbor at Port Arthur, south of Korea, 
as a terminus of the Siberian railway, — so that her 
commerce and war ships might not be shut up in 
winter by ice. 

2. Distribution of Temperature 

As a rule, the farther north one travels 
from the equator, the colder it grows ; but 
this is by no means ahvays the case. As 



we have seen, there are several causes 

m . .... . which interfere with this regu- 

Why places in ° 

the same lati- l ar decrease in temperature 
tude may have toward the poles. 

The presence of highlands 
is one cause. It is a well- 

different tem- 

in northern Minnesota is more than 65° 
while at New York City it is not over 50°, 
The winds are a third cause greatly in 
fluencing the temperature. Where the pre^ 
vailing winds are from the ocean, they cause 
an equable climate, as in California, near San 
Francisco and farther north. 
Where they blow from the 
land, on the other hand, they 
are cool or cold in winter, and 
warm or hot in summer. 

A fourth cause for such 
difference in temperature is 
found in the ocean currents, 
as you have just seen. Give 
several examples of the influ- 
ence of ocean currents. 

If, therefore, we were to 
draw a line across the con- 

tinent of North 

Fig. 315. — Isothermal chart of the United States for January. Why is it 
colder in the interior than on the east coast? Why so warm on the west 
coast? Can you notice any influence of mountains? 

known fact that high mountains have a cold 
climate, even though in the torrid zone ; 
and, for the same reason, plateaus may be 
colder than the lowlands farther north. 

A second cause is the 
fact that land warms and 
cools much more rapidly 
than water (p. 217). This 
is the reason why land be- 
comes hotter than the ocean 
in summer, and colder in 
winter. Thus, in northern 
Minnesota, far from the 
ocean, the average tempera- 
ture in January is below 
zero, while in July it is 
about 65° (Figs. 315 and 
316). In New York City, 
on the seacoast, the average 
in January is about 25° and 
in July not quite 75°. Thus 
the difference between the 
summer and winter months 

Meaning of 
lines, and 
their value 

America, con- 
necting several 
points that have 
the same average temperature 
during any one month, or dur- 
ing the entire year, it would need to be a 
very irregular one, with some parts reach- 
ing much farther north than others. Such 
lines tell so much about temperature, in so 


31G. — Isothermal chart of the United States for July, 
the west coast than on the east coast ? 

Why is it cooler on 



little space, that it is the custom to make 
maps to show them, as in Figures 315 and 
316. Since these lines connect the places 
that have the same temperature, they are 
called isothermal lines, or isotherms (iso 
means equal ; thermal, heat). A map or 
chart, showing the isotherms, is called an 
isothermal chart (Figs. 315 and 316). 

which is cold in winter and warm in 

Figures 317 and 318 show similar isotherms for 
the whole world. Observe how these bend toward 
the equator where they cross mountain chains. 
Comparing these two figures, you will notice that 
the winter isotherms of the north temperate zone 
bend toward the equator over the continents. This 
is because the land is colder than the ocean. Dur- 

Fig. 317. — An isothermal chart of the world lor July. 

Trace several of the isotherms across the 

United States and explain why they bend 

-..„ . as they do. Note that the iso- 

Differences be- J 

tween January therms on the western coast 
and July iso- extend north and south, almost 

therms on land, p ara ll e l to the coast. This is 
with reasons i ,, ... 

because the prevailing wester- 
lies bring the nearly uniform temperature 
of the Pacific Ocean to the land. There 
is only about 20° difference between the 
winter and summer temperatures on the 
western coast ; but on the eastern coast 
of the United States the difference be- 
tween summer and winter is much greater. 
Here, while some of the winds are from 
the oceau, still more are from the land, 

ing the summer, on the contrary, the isotherms 
curve poleward on the continents. On what conti- 
nent are these bends most striking? Why? What 
effect of the West Wind Drift do you find in Figure 

Notice also that the isotherms of the North Atlan- 
tic are close together as they leave America, but 
spread apart, like a fan, toward the 
Old World. On the American side, 
the ocean currents approach eacli 
other, one from the north, bearing 
Arctic cold, the other from the warm 
south. This causes a great difference in tempera- 
ture between our northern and southern coasts. 
On the European side of the Atlantic, on the other 
hand, one part of the warm West Wind Drift passes 
northward, raising the temperature and bending the 
isotherms far northward. Another part of the cur- 
rent turns southward. This water, flowing into a 

Their differ- 
ences on the 
oceans, with 



warmer region, is somewhat cooler than the sur- 
rounding water. It therefore lowers the tempera- 
ture and causes the isotherms to bend southward. 
Thus the isotherms are spread apart. 

In the southern hemisphere, where there is less 
land, these differences are not nearly so striking. 
You can, however, find some bends of the isotherms 
near South America, Africa, and Australia. But 
south of these continents, where it is all water, the 

and what is their value? 21. What are isothermal 
charts? 22. Trace some of the isothermal lines 
across the United States for January and for July, 
and explain their differences. 23. Explaiu the direc- 
tion of isotherms on the North Atlantic. 24. Find 
on the maps other bends of the isotherms in crossing 
the ocean, and account for them. 25. Why are the 
isotherms so much more nearly parallel in the south- 
ern than in the northern hemisphere? 

Fig. 318. — Au isothermal chart ol the world for January. 

isotherms run nearly east and west, almost parallel 
to the circles of latitude. 

1. What are the three principal movements of 
ocean water? 2. Tell what you can about the wind 
. waves. 3. What are tides? 4. Ex- 

n .. plain their cause. 5. What about 

their height ? 6. Mention some of 
their important effects. 7. Explain the main cause 
of ocean currents. 8. Describe the North Atlantic 
Eddy. 9. The Gulf Stream. 10. The Labrador 
Current. 11. The currents in the North Pacific. 
12. The eddies of the southern oceans. 13. Explain 
the effects of the Labrador Current on North Amer- 
ica. 14. Of the Gulf Stream. 15. Of the warm 
currents in the North Pacific. 16. State the effects 
of ocean currents on the Arctic Ocean. 17. On west- 
ern Europe. 18. On northeastern Asia. 19. Give four 
reasons why places in the same latitude may have dif- 
ferent temperatures. 20. What are isothermal lines, 

1. If your home is upon the seacoast. find out 
about the high and low tides there. 2. What course 
might a vessel take in order to be _ . 

carried from Europe to America, and ss 
back again by ocean currents? 3. How do vessels 
try to avoid running into one another in dense fogs? 

4. Learn more about Nansen's voyage. 5. Which 
of the isothermal lines on Figures 315 and 316 is 
nearest to your home? 6. Which isotherm on 
Figure 315 runs near New York and northern 
New Mexico? 7. On Figure 31G, what isotherm 
runs through northern Maine and San Francisco? 

5. How about the distance of these points from 
the equator? 9. Locate the cold ocean currents of 
the world; the warm currents. 10. Estimate the 
length of the circumference of the great eddy in 
the North Pacific. 11. How does Figure 318 show 
the effect of the warm current on the northern 
coast of Russia ? 



V. Plants, Animals, and Peoples of 
the Earth 

i. Plants and Animals 

In our study of North America (p. 14) 
we found that there was little plant and 
Life in the animal life in the northern 

frigid zone p ar t f the continent. Give 
the reasons. What plants are found there ? 
What about insect life ? What large land 
animals are found, and how 
do the)' manage to live? 

The life upon the tundras 
of northern Europe and 
Asia corresponds closely to 
that on the barrens of North 
America ; and the few people 
found there live in much the 
same way as the Eskimos of 
North America. Besides 
the dog, however, the people 
of the tundras have the rein- 
deer as a domestic animal 
(Fig. 319). 

What countries of the 
New World are at least 
Life in the partly included 

torrid zone within the tor- 

rid zone (Fig. 285)? De- 

like the ants, which swarm in vast numbers, 
are very troublesome. 

There are many birds, too, including hum- 
ming birds, parrots, paroquets, birds of para- 
dise, and other species, which are far famed 
for their beauty. Among the mammals 
there is less variety and abundance. Some, 
like the monkeys and sloths (Fig. 339), 
are tree dwellers ; others, like the tapir, live 
in the swampy undergrowth. Some very 
large animals, such as the rhinoceros and 

Fig. 319. 

for drawin 

From BatzePs History of Mankind. 
A camp in the tundra of northern Asia. The reindeer are used 

scribe the climate of this 
part of North America (p. 19). What 
about the plant life found there (p. 19) ? 
The animal life (p. 22) ? 

What portions of the Old World lie in 
the torrid zone? Extensive and dense for- 
1. in the rainy ests are found in the rainy 
section section of this zone in the 

Old World, as in the New. Animal life is 
abundant, too, since there is so much 

Among the animals insects are especially 
common. Some, like the beautiful butter- 
flies, thrive because of the great number and 
variety of tropical flowers ; others, like 
many species of ants, live in the decaying 
wood ; and still others have their homes in 
the ground. Some are harmless ; but many, 

the sleighs and also as a source of milk and meat. 

elephant (Fig. 460), still live in the dense 
forest, where it is difficult to hunt them. 
Occasionally, too, fierce animals, such as the 
tiger (Fig. 320), lurk in the densely grow- 
ing vegetation, ready to pounce upon the 
more defenseless, plant-eating animals. 

Reptiles also thrive in the warmth and 
dampness of the forests. Great boa con- 
strictors twine themselves, like huge vines, 
among the trees and underbrush ; and poi- 
sonous serpents are common. The bodies 
of standing water encourage water life, — for 
example, the turtle and alligator among rep- 
tiles, and the hippopotamus and manatee 
among mammals. 

The labor required to clear away the dense 
tropical forest, and to keep it clear for 



farming, is far greater than in the temperate 
region of our country. This difficulty is 
increased, too, by the extreme heat, and by 
the damp, unhealthful climate. For these 



i; : ■ 

I mtw 



^ l 

Fig. 320. — The tiger whicli lurks in the jungles of India. 

reasons, in spite of the very fertile soil, the 
zone of dense tropical forests is almost 
everywhere sparsely inhabited ; and in 

nearly every case its inhabitants are in- 
dolent savages. They have become accus- 
tomed to the climate, and they easily secure 
an abundant supply of food from the sur- 
rounding trees and bushes. Thus they find 
little work necessary. 

On either side of the tropical forest there 
is a belt where the temperature is always 
high, but where the rainfall 2. In the 
varies with the season. Here savannas 
abundant rain falls in one season, while the 
climate is very dry in the opposite season 
(p. 214). Owing to the lack of rain dur- 
ing one season, dense forests are impossible; 
but some plants, such as grasses, thrive. 
These are therefore grass-covered lands, and 
are known as savannas. 

The downs of northern Australia, the park lands 
lying both north and south of the equator in Africa, 
the campos of Brazil, and the llanos of Venezuela and 
Colombia, are all examples of savannas. They are 
dry and barren in one season, fresh and green in the 
other. Trees, such as palms, line the streams; but 
elsewhere the land is open prairie. Plant-eating 
animals roam about ; in Africa, for example, the an- 
telope, gazelle, zebra, giraffe, buffalo, elephant, and 

Fig. 321. — The lion, sometimes called the king of animals 



rhinoceros. In addition, there are some 
flesh-eating animals, such as the lion 
(Fig. 321). 

While tropical forests are suited only 
to the life of indolent savages, the open 
savannas invite human inhabitants, in 
spite of the heat. They also compel in- 
dustry, because men must make provision 
for the period of drought. Therefore, 
even those African negroes who inhabit 
the grass lands keep flocks and carry on 
rude forms of agriculture. 'Where settled 
by white men, these savannas are to-day 
mainly grazing lands. 

The savannas grade into tropical 
forests on the side next to the 
<> r «. a ^ equator, but they 

3. In the desert "■ J 

gradually change into fig. 32 
deserts on the other side. Locate 
these deserts in Australia south of the 
equator ; in Asia north of the equator ; 
and in Africa and America on both sides 
of the equator (Figs. 296, 298, 299 and 300). 
Explain the causes of their arid climate. 

In the desert there are vast areas in which the 
sand is drifted before the wind and piled into sand 
hills, or sand dunes (Fig. 322). There are also tracts 
glistening with salt where the water of lakes has 
evaporated and left salt upon the surface. Parts 
of the desert are broad plains ; but there are also 
stony plateaus, deep valleys, and mountain ranges. 

Fig. 323. — A camel on the desert of northern Africa. 

— Sand dunes on the edge of an oasis in the Sahara desert. 

Throughout most of the desert there is such a lack 
of rain that the surface is barren and desolate at all 

Even in such a region, however, plants and 
animals are not entirely lacking. In some sections 
there are scattered clumps of coarse grass; and 
there are prickly plants, like the cactus, in which 
the leaves and stems are as compact as possible to 
prevent evaporation. In place of a dense tropical 
foliage, like that of the tropical forest, there is a 
notable absence of leaves. Indeed, a large part of 
the plant is under ground. This is because the 
roots must struggle hard to find the necessary 
moisture, and the portion above ground must use 
as little moisture as possible, and 
waste none ; for years may pass 
before rain comes. 

That the desert soil is usu- 
ally fertile is proved by the 
fact that vegetation thrives 
wherever there is fresh water, 
as along a stream. Such 
watered spots in the desert 
are called oases. They make 
beautiful gardens in the midst 
of the barren desert. 

One of the few large animals 
native to the deserts of the Old 
World is the ostrich. Another, 
much used by man, is the camel 
(Fig. 323). The camel well illus- 
trates how animals become adapted 
to their surroundings. Each foot has 
a broad sole which aids the camel in 



traveling by preventing the feet from sinking into 
the sand. The nostrils can be closed when neces- 
sary, and the eyes are protected by thick lashes. 
Both of these devices help to keep out the sand, 
which is so often blown about. The camel is 
further provided with pouches in which enough 
water may be stored to serve its needs for two or 
three days. It also has a fatty hump, which 
furnishes nourishment to the body, so that the 
camel can go without food longer than most other 

Human beings naturally shun the desert. 
Permanent homes can exist only on the 
oases (Fig. 322) ; but wandering tribes, or 

Fig. 324. — A family of nomads and their tent on the Sahara desert 
iu Morocco. 

nomads, roam about over the desert. Thej r 
live in tents (Fig. 324), and are engaged 
either in herding, or in driving caravans of 
camels laden with articles of trade. 

What part of North America is included 
within the north temperate zone ? What 
Life in the part of the Old World ? 

temperate What countries of South 

zones America are at least partly in- 

cluded within the south temperate zone ? 
What part of Africa ? Of Australia ? 

The land of the temperate zones is in 
large part forest-covered. Thus a broad 
1 in the well- f 01 ' es t belt crosses the north- 
watered sec- era interiors of both North 
tions America and Eurasia. Owing 

to the moderate rainfall in some parts, and 
to the rigor of the climate in others, the 

forest is more open than in the tropical 

In the forests near the torrid zone, the 
trees are for the most part tropical in kind, 
In the cooler parts, however, they are 
mainly of two sorts : (1) the evergreens, in- 
cluding the pine, spruce, and hemlock, 
which have needle-like leaves that remain 
green throughout the winter; and (2) the 
deciduous trees, like the oak, maple, elm, 
and chestnut, whose leaves are much larger, 
but fall when frost comes. The temperate 
forest was the home of many wild animals, 
but these have now been greatly 
reduced in number. Name 
some of those of North America 
(p. 17). Owing to the cold- 
ness of the climate in the north- 
ern sections, these animals are 
protected by fur, which men 
find of much use. 

There are some treeless 
plains even in those parts of I 
the temperate zone where the 1 
rainfall is heavy enough for 
tree growth. Examples of 
these are the prairies in the 
United States and some of the 
plains in southern Russia. 
What has been said about the 
cause of prairies (p. 19) ? 

In the temperate zones of the northern 
and southern hemisphere both the cleared 
forest lands and the humid, grass-covered 
plains have become the seats of extensive 
agriculture. In fact, the temperate zones 
are the agricultural regions of the world, 
and they might almost be called the zones of 
grain (Figs. 535, 53G). Make a list of the 
grains that are cultivated; also of the fruits. 
It is in the temperate zones, too, where 
man has developed most highly. The sim- 
ple life of the savage in the tropical forest, 
and of the Eskimo in the cold regions, offers 
a striking contrast to the varied life of 
the agricultural people in the temperate 
belt. Not only are the latter more highly 
civilized, but they have so increased in 

100° 120° 140" lUt)" 18U" 160° 140" 120" 100" 30° GQ J 40" 20" 0° 20° 40" CO 80° 

I ] North American Region \^~~j£urasian Region 

] \&mth American, Region | \ 0riental Region 

J | J Jmtfroiia«.igggtVn j _j£flitop(an Region 

100° 120° 140° lOO" 1S0° 160 3 140 c 120° 100° 

00° 40° 20" 0° 20 u 40° G0 C 

FIG. 325. 

1 60° 1S0° 140° 120" 100 " J gSla. °°° '■^' l0 ° 20 ° Q " 20' 40° 60' 

100' 120' 1-10° 160° 180° 

180° 160° 140° 120° 100° 

CO* 40° 20° 0° 20° 40° 50° 80° 100° 120" 140° 100° 

FIG. 326 



numbers that the temperate zone is the 
most densely populated belt in the world. 
Suggest some reasons for this. 

In addition to the prairies there are 
other treeless, grass-covered lands in the 
2. in the arid temperate belts. These are 
lands usually in the interior of con- 

tinents, on the border of the deserts, where 
the rainfall is light. In the Old World, 
where these arid tracts are called 
steppes, there is a broad strip of 
treeless land extending from south- 
eastern Europe to central Asia. 
The Great Plains of western North 
America, and the treeless plains, 
or pampas, of Argentina are also 
steppes (Fig. 346). 

On these steppes the melting snow 
and the spring rains cause the grass to 
be green in spring and early summer; 
but drought then changes it to gray 
and yellow. There are no trees 
excepting along the streams; and 
there is too little rainfall for agri- 
culture without irrigation. 

The wild animals are mainly 
grass eaters. Formerly the steppes 
supported great herds of deer, 
antelope, and bison ; but cattle, 
sheep, horses, and camels have 
now largely taken their place. 
Iu the Old World the inhab- 
itants of the steppes have for 
many centuries led a pastoral 
life, and have become nomads. 
They wander about, living in 
tents during the summer; 
but in winter they build 
more permanent homes for 
the sake of protection against 
the weather. 

Fig. 327.- 

The kinds of plants and animals are not 
the same in different sections of the world. 
Distribution of Thus, the native animals and 
animals and plants of Australia are quite 
plants different from those of Asia or 

America. There are several reasons why 
they do not naturally spread all over the 
earth. One of the most important of these 
is that the ocean is in the way. It is a 
barrier that they cannot easily cross. 

Mountains and deserts are other barriers. 
Thus, lands that are separated by such bar- 
riers are quite apt to have different kinds of 
animals and plants ; while lands that are 
connected, or that were formerly connected, 
have animals (fauna') and plants (flora) 
more nearly alike. The map (Fig. 325) 
shows the different zones of animal life in 
the world. What are their names? 

2. Peoples 

Man, like plants and animals, varies in 
different parts of the world. He is in- 
fluenced by his surroundings, as they 
*\ are, and in the course of time has 
developed differently in the various 
lands of the earth. People hold 
different views about the origin 
i of the human race and its divi- 
sions, but mankind in general 
may be divided into the four 
great groups described below. 

All together there are over 
one and one half billion human 
beings upon the p r i nC i pa i <ji v i- 
earth, or nearly sions of man- 
twenty times the kind 
number in x - Ethiopians 

the United States. Of 
these, over one hundred 
and eighty-five million 
are negroes (Figs. 326 
and 327), or Ethiopians. 
This is often called the 
black race. There are 
many divisions of this 
group, but they all have 
a deep brown or black skin ; short, black, 
woolly hair ; broad, flat noses ; and promi- 
nent cheek bones. 

The home of the Ethiopians is Africa, south of 
the Sahara Desert (Fig. 326), though many have 
been carried to other lauds as slaves, and have there 
mingled more or less with the other races. The 
negroes in Africa are either savages, or barbarians 
of low type ; but in other lands they have often ad- 
vanced to a civilized state. 

The native Australians (Fig. 523), the Papuans of 
New Guinea, the Xegritos of the Philippines, and 

•A Zulu, one of the tribes of Airicau 



the blacks on some other islands in that part of the 
world, resemble the negroes most closely, though 
differing from them in some important respects. 
They are shorter ; their hair is less 'woolly, their 
noses straighter, and their lips less thick. 

A second great division of the human 
race is that of the American Indians, often 
2. American called the red race (pp. 22-24). 
Indians it i s the smallest of the 

four groups, numbering only about fifteen 

3. Mongolians 

a copper-colored skin, prominent cheek 

bones, black eyes, and long, coarse, black 

hair (Figs. 326 and 328). 

The third division, the Mongolian, or 

yellow race, numbers about six hundred 

and thirty million. They ai'e 

mainly Asiatic people, though 

some, like the Finns, Lapps, and Turks, 

have migrated to Europe. 

The Mongolians, as represented by the 
Chinese and Japanese (Figs. 
326 and 330), have a yellowish, 
or in some cases even a white, 
skin, prominent cheek bones, 
small oblique eyes, a small 
nose, and long, coarse, black 
hair. The Malays are a divi- 
sion of the yellow race. The 
great majority of Mongolians 
are civilized, although their 
kind of civilization differs 
from that of the white race 

By far the largest and most 
civilized of the four divisions 
of mankind 


4. Caucasians 

Fig. 328. — A North American Indian, one of the red race. 

million. These people, who in some re- 
spects resemble the Mongolians, were in 
possession of both North and South 
America when Columbus discovered the 
New World. They are distinguished by 

the white, or 
Caucasian, race, which num- 
bers about six hundred and 
ninety million. They are" 
also the most widely scattered, 
being found now in great 
numbers on all the continents. 
Their original home is not 

While they differ greatly 
from one another, two main 
branches are recognized : 
(1) the fair type, with florid 
complexion, light brown, 
flaxen, or red hair, blue or 

r , ,;,, r, recm^tSogy! g ra y e 3' es ' anc * height above 

the average ; (2) the dark 
type, with, fair skin, dark 
brown or black hair, often wavy or curly, 
and black eyes. 

The leaders among these races are the 
whites, who, having learned the use of 
ships in exploring distant lauds, have 



spread with great rapidity. Being more 

advanced than the other races, the white 

__. race has conquered the weaker 

Extent to J . 

which the Cau- people and taken their lands 

casians are from them, so that now they 
leaders, with ru i e almost the whole world 
reasons (pig g 26) Th(j Qnly diy ._ 

sion that has held out against them is that 
of the Mongolians, whose very numbers 
have in large measure served to protect 

Every race has some form of religion. 
Among ignorant savages it is little more 
than superstition. They are 
surrounded by nature, which 
they do not understand. The)' 
seek a cause and, seeing none, 
are led to believe in spirits. 
Some of these are supposed to be evil, 
others good. Believing 
that these spirits have great 
influence over their lives, 
they try to win favor with 
them by offering sacrifices 
and worshiping them. 

Forms of re- 
ligion, and 
their distribu- 

1. Superstition 





Such religion — if it may be 
so called — takes many forms. 
Some races believe in witch- 
craft ; and among them the 
witch doctor is sometimes more 
powerful than the ruler himself. 
To ward off evil influences, 
charms are worn, curious rites 
are observed, and images or 
other objects, called fetishes 
(Fig. 328), are worshiped be- 
cause they are believed to possess 
some magic power. Among 
these objects are included fire, 
the sun, the earthquake, and 
many animals. They have little 
or no idea of God. 

All people with some such 

Fig. 320. — A negro views as these are often said to 

fetish from Africa, have no religion. From our 

point of view they have no true 

religion ; but they have something related to it. 

Among the civilized races there are 
forms of belief in which the idea of God 
is much higher, and in which the doc- 

TtatztV* HihUiry of 

trine of future reward and punishment is 

taught. Of these religions five call for 

special mention. 

Buddhism, followed especially in eastern 

Asia (Fig. 332), was established in India 

five or six hundred years be- „ _ .... 

- 2. Buddhism 

fore the time of Christ. It 

was the result of the work and teachings 

Fig. 330. — Japanese women, belonging to the Mongolian 
or yellow race. 

of Buddha (Fig. 331). There are many 
differences in the religious beliefs and cus- 
toms of the people who follow Buddha, 
and in consequence there are many sects. 
Brahmanism is one of the most common 
forms of belief in India and other parts of 
Asia. It would be difficult 
to correctly describe the reli- 
gions of the Asiatic people in a few words ; 
but idolatry, or the worship of idols, is com- 
mon among them. Ancestor worship is com- 
mon in China ; and the doctrine of caste in 
India, — that is, the doctrine of class dis- 

3. Brahmanism 



Fig. 331. — A great statue of Buddha. 

tinction. Both of these doctrines, which 
are a part of their*"religion, are opposed to 

progress, as you will learn later (pp. 35£ 
and 363>. 

The Jeivish religion, still followed by 
large numbers of people, upholds the wor- 
ship of one righteous God as 4. The Jewish 
taught in the Old Testament ; religion 
but they reject the New Testament. 

The prophet Mohammed lived about six 
centuries after Christ, and the Koran con- 
tains his teachings. Moham- 5. Mohamme- 
medans deny that Christ was danism 
divine. This religion has spread by the 
sword with wonderful rapidity, especially 
among the half-civilized people of Asia and 
Africa (Fig-. 332). Many of its followers 
became fanatics who, believing that they 
thus obtained future happiness, willingly 
died if they could die killing a Christian. 

The Christian religion, the common belief 
in America and most of Europe, has spread 
far and wide, until it now 6. Christianity, 
numbers nearly four hundred and its value 
and eighty million followers. Its success, 
however, must not be measured by numbers 
alone ; for nearly all of the most civilized 

Fia. 332. — Map of religious of the world. 



nations of the world are Christian nations 
(Fig. 332). It is no accident that this is 
so, for Christianity lias been one of the 
chief factors in making civilization possible. 
Religious belief has had much to do with 
inventions and the growth of industry. 
The Chinese, for example, have long opposed 
new inventions because their ancestor wor- 
ship led them to have too much reverence 
for past customs. Partly for such reasons, 
our stud} r of geography is chiefly concerned 
with Christian countries ; for there it is that 
we find the most varied and extensive uses 
of the earth in the service of man. 

1. What are the conditions of plant and animal 
_ life in the frigid zone? 2. In the 


_ .. rainy portion of the torrid zone? 

3. In the savannas? 4. In the desert 

portions of the torrid zone? 5. In the well-watered 

portions of the temperate zones? 0. In the arid lands 
of the temperate zones? 7. What about the distri- 
bution of animals and plants? 8. Tell what you can 
about the Ethiopians ; their characteristics and 
distribution. 9. Do the same for the American 
Indians. 10. Mongolians. 11. Caucasians. 12. To 
what extent are the Caucasians leaders among these 
races? Give reasons. 13. Name the principal forms 
of religion. 14. Give some facts about religious super- 
stition. 15. Buddhism and Brahmanism. 16. Jew- 
ish religion. 17. Mohammedanism. 18. Christianity. 
1. Make a collection of different kinds of wood. 
2. Notice how some of them are polished for use as 
furniture. 3. Visit a museum to „ 
see specimens of tropical animals. 
4. Examine a cactus closely. 5. Examine and com- 
pare the foliage of some evergreens and deciduous 
trees. 6. Collect pictures of animals belonging to 
different parts of the world. 7. How many of the 
four divisions of mankind are represented in your 
own neighborhood? 8. Collect pictures for the 
school, showing the kinds of dress worn by the dif- 
ferent races of mankind. 


In -what zones does South America lie ? 2. What 
climate would you expect in the northern part? In 
the central part? In the southern 

Map Study 

part ? 3. During what months does 

winter come in the extreme south ? 4. What large 
rivers drain the continent ? 5. Do you find many 
lakes ? Suggest a reason. 6. To what extent is the 
coast line irregular? 7. Draw an outline map and 
locate upon it the mountains and rivers. Add the 
boundary lines of the principal countries. 8. Where 
are most of the islands? 9. Find Cape Horn. It 
is south of what island? What strait separates this 
island from the mainland ? 10. Which country has 
most railways? What does this indicate about the 
people there? 11. In what zone is that country? 
How may the climate there have influenced the 
building of railways ? 

I. General Facts 

Recall the shape of North America. Lo- 
cate its two main highland 
urace masses. What are their 

, _ b] names? Which is the higher 
between North and more extensive ? What 

and South about its volcanoes ? Where 

America . . 

are its principal plains I 

As you can see from the map, South 
America is quite like North America in its 
surface features. South America, like 
North America, is triangular in shape, 
being broad at the north and tapering 
toward the south. Its principal highlands 
are on the two sides, as in North America 
(Fig. 10). The western highlands, called 
the Andes (Fig. 334), form one of the loft- 
iest mountain systems in the world; and 
between the ranges are many deep valleys 
and some lofty plateaus, as in our western 
Cordillera. From the northern to the 
southern end of South America, those moun- 
tains rise from the very seacoast, and ex- 
tend far inland. 

Many of the highest peaks are volcanic cones, one 
of them, Aconcagua, in Argentina, reaching an eleva- 
tion of nearly twenty-three thousand feet. This is one 
of the loftiest peaks in the world. Several of the 
volcanoes are still active, and some of the eruptions 
have been terribly violent. Earthquakes, too, are 
frequently felt in this region. 

The most extensive highlands on the 
eastern side of South America are in east- 
ern Brazil (Fig. 334). Like New England, 
this is a region of high hills and low moun- 
tains. The highest point is a little over 
ten thousand feet above sea level. The 
Guiana highland (Fig. 334), between the 
Amazon and Orinoco rivers, resembles the 
upland of Brazil, but is separated from it 
by the Amazon Valley. The remainder of 
the continent is lowland (Fig. 335), and 
mainly a vast plain, extending from south- 
ern Argentina to the Caribbean Sea. 

Although the surface features of the two 
continents are so much alike, there are two 
important differences. In the 2 Differences 
first place, their large rivers between North 
flow in different directions and South 


from those of 
Describe the 

our continent, 
three principal 

river sys- 

tems of North America (Fig. 9). Make a 
sketch of the three largest rivers of South 
America. One of these is the largest in 
the world. Which is it ? Which one most 
nearly corresponds to the Mississippi iu 
position and direction of flow ? 

A second important difference between 
the two continents is found in the coast 
lines. It will be remembered that much 
of the North American coast has been made 
irregular by the sinking of the land. Thus 
many good harbors have been formed. 
Much of the South American coast, on the 



fig. 333. 
The boundary of Ecuador is in dispute. 

FIG. 334. 



Fig. 335. — Relief map of South America. 



other hand, has been rising. This has 
made the coast line straight, because the 
raised sea bottom is so level. The west- 
ern coast of South" America is the most reg- 
ular coast, of long extent, in the world. 
For a distance of three thousand miles there 
are very few good natural harbors. What 

Fig. 336. — A view in the lofty snow-covered Andes 

effect must this have upon the development 
of the continent ? 

What portion of South America has a 
tropical climate ? How do you know ? 
Climate Where does the Tropic of 

1. Temperature Capricorn cross the continent? 
What countries of South America are partly 
or wholly in the temperate zone '? During 
what months do they have summer ? What 
effect on temperature are their north winds 
likely to have? What part of South Amer- 
ica has a climate much like that of the 
United States? 

The winds, together with the highlands, 
are the key to the rainfall. On the map 

2. Rainfall (Fig. 294) it is seen that the 
(1) The winds belt of calms extends across 
the continent in the neighborhood of the 
equator. North of this belt the northeast 

trade winds blow (Fig. 294), while south 
of it is the zone of southeast trade winds. 
Still farther south are the horse latitudes, 
and then come the prevailing westerlies 
(Fig. 293), which blow across the southern 
end of the continent. 
' As one would expect, there is heavy rain- 
fall (Fig. 296) in the belt of 
calms. The ,», „ . . „ 

(2) Theramfall 

northern coast in the tropical 

must also re- zone east of the 
, , , mountains 

ceive abundant 
rains, because the trade winds 
blow from the ocean and are 
forced to rise in passing over 
the slopes. The highlands of 
eastern Brazil must likewise 
be well watered by the vapor^ 
laden southeast trades (Fig. 
296). The trade winds los 
much of their moisture in., 
traveling across the continent, 
but on approaching the Andes 
they are forced to a still 
greater height. Accordingly, 
the eastern side of this range 
is wet by frequent rains. 

You have learned (p. 214) that 
the belts of rainfall shift northward 
and southward, each year, as the season changes 
(Figs. 294 and 295). Therefore, there is a belt, on 
each side of the equator, where the land is dry at 
one time of year and well watered in the opposite 
season. These belts of grass lands, or savannas 
(p. 228), lie on both sides of the equatorial forest. 
They are called llanos in the Orinoco Valley, and 
campos in Brazil. 

South of the belt of calms, in Peru and 
northern Chile (Fig. 296), the western slopes 
and valleys of the Andes are (3) Inthetropi . 
far too arid for agriculture cal zone west of 
without irrigation, and some the mountain* 
portions are true deserts (Fig. 337). This 
region is arid because the Andes Moun- 
tains prevent the trade winds from reach- 
ing it. Here the prevailing winds blow 
from the south ; that is, parallel to the 
coast. For this reason they have little 
vapor ; and since they are blowing to- 



ward the equator, and therefore becoming 
warmer, they do not give up their mois- 
ture. Thus there are deserts even on the 
very coast. 

Farther south, in Chile, the influence of 
the prevailing westerlies is 
(4) Inihe south felt. In this 
temperate zone p ar fc f the Con- 
tinent, therefore, it is the 
western side that receives the 
rain, while the eastern part 
is dry (p. 212). In rising 
over the land these west 
winds, from the ocean, cause 
abundant rainfall in central 
and southern Chile ; but, 
being robbed of their vapor 
as they cross the mountains, 
they- descend as dry winds 
upon the plains of Argen- 
tina. With what portion of 
the United States may the climate of 
western Argentina be compared? 

From the above we see that, while most 
of South America is well supplied with 

humidity and high temperature favor 
luxuriant plant life (Fig- Plant and 
338). So dense are the vast animal life 
jungles of the Amazon that 1. Plant life 
travel through them is almost impossible 

Fig. 337 

A. view in the desert of Bolivia in the Andes, 
are llama. 

The animals 

A view in the dense jungle of South America. 

(p. 243), and immense areas have never 
been explored. In the desert of the west 
coast, on the other hand, plant life is very 
scanty (Fig. 337). There are some parts — 
for instance, the Desert of 
Atacama in northern Chile 
— where there is almost no 
life of any kind. 

In the south temperate 
zone, and on many of the 
mountain slopes of the tor- 
rid zone, where the climate 
is cool, and the rainfall 
moderate, the land is forest- 
covered ; but these forests 
are much more open than 
the tropical jungle. The 
extreme southern part of 
the continent has a climate 
so cold that the plants be- 
come dwarfed, as in north- 
ern Canada. 

rain, two extensive areas, on opposite sides 
of the Andes, are arid. Locate them 
(Fig. 299). 

In the warm, rainy belt the great 

In the tropical forest are many insects and beau- 
tiful birds. Among the larger ani- _ 

, , f. , ,, 6 , ., 2. Animal life 

ma Is may be mentioned the truit- 

eating monkey, the fierce jaguar '. ' *™ ' e 

(Fig. 339), which preys upon other Juns e 



Fig. 339. — Some of the South American animals. 



animals, and the sloth (Fig. 339), a creature which 
sleeps suspended, back downward, from the branches 
of the trees. There are also many reptiles, including 
serpents and the iguana, a tree lizard which grows 
to a length of several feet. Some of the serpents 
are small and poisonous ; others, like the boa con- 
strictor (Fig. 339), are large, and powerful enough 
to crush a deer in their coils. 

The many beautiful butterflies and the ants are 
especially interesting. The termites, commonly 
called white ants, live in colonies, and build houses 
of earth. With so many insects there are, naturally, 
numerous kinds of insect eaters. One of the most 
peculiar of these is the ant-eater (Fig. 339). With 
its long claws it digs the ants from their earth}' or 
woody dwelling places, while its sharp-pointed snout 
and long tongue aid in finding and devouring its 

The tapir (Fig. 339), a large animal five or six 
feet in length, wanders about at night, feeding along 
the water courses. The armadillo (Fig. 339), a bur- 
rowing animal covered with an armor, rolls itself 
into a ball when attacked by an enemy, thus pro- 
tecting its soft under parts. In the river waters 
and swamps are fishes, turtles, and alligators (Fig. 
339). The fish and the turtle eggs are among the 
chief foods of the forest Indians. The manatee 
(Fig. 339), or sea cow, lives in both fresh and salt 
water, and ascends the Amazon even as far as 

On the grassy plains herds of deer roam about, 

and also the rhea (Fig. 339), — often 

(^l On the called the American ostrich, — one 

' . of the few large running birds. It 

among the h. , - 8 ■ -a . 

mountains lives on the open plains, as m 1 ata- 

gonia, where herds of guanaco, a 
kind of wild llama, are also found. 

Among the crags and peaks of the Andes, dwells 
the condor (Fig. 339), the largest of flying birds, — 
so large that it kills and carries off small deer. In 
the mountain valleys live the llama (Fig. 339) and 
two related species, the vicuna and alpaca, both 
wild and domesticated (Figs. 337 and 353). Like 
other mountain dwellers, the llama is so sure-footed 
on the rocks that it is of great use as a beast of 
burden ; and the cold climate causes it to have a 
thick coat of wool which is of value to man. Be- 
cause of its usefulness the llama is sometimes called 
the American camel. 

When South America was discovered by 
Theinhab- Columbus, it was inhabited 
itants only by red men. Many of 

1. The natives these were savages; and even 
(1) Savages to-day some of the forest In- 

and barbarians d[ans are Bava g es Hying almost 

solely upon fish, game, and the abundant 


fruits. It is unsafe for white men to go 
among some of them, and indeed there are 
forest tribes which are still cannibals. 

The red men whom the early explorers 
found along the eastern coast and some of 
the larger rivers, were in the lower stages 
of barbarism like most of the North Amer- 
ican Indians. They 
cultivated the soil in a 
crude way, and manu- 
factured a few simple 
implements. Many 
Indians, in the more 
remote districts, still 
live in this 
primitive fash- [ 
ion, though 

Fig. 340. — Savage Indians who live in the tropical forest 
of eastern Peru, east of the Andes. 

with the white settlers and adopted their 

Among the Andes, especially in Peru, 
Bolivia, and Ecuador, the Spanish expilorers 
found tribes of Indians, called 
Inoas, who had developed far 
beyond their neighbors. Indeed, like the 
Pueblo and Aztec Indians of North Amer- 
ica (p. 23), they had reached the early 
stages of civilization. Such advance was 
favored by the temperate climate of their 
mountain valley homes, and by the arid 

(2) The Incas 



Fig. 341. — A stone bridge in Bolivia, built by the Incas before 
South America was discovered by white men. 

country and the mountain barriers, which 
served to protect them from the inroads of 
their more savage neighbors. 

By the aid of irrigation the Incas tilled the soil, 
cultivating the potato, corn, and Peruvian cotton, 
all of which they had improved from wild plants. 
They domesticated the llama and alpaca for their 
wool, and for use as work animals. They organ- 
ized armies, built roads (Fig. 341), and had a rude 
postal and express system by swift -runners. Al- 
though they had not invented writing, they kept 
records by means of knotted strings. Their em- 
pire, which extended for more than two thousand 
miles along the Andes, and from the Pacific coast 
to the trackless forests of the Amazon, was gov- 
erned by a powerful chief whose capital was Cuzco 
tn Peru. The stage of advancement reached by 
these red men was wonderful. 

The Spaniards, attracted by the discovery 
of rich deposits of gold and silver, seized 
2 The Span- almost all of South America, 

iards and their except Brazil, which was Set- 
influence tled by the Portuguese. They 

treated the natives with great cruelty, espe- 
cially the Incas, whom they robbed of their 
treasures and reduced to slavery. 

As in North America, the Spaniards in- 
termarried freely with the Indians, so that 
the present inhabitants of South America 
are, to a large extent, of mixed blood. The 
introduction of negro slaves has led to a 

still greater mixture of 
peoples. Therefore, while 
there are still pure-blooded 
Indians and negroes, and 
also pure-blooded white, men, 
especially Spanish and Portu- 
guese, the greater number of 
the South Americans are a 
mixture of two or more of 
these very different races. 

Of late there have been many 
immigrants from European coun- 
tries, especially 
from Germany and 
southern Europe. 
They have gone mainly to southern 
Brazil, Argentina, and Chile, and 
have helped greatly in the develop- 
ment of these countries. 

Spain maintained her control in South 

America for fully three hun- _ 

J Government 

dred years. In the early part 

of the nineteenth century, however, the 




Fig. 342. 



Its extent 
of Europe 

colonies became so dissatisfied with Spanish 
rule that they fought for independence. 
They were successful and formed indepen- 
dent republics, modeled after the United 
States. Brazil also became independent of 
Portugal, and, after being for a long time 
ruled by an emperor, established a repub- 
lican form of government in 1889. Every 
country of South America is now an inde- 
pendent republic except Guiana, which is 
divided among three European nations, as 
shown on the map. 

IL Brazil 

This is the largest country in South 

America. It is even larger than the United 

States without Alaska, and 

nearly as large as the whole 

While extending north of the 

equator on one side, it reaches into the 

south temperate zone on the other. How 

many degrees of latitude does it include ? 

Since so large a part of Brazil is on the 

eastern slope of the continent, 

in the torrid zone, its climate 

is not only warm, but moist. Why the 

latter (Fig. 296)? 

Eastern Brazil is a highland region. 

Numerous streams drain this upland in 

various directions. Point out 
Itsdramage gome q{ ^ &m (pig _ ^ 

What is the name of the largest river not 
tributary to the Amazon ? 

The northern third of Brazil is mainly 
a vast level jjlain, drained by the Amazon 
River. The rainfall in the Amazon Valley 
is so heavy, and the slope of the land so 
gentle, that the river and its larger tribu- 
taries are swollen to great breadth. At 
times of flood these rivers overflow the sur- 
rounding country and change it to an im- 
mense swamp crossed by many channels. 
In some places the Amazon is several miles 
wide, and resembles a lake rather than a 

The Amazon is navigable for steamboats 
nearly to the base of the Andes, a distance 

Its climate 

of twenty-two hundred miles from the sea- 
coast. Some of the tributaries also are 
navigable. Along this water Navigation on 
way there are a few small the "vers 
settlements, such as Manaos, which are 
reached by ocean steamers ; but away from 
the river there is nothing but an almost 
unknown wilderness. 

The Amazon forest is a good type of the 
tropical forest, where plants, encouraged by 
the heat and dampness, grow ^he tropical 
luxuriantly in the rich soil, forest 
Not only is the rainfall heavy, l. its appear- 
but evaporation is checked by ance 
the dense vegetation, so that the forest reeks 

- SBBSbWBS'v-' •/ 

.: r Jg||||P 


"■.-v3. .'/si 

Fig. 843. — Cutting a road in the dense tropical forest of 
the Amazon Valley. Notice the wavy vines hanging 
from the trees. 

with moisture. Therefore, at night, when 
the temperature falls, such heavy dews col- 
lect that the plants are wet, as by a rain. 

In these woods there is an occasional giant tree 
reaching to a height of from one hundred and 
eighty to two hundred feet, and with a circum- 
ference of from twenty to forty feet. The lower 
limbs may be as much as a hundred feet from the 



ground. Between these giant trees are smaller ones 
struggling to rise out of the somber shade into the 
sunlight. There are also many shrubs, bushes, 
ferns, and vines, the latter twining about the tree 
trunks or hanging from the lower limbs (Fig. 343). 
The woods present much the same appearance 
throughout the year. There is no time when all the 
trees send forth their leaves and blossoms ; nor is 
there a time when all the leaves change color and 
fall to the ground. Some of the trees blossom 
throughout the year; others have their blossoms at 
regular seasons ; thus flowers and fruits may be seen 
at all times of the year. 

In such a forest there is dense gloom and 
silence, broken now and then by the crash 

RatzeVs History of Jfankiml. 
Fig. 344. — Savage Indians who live in the interior of 
Brazil, far away from the region where white men 

of a falling tree, or the sorrowful notes of 
birds, or the howling of monkeys, or per- 
chance the shrill scream of an animal which 
has fallen a prey to the boa. 

Some of the trees of the forest produce 
fruits and nuts, others valuable timber or 
dyewoods. In fact, the word 
Brazil comes from the name of 
a dyewood found in the Ama- 
zon forests. Another valu- 
able plant is the vanilla, whose 
beans are of value in making perfumes and 
flavoring extracts. Many of the Indians 

2. Its products 
(1) Fruits, 
nuts, dye- 
woods, and 

(3) Rubber 

near the rivers make long journeys into tb 
forest to collect the products, both for their 
own use and for shipment down the Amazon, 

The Indians still cultivate the mandioca, 
which was one of their principal foods when 
white men appeared. The root (2) Mandioca 
of this plant is somewhat like and yerba-mate 
a long sweet potato, and a dish of dry meal, 
or farina, made from it is commonly seen on 
Brazilian tables. To these people mandioca 
is, in a measure, what wheat is to those who 
live in temperate climates. It is from this 
plant that tapioca is made. The leaves of a 
tropical plant called yerba-mate, or Paraguay 
tea, are also obtained in the Brazilian for- 
est. Brazil produces far more of this than 

The natives are also engaged in obtaining 
rubber, a product of great importance be 
cause of its many uses. When 
gathering rubber, the natives 
encamp in the forest in lightly built hut 
from which paths lead through the dense 
undergrowth to the rubber trees. Holes 
are made in the trees, so that the sap oozes 
forth, when it is collected in bamboo dishes. 
It is then smoked and dried before being 
shipped down the river to Para. Find 
this city on the map (Fig. 333). 

Besides the trees in the forest, there are 
many rubber plantations in which the rubber 
tree is carefully planted and cultivated. 
Rubber ranks second among the exports 
from Brazil, and one of the principal markets 
for it is the United States. What are some 
of its important uses? 

The coffee tree is a native of Abyssinia 
in Africa. It was introduced into Brazil 
long ago, and has proved so Agriculture 
valuable that Brazil now pro- 1. Coffee 
duces more than one half of all the coffee . 
used in the world. It is cultivated all the 
way from southern Brazil to the Amazon, 
and there are fully five hundred million 
coffee trees in that country. They grow 
best at altitudes of from fifteen hundred 
to forty-five hundred feet, and are there- 
fore very common on the highlands of 



eastern Brazil. Each tree produces from 
thirty to forty pounds of coffee a year. 
Between April and September the berries 
are picked, dried in the sun, and hulled 
by machinery. 

After being sorted in the cities, the coffee 
is shipped in bags. Formerly most of the 
Brazilian coffee left tbe port of Rio DE 
Janeiro ; but now more than half of it is 
sent from Santos. Coffee is the prin- 
cipal export of Brazil, and 
much of it comes to the 
United States. 

Cotton, sugar, tobacco, 
fruit, and corn are also raised 
2. other agri- extensively on 
cultural prod- the highlands of 
ucts Brazil. Much 

cocoa is cultivated in the 
tropical section, and in the 
extreme south many cattle 
are raised. 

The rocks of the highlands 
produce some valuable miri- 
Mining and erals, especially 
manufacturing gold and dia- 
monds. Indeed, before dia- 
monds were discovered in 
South Africa, Brazil was the 
principal diamond-producing country in 
the world. Both coal and iron are also 
found, though they are not yet extensively 

Manufacturing has begun to be impor- 
tant in Brazil, which is one of the most 
progressive of the South American coun- 
tries. Cotton manufacturing is rapidly in- 
creasing, and there are also woolen mills, 
flour mills, and other manufacturing plants, 
chiefly in southern Brazil. Why should 
this be the most progressive part of the 
country ? 

The capital and largest city of the Re- 
public is Rio de Janeiro (Fig. 345), a 

_ . . . city with a population of a 

Principal cities .\,. i i xi i 

million people, and the second 

in size in South America. It is situated 

upon a fine harbor and is surrounded by an 

excellent farming country dotted with 
coffee plantations. 

Several other Brazilian cities are seaports, 
connected with the interior by short rail- 
way lines which bring the coffee and other 
products for shipment. The most impor- 
tant are Sao Paulo, Bahia, and Pernam- 
buco, the chief port for the export of sugar 
and cotton, and Santos, the seaport of 
Sao Paulo. 

Fig. 345. — A view of part of Rio de Jaueiro. 

III. Argentina 

This is the most advanced of South Amer- 
ican countries. One reason for this is 
that Argentina extends from why^e^t 
just within the torrid zone to progressive 
the extreme southern end of country in 
South America. Thus the South America 
country is, for the most part, within the 
temperate zone, which has the climate most 
favorable to the development of energetic 

Besides this, there are many different 
kinds of climate, arid in one part, rainy in 
another ; tropical here, warm temperate 
there, and cool temperate elsewhere. Such 
a variety of climate makes it possible to 
raise a great variety of products. 

A third reason for rapid progress is the 



fact that much of the country consists of 
pampas (Fig. 346). These open, treeless 
plains have made it easy for settlers to 
move about and to carry on the indus- 

Fig. 346. — A view on a cattle ranch in the pampas of Argentina. 

tries of farming and ranching. The ease 
of settlement on these open plains con- 
trasts strikingly with the unfavorable con- 
ditions in the dense tropical forest of the 
Amazon Valley, but may be compared with 
the conditions on the plains and 
prairies of the United States. 

There are, however, extensive 
forests in the north, and lofty 
mountains in the west, and 
because of these the industries 
of the country are even more 

Such favorable conditions 
have served to attract many 
immigrants from Europe, and 
there is, therefore, a larger pro- 
portion of pure-blooded whites 
here than in other countries of 
South America. Largely for 
this reason the government of 
Argentina is better than that in most South 
American countries. That, alone, has had 
much to do with the progress of Argentina. 

In many parts of Argentina the climate 
Agriculture and soil are favorable to agri- 
l. Farming culture. In the warm north- 
ern portion sugar cane, coffee, and tobacco 

are produced ; in the more temperate part, 
wherever the rainfall is sufficient, grains 
and alfalfa are raised. There is also much 
fruit raising, especially grapes, from which 
wine and raisins are 

Wheat is the most 
important agricultural 
product, for the humid 
part of the Argentine 
plains is one of the 
greatest wheat-produ- 
cing sections of the 
world. The climate is 
favorable, the soil fer- 
tile, and the land level 
or gently rolling, as in 
our Red River Valley. 

The extreme south is 
too cold for farming, 
but sheep raising is carried 
on even in Patagonia and on 
the stormy islands beyond the Straits of 
Magellan. The arid, open plains are so 
well adapted to ranching, that there are 

2. Ranching 

Fig. 347.- 

Indiaus living in the cold southern region on the Straits of 

many millions of sheep and cattle in this 

There is some lumbering and mining in 
the mountainous portion. From the words 
Argentina and Plata, both of Lumbering 
which mean silver, one might and mining 
conclude that this is a great silver-produ 



cing region. This is not so, however, for 
those names are clue merely to the fact 
that the natives wore silver ornaments. 
Argentina is not important as a mineral- 
producing region, though some gold, silver, 
copper, iron, coal, and petroleum are found. 

In the large cities there are many in- 
dustries, largely connected with the raw 
Manufacturing products of the country. The 
and commerce leading kinds are dairying and 
the manufacture of wool, flour, sugar, wine, 
leather, and cotton. A large portion of 
the raw products, however, is sent abroad, 
particularly wool, hides, 
wheat, corn, and meat. 
Machinery and many 
other manufactured 
articles must still be 

In a country so pro- 
gressive as this, it is 
natural that there should 
be means of read}' trans- 
portation. The broad 
Parana River, which 
empties into the Plata 
Estuary, forms an im- 
portant water way to the interior ; and 
railways cross the well-settled portions of 
the country, connecting all the important 
cities. In fact, there are more railways 
here than in any other South American 
country. In resources, industries, govern- 
ment, and education, Argentina, of all the 
South American countries, most closely 
resembles the United States. 

By far the most important city is Buenos 

Aires. With over a million inhabitants, 

L . . . .„ it is the largest city in South 
Principal cities . . °. J . , 

America, and one of the great 

cities of the world. It is growing rapidly 

and has much manufacturing and commerce. 

Just below Buenos Aires, on the Plata Estuary, is 
the seaport of La Plata ; and upstream, on the 
Parana River, is the rapidly growing city of Rosario, 
which is an important railway center as well as a 
river port. In the interior are a number of towns and 
cities, among which Cordoba is one of the largest. 

IV. Uruguay and Paraguay 

Like so much of Argentina, this is a re- 
gion of plains, and since a large part of the 

country is well watered, it is 


suited to the production of the 
same crops as northern Argentina. But 
there has been much less development in 
Uruguay than in Argentina. One reason 
is that it has been very badly governed, 
for a few men have often controlled the 
army and made and unmade presidents 
almost at will. 

Fig. 318. — A ranch bouse on a cattle ranch in Uruguay. 

In late years there has been great im- 
provement, and agriculture is being ex- 
tended, — such crops as wheat and other 
grains, tobacco, and fruits being important 
products. Cattle and sheep, are, however, 
of even greater importance. 

The principal manufactured products 
and exports are those connected with cat- 
tle and sheep; namely, dried beef, corned 
beef, ox tongues, hides, tallow, horns, and 
wool. The capital and largest city is the sea- 
port, Montevideo, on the Plata Estuary. 

This little country, like Bolivia, is with- 
out a seacoast, though it is connected with 

the sea by the Parana River. „„„„„„„ 
T , . J . * i.-ii q Paraguay 

It is a region of hills and 

plains, partly covered with forests, but 

with much pasture land upon which large 

herds of cattle feed. The climate is hot 

and in many parts dry, with most of the 

hot winds from the north. 



The Guianas 

The agricultural products, besides cattle, 
are those of the warm temperate and trop- 
ical zones. These include tobacco, rice, 
sugar cane, and oranges. Rubber, dye- 
woods, and valuable timber are obtained 
from the forests. Another product is 
yerba-mate, or Paraguay tea. Although 
not used so extensively as our tea, which 
comes mainly from Asia, the Paraguay tea 
is very popular in South America, where 
its use was learned from the red men. 

The capital, Asuncion, is connected with 
Argentina, Uruguay, and the sea coast by 

V. The Guianas and Venezuela 

North of Brazil are three small countries, 
the only portions of the South American 
continent now under control 
of European nations. They 
belong to Great Britain, Holland, and 
France, respectively, and are known as 
British Guiana, Dutch Guiana or Surinam, 
and French Guiana. Find the capital of 

In these countries a large part of the surface is 
still a forest wilderness, inhabited chiefly by In- 
dians. This tropical forest, like that of the Amazon, 
which it closely resembles, supplies rubber and valu- 
able timber ; but its resources are only slightly de- 
veloped. Near the coast there is a strip of cultivated 
land on which sugar cane, bananas, cotton, and a 
few other products are raised. Of late, especially in 
Dutch Guiana, attention has been turned to the pro- 
duction of cocoa and coffee. Some gold is found in 
each of the Guianas. The Guianas have but one 
short railway, and in most sections there are almost 
no roads. There are scarcely any exports except 
sugar, molasses, and rum — all made from sugar 

This name, which means "little Venice," 
Venezuela was g ive . n i n 1499 because the 

l. Character of explorers found an Indian vil- 
country, and lage built on piles, or posts, in 
products £] ie wa t er a l 011 g il ie .shore of 

Lake Maracaibo. 

Venezuela includes one of the spurs of 
the Andes, and also a portion of the Guiana 
highland; but a large part of the country is 


occupied by the broad plains of the Orinoc 
Valley. Some of these plains, the treeless 
llanos (p. 228), are the seat of extensive 
cattle raising, as is the case on the pampas 
of Argentina. There is some farming, 
Hardy crops, like potatoes, beans, and bar- 
ley, are raised even at altitudes of eight 
thousand feet; but below five thousand feet 
are found such semitropical and tropical 
products as sugar cane, bananas, cocoa, 
and coffee. Coffee is the chief export ; in. 
fact, Venezuela is one of the leading coffee- 
producing sections of South America. 

In parts of Venezuela there are vast for 
ests which produce valuable dyewoods an 
rubber ; and among the mountains are rie 
mineral deposits, especially gold. 

The capital, Caracas, five or six miles 

from the sea, is situated upon „ _ . . .. 

' . , v , 2. Chief city 

a plateau, over three thousand 

feet above sea level. It is connected with 

its seaports by a short railway. 

In 1812 Caracas was visited by one of the most 
terrible earthquakes ever recorded. It being Ascen- 
sion Day, a great part of the population, which i 
Catholic, was at church. The first shock causei 
the bell to toll ; but after all danger was thought to 
be past, there came a terrible noise from under- 
ground, resembling the rolling of thunder, though 
louder and longer. Then followed a shaking of the 
earth, so tremendous that churches and houses were 
overthrown, and the inhabitants were buried beneath 
their ruins. On that day fully twelve thousand per- 
sons perished. 

VI. Tropical Andean Countries 

These countries — Colombia, Ecuador. 
Peru, and Bolivia — are all crossed by the 
lofty Andes, and are therefore Resemblances 
very mountainous. Each of to one another 
them extends eastward, beyond 1- i° surface 
the mountains, to the plains of the upper 
Amazon and Orinoco valleys. The head- 
waters of the Amazon and its tributaries, 
in the region of the equator, have never 
been fully explored, and for that reason the 
exact boundaries of these countries of this 
section have been in dispute. 



In such a mountainous country, there is, 
of course, great variety of climate. Tropi- 

2. in variety of cal heat prevails throughout 
climate and of the lowlands (Fig. 349); but 
farm products on t i ie mounta i n slopes there 

are temperate and even frigid climates. 

The farm products vary accordingly. Up to an 
elevation of three thousand to four thousand feet, 
bananas, sugar cane, cocoa, and other plants of hot 
climates flourish. Above this, to an 
elevation of six or seven thousand 
feet, tobacco, corn, and coffee are 
cultivated. From this height up to 
about ten thousand feet, wheat and 
our Northern vegetables and fruits 
do well; but above ten thousand 
feet the bleak mountain peaks are 
too cold for farming. 

There is a great difference in the 
rainfall, as well as in temperature. 
Near the equator the rainfall is 
heavy; but in southern Peru, which 
lies in the belt of the southeast 
trade winds (p. 21'2), the climate is 
arid. On this account the tropical 
forest gradually dwindles toward 
the south, being replaced first by 
arid plains, and then by deserts. 

The fact that this section is 
so mountainous explains its 

3. in abundance importance as a 
of minerals mineral region. 
Gold and silver ores, and 
other minerals as well, are 
found from the northern to 
the southern limit of the 
Andes, and this is one of the 
great mineral-producing re- 
gions of the world. 

None of the capitals of the Andean coun- 
tries are on the coast, and several are in the 

4. in location interior at a considerable ele- 
of chief cities vation above sea level. Find 
examples. In choosing such sites the inhab- 
itants have had the example set them both 
by their Spanish ancestors and by the In- 
cas ; for Cuzco, the capital of the Incas, and 
Madrid, the Spanish capital, are both at a 
considerable elevation above sea level, and 
many miles from the coast. The principal 
objects in the selection of such sites were 

to be near the mines, to secure a cooler and 
more healthful climate, and to obtain pro- 
tection from attack by sea. Doubtless the 
absence of good harbors (p. 238) was an- 
other reason why these capitals were not 
located on the coast. 

It has been very difficult to carry on a 
republican government in these . 

... , j, 5. Government 

countries, where a large part of 

Fig. 319. — Tropical foliage on the lowlands of Ecuador near the coast. 

the population can neither read nor write, 
and where there are so many Indians and 
half-breeds. In each of them ambitious lead- 
ers, usually generals in the army, have again 
and again overturned the government. This 
has greatly interfered with the development 
of industry and commerce ; for neither life 
nor property has been safe. It has also pre- 
vented settlers from coming. Of late, how- 
ever, there has been great improvement. 

Colombia, named after Columbus, has 
seacoast on both oceans. The western part 



Fig. 350. — A village in Panama. 

is very mountainous, for several of the 
Andean ranges terminate there. Much 
mineral is found here, gold 
and silver being most impor- 
tant, though emeralds of excellent grade 
are also obtained. 

In the eastern portion, on the other hand, 


are treeless llanos on which 
large numbers of cattle are 
raised, as in Venezuela, 
Coffee is the principal farm 
product and the chief export ; 
but sugar cane, tobacco, and 
cocoa are also produced. On 
the mountain slopes the grains, 
fruits, and vegetables of tem- 
perate climates are grown. 

Bogota, the capital and 
largest city, is situated far in 
the interior, at an elevation of 
about a mile and a half above 
sea level. It has an agree- 
able climate, even though 
within the tropical zone. 
The small republic of Panama was for- 
merly a part of Colombia, but it revolted 
and became an independent ama 
country a few years ago. 
What have you learned about it (p. 177)? 
What can you tell about the Panama Canal 
zone (p. 154) ? 

Fig. 351. — A house in Ecuador raised above the ground because of the dampness. 



Why should Ecuador, the Spanish word 
for equator, be given to this country ? In 
; the Andes of Ecuador there are many vol- 
canoes, including Cotopaxi, the 
Ecuador ° . r . , 

loftiest active volcano in the 

world, and Chimborazo, which is still higher, 
Ihough no longer active. Describe the cli- 
mate (p. 212). 

The principal occupations are farming 
and cattle raising. The chief farm prod- 
ucts are wheat and barley on the high- 
lands, and coffee, sugar cane, and cocoa 
on the lowlands. Cocoa is the most im- 
portant product of Ecuador, and fully one 
sixth of all that is produced in the world 
comes from here. 

The cocoa tree, which grows in the shade of the 
larger forest trees, has small pink and yellow, blos- 
soms which spring directly from the main trunk and 
branches. Its leaves are always green and it blos- 
soms throughout the year. From each blossom 
there develops a golden-colored pod, several inches 
in length, inclosing a number of seeds, or beans, 
which are about the size of a large almond. After 
being washed, dried, and roasted, the beans are ready 
to be made into cocoa and chocolate. What are 
some of their uses? By what routes might they be 
shipped from Guayaquil to Xew York? 

Another product of Ecuador, and of some other 
South American countries, is sarsnparilla. The rub- 
ber industry is also well developed. 

There is an almost total absence of roads 
in this country, making the transportation 
of heavy machinery very difficult. This 
fact interferes greatly with mining among 
the mountains. Therefore, although there 
are known to be many minerals, there is 
little mining except of the richest gold de- 
posits. There is almost no manufacturing 
in the country. 

Guayaquil, the seaport and the western- 
most of the large cities of South America, 
is first in size. It is in W. Long. 80°. Does 
it lie east or west of Washington, D.C. ? 
Quito, the capital and the second city in 
size, is situated among the mountains of the 
interior at an elevation of about nine thou- 
sand feet. 

There is abundant rainfall in northern 
Peru and on the eastern side of the Andes; 

but in southern Peru the climate is arid 
and there are deserts (Fig. 296). Recall the 
cause of this arid climate Peru 
(p. 212). So little rain falls 1. Climate 
in southwestern Peru that in some parts, 
even close by the sea, there is an average 
of but one shower in seven years. 

Peru was one of the most valuable sources 

2. Mining 

of gold and silver for the 
Spanish conquerors. The 
Incas, who dwelt there, had collected gold 
for ornaments, 
and this the 
Spaniards seized. 
Then, opening 
mines, they 
forced the In- 
dians to work in 
them as slaves. 
Since that time 
vast quantities of 
gold and silver 
have been ob- 
tained in this 
country ; and 
valuable deposits 
of coal, petro- 
leum, and copper 
have also been 

There is much 
agriculture in 
Peru, the prin- 
cipal crops being 
corn, wheat, and 
potatoes among 

the mountains, and sugar cane, cotton, 
tobacco, cocoa, and coffee in 

, . -. 3. Agriculture 

the lower and warmer sec- 
tions. Even in the desert portion there is 
some farming by irrigation, as in southern 
California. Large numbers of sheep and 
cattle are raised, and also the llama and 
alpaca for their wool (Fig. 353). 

An unusual product is coca, from which 
cocaine is made; and another is cinchona, 
or Peruvian bark, from which quinine is 
made. These plants were cultivated by 

Fig. 352. — An Iuca Indian of 



4. Manufactur- 
ing and trans- 

Fig. 353. —The South American llama. 

the Incas before the coming of the 

There is some manufacturing in Peru, especially 
of sugar and cotton goods. One great difficulty, 
however, has been that of transpor- 
tation. The rugged Andes extend 
the entire length of the country, 
separating the Pacific coast from the 
broad, forest-covered plains of eastern Peru. To 
overcome this difficulty, the Peruvians have built 
several railways, one of which deserves special men- 
tion. Beginning at Callao this line passes through 
Lima; then it climbs the mountains, crossing deep 
gorges, by means of high trestles, winding about on 
the very edge of precipices, tunneling through the 
mountain rock, and finally crossing 
the western range of the Andes at 
an elevation of over fifteen thousand 

Lima, the capital (Fig. 354), 

founded by the Spanish con- 
querors in 1535, 
is situated at the 

base of the Andes. Callao, 

the seaport of Lima, is about 

seven miles from the capital. 

Its harbor is but little more 

than an open roadstead partly 

protected by an island on the 

southwest side. However, 

since the winds and ocean 

swells are from the south, 

while the coast is seldom 
visited by storms, this slight 
protection is sufficient. 

Akequipa, at an elevation of 
seven thousand feet, is separated 
from the sea by sixty miles of 
desert. Cuzco is on an interior 
table-land, at an elevation of over 
eleven thousand feet. The ruins of 
the Inca citadels and " palaces" are 
still to be seen, and many pure- 
blooded and half-breed Incas still 
dwell in and near this ancient 

This country, named after 
General Bolivar, the great 
South American 
leader in the re- 
volt against Spain, was robbed 
of its seacoast by Chile. Its surface is 
mountainous, with broad and very high 
plateaus between the mountain ranges. 
In one of these valleys lies Lake Titicaca 
(Fig. 355), partly in Peru and partly in 
Bolivia. This lake, the greatest in South 
America, is about a third the size of Lake 
Erie. It is the most elevated great lake in 
the world, lying over twelve thousand feet 
above the sea. 

The Incas occupied this region also, and 
mined much gold. Besides gold, the Span- 
ish discovered veins of copper, tin, and sil- 


5. Chief cities 

Fig. 354. — A view of Lima, the capital of Peru. 



ver, so that mining has been 
one of the most important in- 
dustries of the country. It is 
said that over three billion 
dollars' worth of silver has 
been mined in Bolivia since 
the Spaniards first visited the 

Both the mining and the work of 
obtaining the metals from the ore are 
done very crudely. For example, 
instead of using costly machines for 
crushing the ore, as in the United 
States, one method is to roll bowlders 
around on the ore. Since there are 
very few railways, goods are carried 
for the most part by trains of pack 
mules, donkeys, alpacas, or llamas 
(Fig. 337). The llama here, as in 
Peru, is of great value to the in- 
habitants, not merely as a beast of 
burden, but also as a source of wool 
for clothing. 

Like eastern Peru and the Amazon Valley of 
Brazil, much of eastern Bolivia is an almost unknown 


5. — Indians in their grass boats on Lake Titicaca. 

forest wilderness. In the mountain valleys, how- 
ever, there are settlements where agriculture is 

Fig. 3oti. — La Paz, the largest city of Bolivia, situated in an arid valley among the lofty Andes. 



carried on, with products similar to those of Peru. 
Name them. Most of these are consumed at home, 
though some coffee is exported. 

A railway line connects western Bolivia with the 
sea; but there is great need of others. Another 
need is the improvement of the water ways to 
permit river transportation to the Atlantic. Through 
what rivers could boats pass to the sea? 

Find the capital of Bolivia. La Paz (Fig. 35G), 
the largest city, has more than three times as many 
inhabitants as the capital. 

VII. Chile 

The eastern boundary of Chile is the 
divide between the Atlantic and Pacific 
Surface drainage ; and since this runs 

features along the Andes, the country 

is very mountainous, and narrow in an east 

reaches far into the bleak south temperate 
zone ; and on the mountain slopes there is 
every climate, from torrid to frigid. The 
very name, Chile, is derived from an Indian 
word for snow. 

There is also great difference in rainfall ; 
for northern Chile is arid, and in some por- 
tions an absolute desert ; while central and 
southern Chile reach into the rainy belt of 
prevailing westerlies (p. 212). The best- 
developed section of the country lies in the 
middle part, between the hot, arid north 
and the bleak, rainy south. 

There is much mineral wealth, including 
gold, silver, coal, and copper. 
Of these copper is one of ining 

Fig. 357. — The shipping in Valparaiso harbor. 

and west direction. Measure its length ; 
also its width. Except in the south, the 
coast line is regular, like that of the rest of 
South America. 

The climate varies more than that of any 
other South American country. 
The northern part is within 
the torrid zone, while the southern end 


the most valuable minerals, and Chile, 
like the United States, is one of the 
great copper-producing countries of the 
world. Even more important than the 
copper are the beds of nitrate of soda, 
which yield many million dollars" worth 
of nitrate every year. This substance is 
one of the chief exports. 




The nitrate beds lie in the midst of the Desert of 
Atacama, in which rain seldom falls. The sub- 
stance occurs in layers from a few inches to one or two 
feet in thickness, over an area thirty or forty miles in 
breadth. After being dug out, the pure nitrate is 
dissolved and separated from its impurities, and 
then sold. Its chief use is as a fertilizer, for which 
purpose large quantities are shipped from the port 
of Iq.uiq.ue. 

Agriculture is extensively carried ,011 in 
Chile, especially in the rainy middle por- 
tion, as in many parts of the 
United States. The principal 
crops are the various grains, tobacco, fruits, 
and vegetables. More wheat and barley are 
produced than are needed at home, so that 
Chile helps to supply other nations with 
these grains. Large herds of cattle are 
reared , and sheep" raising is one of the 
chief industries in southern Chile. Hides, 
leather, and wool are exported. 

There is more manufacturing than in 
most South American countries, the princi- 
m f ft • P a ^ kinds being flour milling, 
cheese making, tanning, and 
shoemaking. Manufacturing is rapidly 
increasing, but, as in other South American 
countries, it is still necessary to import from 
Europe and the United States much of the 
machinery and other manufactured articles 

Chile is one of the most progressive 
nations in South America. Its government 
Progress of is good, and its industries are 
the country well developed. This progress 
is doubtless in large part due to the tem- 
perate climate, which requires energy on 
the part of its inhabitants, and invites set- 
tlers from the temperate climate of Europe. 
It is interesting to note that the two most 
advanced nations of South America lie side 
by side in the temperate zone, while the 
next most progressive country, Brazil, is 
partly in that zone. 

The principal cities of Chile are San- 
tiago, the capital and largest city, situated 

Chief cities inland ' and Valparaiso, its 
seaport (Fig. 357). The har- 
bor of Valparaiso, like that of Callao 

(p. 252), is open to the north; but the 
wind seldom blows from that quarter. 

VIII. Islands near the Continent 

Just off the coast of Venezuela, opposite the 
mouth of the Orinoco, is the low island of Trinidad, 
a British possession. This island is 

On the north 

especially noted for its pitch lake, 
from which asphaltum is obtained 
for use in making asphalt pavements. The as- 
phaltum oozes slowly from the ground ; and, as it is 
dug out, more takes its place, showing that there is 
a very large supply beneath the surface. 

Just east of the southern tip of South America 
are the Falkland Islands, which belong to Great 
Britain. Still farther east are the 

islands of S.ufh Georgia, also British. 0n } he south - 

They are cold, bleak lands, with no 

permanent inhabitants. Yet they are 110 nearer the 

south frigid zone than parts of Great Britain are to 

the north frigid zone. This difference in climate is 

due to the fact that Great Britain is affected by a 

warm ocean current, while South Georgia is swept 

by cold currents from the Antarctic. 

West of Chile, and belonging to that country, is 

the island of Juan Fernandez. This is the island 

where Selkirk was wrecked, and bv ~ ., 

■ 1 1. i.t t u t-u • 1 ", On the west 
some is thought to be the island 

home of Robinson Crusoe. It seems quite certain, 

however, that Defoe described Tobago, just north of 

Trinidad, instead of Juan Fernandez. 

The Galapagos Islands, about six hundred miles 
west of Ecuador, on the equator, are a group of 
small volcanic islands owned by Ecuador. They 
are too far from the continent to show on our map 
(see Fig. 2). 

1. What striking resemblances in surface features 
are there between North and South America? 
2. What differences? 3. Show how _ . 


the temperature varies from place to _ . 
place, i. The rainfall. 5. Describe 
the plant and animal life. 6. What can you tell about 
the native inhabitants ? 7. The Spaniards and recent 
immigrants ? 8. What can you tell about the govern- 
ment? 9. Compare Brazil with the United States in 
area. 10. What about its climate and drainage? 
11. Navigation on its rivers.? 12. Describe the tropical 
forest. 13. What valuable products are obtained 
there ? 14. What are the agricultural products of 
Brazil? 15. What is the condition of mining? Of 
manufacturing? 16. Xame and locate the principal 
cities. 17. Give some reasons why Argentina is 
the most progressive country of South America. 
18. What about its agriculture? 19. Lumbering and 
mining? 20. Manufacturing and commerce? 
21 . Xame and locate its principal cities. 22. Give one 



reason for the slower development of Uruguay. 
23. What are its products? 24. Name and locate 
its chief city. 25. What kind of country is Paraguay? 
Tell about its products and chief city. 2G. Name 
the Guianas. What about their products and com- 
merce ? 27. What are the surface features of Vene- 
zuela? 28. What are its products? 29. Locate the 
chief city. 30. How do the tropical Andean coun- 
tries resemble one another in surface features? 
31. In variety of climate and of farm products? 32. In 
abundance of minerals ? 33. In location of principal 
cities? 34. In character of their government? 
35. What about the surface features and the products 
of Colombia? 36. What is its leading city ? 37. De- 
scribe the surface and climate of Ecuador. 
38. What are its agricultural products ? 39. What 
about mining and manufacturing? 40. Name and 
locate the principal cities of Ecuador. 41. What 
climate has Peru? 42. What about mining there? 
43. Agriculture? 44. Manufacturing and transpor- 
tation? 45. Name and locate its chief cities. 
46. Describe the surface features of Bolivia. 47. Tell 
about mining in that country. 48. Agriculture. 
49. Commerce and chief cities. 50. Describe the 
surface of Chile. 51. The climate. 52. What about 
mining there ? 53. Agriculture ? 54. Manufactur- 
ing? 55. Why has Chile made such progress? 
56. Locate the chief cities. 57. Name, locate, and tell 
the principal facts about the islands near South 

1. Which of the two Americas has the advantage 

in regard to latitude ? Show how. 2. Tell about the 

effects of the trade winds in each 

^"IT continent (Fig. 296). 3. Of the 
with North ... v ° ,. '_. „„_ , 

. . prevailing westerlies (rigs. 297 and 

299). 4. Locate the arid sections 
in each continent, and give the reasons for the lack 
of rain (Figs. 296, 297). 5. Point out the rainiest 
section in each, and state the causes. 6. Which 

of the two continents has the better position for 
world commerce? Why? 7. Into what ocean do the 
principal rivers of South America flow? Of North 
America? 8. What can you say about the regularity 
of the coast of the two continents? Which has the 
advantage in this respect? How? 9. Locate the 
five principal coast cities of South America ; of 
North America. State the main advantages of the 
location in each case. 10. What about the number 
of lakes in each continent and their value for com- 
merce ? 11. What about the number of large cities 
in the interior of each continent ? 12. Compare both 
Brazil and Argentina with the United States in area; 
in population. 13. Compare Chile with Texas in 
these two respects. 14. Make a list of the important 
farm products common to South America and the 
United States. 15. Name some products that are 
extensively raised in one and not in the other. 
16. Which parts of each continent are especially 
noted for cotton? Coffee? Wheat? Cattle and 
sheep? Copper? Precious metals? 17. What is 
the prevailing kind of government in North and in 
South America ? What sections have adifferent kind 
of government? 

1. Give several reasons why South America has 
been much less rapidly settled than North America. 
2. How does the Spaniards' treatment 
of the Incas compare with their treat- 
ment of the North American Indians? 3. Find out 
some of the ways in which coffee is often adulterated. 

4. Make a drawing of South America ; a sand model. 

5. If you were expecting to emigrate there, in what 
country would you prefer to settle? Why? 6. What 
products of South America are you probably seeing 
and using from week to week ? 7. Is Brazil likely to 
rival the United States in importance in the future? 
Why ? 8. Is it an advantage or disadvantage for 
South America that it is divided into so many more 
countries than North America? Why? 



Map Study 

1. On the map (Fig. 358) trace the boundary be- 
tween Europe and Asia. 2. What peninsulas are 
there? 3. What countries are wholly 
or partly on peninsulas ? 4. How 
does Russia compare in area with the other countries 
of Europe? With the United States? (See Appen- 
dix, p. 424.) 5. Where are the principal moun- 
tains? 6. Name and locate the principal rivers. 
7. The 40th parallel of latitude crosses what coun- 
tries of Europe? Through or near what cities in 
the United States does it pass? 

I. General Facts 

The continent of Europe was named when 
only the southern part of it was known. 
Why called a As people learned more about 
continent it, they found that Europe was 


connected with Asia, being, in fact, 
peninsula extending westward. We now 
know that Europe and Asia together really 
form a single continent, which is called 
Eurasia. But since Europe has been long 
considered a separate continent, and has 
been so important as the home of the civilized 
races, it is still the custom to class it as a 

As in the case of North America, the 
growth of the continent of Europe has re- 
quired millions of years. Far 
back in time mountains ap- 
peared above the sea in several 
places, as in the northwestern 
portion of the continent. Al- 
though greatly worn away, these mountains 
may still be seen in Finland, Scandinavia, 
and Scotland (Figs. 359 and 360), as well 
as in Germany, Belgium, and other sections. 
They resemble the mountains of New Eng- 
land and eastern Canada. 

Other mountain ranges were formed in 
southern Europe ; but, like those of west- 

s 257 

Story of the 

1 . Formation of 
mountains in the 

their direction 


ern America, they are younger and are 
far less worn away than the older moun- 
tains mentioned. Therefore 2. Later moun- 

the Pyrenees (Fig. 391), Alps tain ranges, and 

(Fig. 430), and Caucasus (Fig, 
361) mountains are still of great 
Find each on Figure 359. Besides the 
mountains named, there is a long, low 
chain, known as the Urals, which extends 
north and south along the eastern boundary 
of Europe. Other highlands are shown on 
Figure 360. Where are they mainly 
situated ? 

The highest mountains in Europe are in 
the south, and they extend in various direc- 
tions, though mainly east and west. How 
does this arrangement promise to affect the 
climate ? Next to the Caucasus (Fig. 361), 
the loftiest of all are the Alps (Figs. 
430, 434). The rains and snows of the 
Alps find their way to the sea through sev- 
eral of the large rivers of Europe. What 
are the names of the largest (Fig. 359)? 
Headwaters of four of them — the Po, 
Rhone, Rhine, and Danube — are within 
forty miles of one another in the Alps. 

Europe owes much of its very irregular 
outline to the fact that the mountains are 
not continuous, and consist of chains ex- 
tending in various directions. How does 
Europe compare with North America in 
this respect ? With South America ? 

Between the mountains of the north- 
west, the east, and the south there is an ex- 
tensive lowland (Fig. 360). 3 Thelow 
A part of this has been lowered plain between 
beneath the sea by the sinking these mountains 
of the land, thus forming the shallow Baltic 
Sea. This plain extends from southern 
England, through Belgium and Holland, 



or the " Low 
Germany (Fig. 
It broadens 
toward the 
east until it 
includes al- 
most all of 
Russia. Esti- 
mate its length 
from east to 
west. About 
two thirds of 
Europe is in- 
cluded in this 

While the 
mountains and 
plains were be- 
ing made, coal 
beds were also 


Countries," entirely across 
420) and Russia (Fig. 360). 

found ? Most of the coal is bituminous, 
though there is some anthracite. In a 

Fig. 361. — A view over the crests of the lofty snow-covered Caucasus Mountains, 
in the front is filled with clouds. 

The valley 

4. Formation of 
coal beds ; also 
kinds of coal 

coal was 



as was the case in 

during the Coal 

Period. State once more how 

formed (p. 2). Figure 362 

shows the parts 
beds occur. In 

Map of the coal fields of Europe 

of Europe in which coal 
what countries are they 

number of sections lignite, or brown coal, 
is mined ; and peat is also dug for fuel in 
western Europe. 

At the same period that eastern North 
America was invaded by a 
great ice sheet 5. The great 
from the north, *« Age 
snow gathered on the high- 
lands of northwestern Europe 
and spread outward in all 
directions. Figure 363 
shows the extent of the Euro- 
pean ice sheet. It made the 
same changes in Europe as 
in our country. State what 
these changes were (p. 9). 

The irregular coast of 
northwestern Europe, like 
that of north- „ _ 

6. Character of 

eastern .North the coast line, 

America, is due and advantages 

to the sinking 1 glves 
of the land. The Baltic Sea 
and its gulfs are old land 
valleys, sunk beneath the^ 
sea ; and the hills of this 
sunken land form either islands, peninsulas, 
or shallow banks where food fish abound. 



During the growth of the mountains of 
southern Europe, the rising and sinking of 
small areas of land has made many penin- 
sulas, with bays, gulfs, islands, and seas be- 
tween. The Mediterranean Sea occupies a 
basin, thousands of feet in depth, formed 
by the sinking of this part of the earth's 
crust. Some of the islands in the Medi- 

boundary of western United States, it 
passes entirely south of England, crosses 
France near Paris, and ex- climate 
tends through southern Ger- 1. The lati- 
many and Russia. From this tude 0I Europe 
it is seen that by far the larger part of 
Europe lies farther north than the United 
States, and due east of Canada. Petro- 

or 40 

T I C N \0 C E A\ N 

Fig. 363. — The iee sheet of Europe. 

terranean Sea were partly or wholly built 
up by volcanic action. 

As a result of all these movements of the 
land, Europe has the most irregular coast 
of all the continents. Name the larger 
peninsulas, gulfs, and seas that border 
Europe. How about the number of fine 
harbors ? Show, by examples, how such an 
irregular coast is of advantage in allowing 
vessels to sail far into the interior of the 

Trace the 50th parallel of latitude on a 
globe or map of the world. Notice that 
while the 49th parallel forms the northern 

grad is in the same latitude as northern 
Labrador ; and the tips of the peninsulas of 
southern Europe reach no farther south 
than the southern boundary of Virginia. 

In spite of this latitude, and of the fact 
that Europe is much less than half the size 
of North America, that conti- 2. The popuia- 
nent supports over three times t"" 1 and cr °P s 
as many inhabitants as our 
own, or over four hundred million persons. 

It is true that, in the Far North, near the 
Arctic Ocean, the climate is bleak, and there 
are barren, frozen tundras. But south of 
this is a belt of fir, spruce, pine, and other 



trees. Within the forest belt, and south of 
it, the climate permits the growth of the 
grains and fruits that flourish in southern 
Canada and northern United States. Far- 
ther south, in southern Europe, in the 
latitude of central United States, such semi- 
tropical fruits as oranges, lemons, olives, 

possible for crops to be raised nearer the 
pole in Europe than in any other part of the 
globe. Without such winds, much of that 
densely populated continent (Fig. 364) 
would be a barren waste, like Labrador. 

In North America, where high mountains 
extend north and south along the entire 


Density of Population 

O ' 10° 20° 30° •U3" 50* ^ 

ARVTIC o ^0CEA N ~ A f- 


Fig. 361. — What reasons can yon suggest for the fact that certain parts, like central Spain, northern Russia, and Scan- 
dinavia, and the country between the Black and Caspian seas, are not densely populated 1 

and figs are cultivated. That is to say, 
the products of the greater part of Europe 
are such as grow several hundred miles far- 
ther south in eastern North America. 

The prevailing westerlies are felt in 
northern Europe as well as in the United 
States (p. 212). Blowing from 
across the warm ocean waters 
(p. 223), they bring an enor- 
mous amount of heat to the 
land. It is these west winds, 
more than any other thing, that make it 

3. Explanation 
of these surpris- 
ing facts 

(1) The prevail 
ing west winds 

western side of the continent, the warm, 
damp air soon loses its moisture as it 
moves eastward (p. 211). In 

t-, . , , , . , , (2) The absence 

Europe, on the other hand, ofnorthand 
where the higher ranges ex- south mountain 
tend nearly east and west, the rcm f s in the 
mountains interfere much less 
with the movement of vapor to the interior. 
For that reason the west winds give up 
their moisture little by little, and over a 
wide area. This is the chief reason why 
there is no arid land in the belt of wester- 



lies, from western Ireland to eastern Russia. 
Another reason is that, in this cool north- 
ern climate, the soil loses little of its water 
by evaporation. 

The effect of the ocean winds is naturally greatest 
near the coast, as in western North America. There- 
fore, England has a mild, rainy climate ; but the 
farther east one goes, the less the influence of the 
ocean is felt. Thus, in eastern Russia there are 
great extremes of heat and cold, and there is danger 
of serious droughts. Compare the summer and 

in eastern United States and Canada. Tou will 
recall that the east winds of the cyclonic storms 
bring much rain to eastern United 

States (p. 215). They cannot do W ^ c ^ lomc 
. i . . , -^ , storms bring 
this in eastern Europe, because ,.,., . . 6 
,, . r . little ram to 
there is no great ocean near at . „ 
, , , f .. „,, eastern Europe 
hand to supply the vapor. 1 here- 
fore the rainfall here is light. 

10' 20 J 30- '40^ 50' GO' 


Southern Europe, like southern Califor- 
nia, is not reached by the westerlies in 
summer, for it then lies within WJly southern 
the belt of the Europe has a 
horse latitudes, dry, mild 
This accounts for climate 
the fact that southern Spain, 
Italy, and Greece receive ver; 
little rain in summer. Examine 
Figure 365 to see where the 
rainfall in Europe is light. 

The eastwest direction of the lofty 
mountains exerts a great influence on 
the climate of the countries that lie to 
the north and south of them. Rising 
like great walls, these mountains pre- 
vent south winds from bearing north- 
ward the heat of the Mediterranean 
basin; and they also interfere with the 
passage of cold north winds. Northern 
Florida, much farther south than south- 
ern Europe, is sometimes visited by cold 
waves and frosts ; but such winds can- 
not reach portions of southern Europe 
that are protected by the mountains. 

(3) The inland 

Fig. 365. — Rainfall map of Europe. 

winter temperature (Figs. 317 and 318) and the rain- 
fall (Fig. 365) of these two sections. 

The numerous inland seas are another important 
cause of the mild climate of parts of Europe. Draw 
an outline map of the continent, 
locating these seas. How does the 
Mediterranean compare in length 
with Lake Superior ? It will be remembered that 
our Great Lakes produce a distinct influence on the 
climate of the neighboring land, reducing the heat of 
summer and the cold of winter (p. 93). It is partly 
because of this influence that southern Italy, Greece, 
France, and Spain have such an equable and semi- 
tropical climate. How must these seas affect the 

The cyclonic storms which pass over eastern 
North America often cross the ocean and continue 
across Europe (p. 217), causing variable winds, as 


The people of Europe have 
never been bound closely te- 
as one great nation. Reasons for the 
One of the reasons for this is many countries 
the fact that so many parts of the continent 
are separated from all others. Spain, for 
example, is not only a peninsula, but it 
is separated from France by lofty moun- 
tains. The British Isles are entirely cut 
off by water ; Scandinavia nearly so ; and 
Italy is bounded on the north by the Alps, 
and on all other sides by water. 

It is natural that people living in such 
positions should not feel a common interest 
with those who are so separated from them. 
Thus many different customs, beliefs, and 
languages have arisen ; and because of these 


Scale of Miles 
___ l,ilil 1 1 

50 100 150 

Cities with over 1,000,000 LOND ON 

CUiea with 500,000 to 1,000,000 GlaSgOW 

cuiea with 300,000 to 500,000 Edinburgh 

Cities with 100,000 to 300,000 Portsmouth 

Smaller places Inverness 

Capitals of Countries ® Other Cities o 


Wllllim, EoewW Co., N.T 

FIG. 306. 



differences there are many more nations in 
Europe than in North America. Count 
them (Fig. 358). 

Many jealousies and disputes have arisen between 
the different nations. These have often led to war, 
as a result of which one nation has sometimes seized 
territory from another. In this way the boundaries 
between the nations have suffered many changes. 
Notice how irregular some of the boundary lines are. 
Those of Germany, for example, have been agreed 
upon only after the loss of tens of thousands of 
human lives in war. 

1. Why is Europe classed as a continent? 2. In 
the growth of the continent, tell about the formation 
_ . of mountains in the northwest. 

KeVie\R7 -rrr 

„ . 3. Where else are mountains found? 

What do you know about them? 
4. Describe the large plain. 5. Where are the coal 
beds? What kinds are found? 6. Locate the 
boundaries of the iee sheet (Fig. 363). What are 
some of its effects? 7. Explain the irregular coast 
line, and state some of its advantages. 8. What is 
the latitude of Europe? 9. What about the popu- 
lation, and the farm products? 10. How is the 
climate influenced by the prevailing westerlies? 
11. By the absence of north and south mountain 
ranges in the west? 12. By the inland seas? 
13. Why do not the cyclonic storms supply abundant 
rains in eastern Europie ? 14. Why is the climate 
of southern Europe dry and mild? 15. Give some 
reasons for so many countries in Europe. Why are 
the boundary lines often irregular? 

1. Compare Europe with North America in re- 
gard to highlands. 2. Lowlands. 3. Rivers. 4. Dis- 
tribution of coal beds (Fig. 268). 
5. Extent of ice covering. 6. Char- 
acter of coast line. 7. Latitude. 
8. Population. 9. In what respects 
are the two continents alike in climate ? 10. In 
what respects unlike in climate? 11. Compare the 
number of degrees of longitude in Europe with 
the number in North America. 12. Where are the 
most densely settled parts in each continent? Why 
this difference ? 

1. What results might follow if the mountains of 
Europe extended north and south near the western 
Sueeestions coast? 2. Mention some of the re- 
sults if the land should rise near 
Gibraltar, changing the Mediterranean to a closed 
sea. How would the British Isles be influenced? 
Also Italy? 3. Can you tell about any of the great 
wars and generals of Germany, England, or France? 
4. Can you tell of any of the changes in boundary 
lines ; for example, in Poland or between France 
and Germany? 

with North 

II. The British Isles 

1. Walk toward the British Isles. 2. What two 
large islands do they include ? 3. What waters 
separate these two ? 4. Name the 
three divisions of Great Britain. " * 

5. Locate the Orkney, Hebrides, Shetland, and 
Channel Islands. They are included among the 
British Isles. 6. What sea lies east of Great Bri- 
tain ? 7. What country is nearest to Great Bri- 
tain (Fig. 358) ? What waters separate the two ? 
8. Compare the coast line with that of Spain (Fig. 
390) ; of Norway (Fig. 358). 

London is fully seven hundred miles 
farther north than New York Cit}', and 
the British Isles are in the Rem arkable 
same latitude as Labrador, facts about 
England itself is a little smaller these isles 
than Alabama ; and the British Isles, in- 
cluding England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, 
and several hundred small islands, are about 
the size of the state of New Mexico. 

Yet in spite of their northern position 
and their small area, the largest city in the 
world is located in the British Isles. More- 
over, Great Britain has more manufactur- 
ing than any nation excepting the United 
States. It has more foreign trade, a greater 
number of vessels upon the sea, and more 
colonies (Eig. 381) than any other nation 
on the earth. 

The character of the British people doubt- 
less offers one important explanation of the 
above facts. Being so near 

the mainland, the islands have . „„_.jli " 
-iii t. , tance P artl y 

been invaded by many hardy explained 

people, among them the Angles l. By the char- 

and Saxons, from whom the acter of their 

. t-, 7 . 7 i a 7 inhabitants 

words J^nglish and Anglo- 
Saxons have been derived. The Normans 
also entered Britain, and still earlier the 
Romans under the lead of Julius Ctesar. 

Although formerly divided into different 
nations, England, Scotland, Wales, and 
Ireland are now united to form the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The inhabitants of each of these sections 
are noted for their energy, intelligence, 
and good character. 



lu* 8 

The prevailing westerly winds also 
partly account for the greatness of the 

2. By the pre- United Kingdom. Two days 
vailing winds out f three these winds blow 
across the British Isles ; and, since they 
have crossed a vast expanse of warm water 
(p. 261), they greatly temper the climate. 
Indeed, the winter season is milder than 
that in northern 

United States, and 
the summer is cooler 
(Figs. 317 and 318). 

The prevailing 
westerlies, bearing 
an abundance of 
moisture (p. 261), 
so distribute it over 
the islands that no 
section suffers from 
drought. Yet the 
western portions re- 
ceive more rain than 
the eastern, because 
the damp ocean 
winds reach them 
first (Fig. 367). 

As already stated 
(p. 257), the moun- 

3. By the char- tains of 
acter of the sur- Great 

face Britain, 

like those of New 
England, are so old 
that they are worn 
very low. While 

these uplands rarely rise more than one 
or two thousand feet above sea level, 
there are occasional higher peaks of hard 
rock. For example, the granite peak of 
Ben Nevis, in Scotland, the highest point 
in the British Isles, is forty-three hundred 
feet in elevation. The Scottish Highlands 
(Fig. 368) are so rugged and barren that 
few people are able to live there. 

Where the rocks are softer, and less dis- 
turbed by mountain folding, there are lower 
and more level tracts. Point out the broad- 
est lowland of Ireland, Scotland, and Eng- 

land (Fig. 359). A narrow and very small, 
but important, lowland lies in southern Scot 
land, near Edinburgh and Glasgow. There 
the rocks are so much softer than those of 
the highlands that, instead of a barren, 
hilly country, there is a fertile lowland 
Upon this, called the Lowlands of Scotland, 
there are thriving industries and a dense 
population, as in 
many parts of Eng- 

A highland rim 
extends around Ire- 
land (Fig. 359), in- 
closing a lower, more 
level interior. Thus 
the surface of this 
island has the form 
of a shallow plate, 
and much of the 
land can be cul- 

A large part of 
these islands, there- 
fore, is either plain 
or low, hilly land, 
suited to agricul- 
ture. Thus the sur- 
face features have 
helped to make the 
British Isles an im- 
portant nation. 

The coast line of 

the British Isles is 

very irregular, as 

seen from the map 4 Bytne jj._ 

State the reasons regular coast 

Rainfall of British Isles 

may be 
(Fig. 366) 

(p. 259). How does the coast Une 
compare with that of New England ? 
Since the mountainous western portion 
had more deep valle3 r s for the sea to enter 
than the level plains of the east, there are 
more good harbors on the west than on 
the east coast. On both sides, however, the 
mouths of the larger rivers usually make 
good ports. Why? 

Another reason for the importance of the 
United Kingdom is the fact that these islands 



have great natural resources, and have there- 
fore developed important industries. In 
5. By the natu- our study of the United States 
rai resources we found that the people are 
mainly engaged in lumbering, agriculture, 
fishing, mining, manufacturing, and com- 
merce. There is very little lumbering in 
the British Isles for, although in early times 
a large part of the land was wooded, little 
forest now remains ; and lumber is, there- 
fore, one of the leading • imports. But all 
of the other indus- 
tries are important, 
and some of them 
are remarkably de- 

Since no portion 
of the British Isles is 

arid, the 
Agriculture , 


1. Live Stock 

mg in- 
dustry is not devel- 
oped there as in 
western United 
States. Much live 
stock is raised, how- 
ever (Fig. 368). In 
fact, grazing has of 
late so increased in 
importance that 

there is now twice as much land in pas- 
ture as in crops, and the British Isles are 
noted for their great number of fine cattle, 
sheep, and horses. There are about thirty 
million sheep on the Isles, while there 
are forty-five million people. The Shet- 
land Islands are famous for Shetland po- 
nies ; and on the three Channel Islands, — 
Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, near the 
French coast, — three breeds of cattle have 
been developed, which are well known in 
the United States. 

The importance of grazing is partly ex- 
plained by the fact that much of the surface, 
like that of New England, is too rocky or 
mountainous to be cultivated (Fig. 368). 
Besides this, some of the plains in eastern 
England, although too sterile for farming, 

make excellent pasture land (Fig. 369). 
The mild winters and the damp air, which 
encourage the growth of grass, further 
favor stock raising. In addition, the cheap- 
ness with which grain is raised in other 
countries, like the United States, and car- 
ried to the British Isles, has made it less 
necessary for the British to use their land 
in raising grain. 

The cool summer climate, which is of 
advantage in some respects, is unfavorable 

Fig. 368. — Sheep grazing on the mountain slopes in the Scottish Highlands. 

to many kinds of farming. For example, 
it prevents the production of corn, cotton, 
tobacco, and grapes, which re- 2. Other farm 
quire warm summers. More products 
hardy products, however, such as oats, 
barley, and wheat, are easily raised. Tur- 
nips, potatoes, beans, and peas are other im- 
portant crops ; also hops, which, together 
with barley, are used in the manufacture of 
beer. Owing to the many towns and cities, 
truck farming is of great importance. 

The demand for farm land has been so great that 
large areas of swamp have been reclaimed by careful 
drainage, and these now make some of the most 
fertile farms. Yet in spite of the care that has 
been given to cultivating the soil, and to raising 
live stock, far less food is produced in the British 
Isles than is needed by the inhabitants. There are 
such vast multitudes of people engaged in other 


Fig. .369. — An English farm with a flock of sheep and a herd of cattle grazing in the pasture. 

occupations that, if they were deprived of food from 
abroad, they would, it is said, begin to suffer from 
famine within a month. How different that is from 
our own country, which has so large an area, and so 
varied a climate, that it not only supplies the food we 
need, but produces enormous quantities to be sent 
abroad ! 

Since the early inhabitants had to cross 
the sea in order to reach these islands, and 

Fig. M70. — An English country scene. On the left of the r 
hedges, is a field of wheat ; on the right, watercress is 

since most of their descendants have lived 
either on or near the coast, it is natural that' 
many of the British should 
adopt a seafaring life. This 
sort of life has also been encouraged by the 
fact that food fish abound on the shallow 
banks of the North Sea and of the ocean to 
the north and west of the islands. More 
than one hundred thousand 
men and twenty-five thou- J 
sand boats from the British 
Isles are employed in 

Among the fish caught are 
cod, haddock, and herring, 
as off the coast of New Eng- 
land and Newfoundland. 
Another important kind is 
a flatfish, the sole, which 
resembles the flounder of 
our eastern coast. Salmon 
enter the rivers of northern 
Great Britain, and oysters 
being raised. are found along the southern 



coast. Many fishing hamlets are scattered 
along the coast ; but the fishing industry 
here, as in our country, is becoming cen- 
tered more and more in the large towns, 
which possess the capital for large vessels 
and expensive fishing outfits. The chief 
fishing centers, like Boston and Gloucester 
in Massachusetts, are London, Hull, and 
Grimsby (Fig. 306) in England, and Aber- 
deen in Scotland. 

One of the resources of the British Isles 
which early attracted people from southern 
Mining Europe was the tin in south- 

1. The less com- western England. This metal 
mon minerals i s n ot mined in many parts of 
the world, but has always been in great 
demand. Even before the time of Caesar, 
ships from the Mediterranean came to Eng- 
land to obtain tin for use in the manufac- 
ture of bronze. Small quantities of copper, 
lead, zinc, and even gold and silver ores, 
have also been discovered in the British 
Isles ; but at present there is little mining 
of these metals. 

On the other hand, the abundance of two 
other minerals, coal and iron ore, reminds us 

2. Coal and of our own country (pp. 3 and 
iron ore 259). The one small island 
of Great Britain produces more than half as 
much coal as all of our states together ; and 
the United States and Great Britain are 
the two leading coal-producing countries of 
the world. Figure 371 shows the sections 
of Great Britain in which coal is found. 
While most of the coal is bituminous, that 
in southern Wales is more like our anthra- 
cite. Large numbers of miners in the 
United States are Welshmen who have 
come from that section. 

Iron ore is also abundant and favorably 
situated. None of the British iron ore is 
far from coal ; and in some places the same 
shaft is used to bring both coal and iron to 
the surface. Limestone is also abundant 
and near at hand. This reminds us of the 
conditions at Birmingham, Ala. (p. 79), 
which is named after Birmingham, Eng- 
land, because they resemble each other in 

having an abundance of coal and iron ore 
near together. Find Birmingham in Fig- 
ure 371. Note the other cities near the coal 
fields. Why should large manufacturing 
cities develop here ? The extent of the 
mining industry in the United Kingdom is 
indicated by the fact that more than half a 
million persons are employed underground. 





Fig. 371. — Map showing coal distribution in British Isles. 

Besides these minerals, various building 
stones are extensively quarried, as granite 
in Scotland, and slate in north- 3 other im 
ern Wales. Salt is also found; tant mineral 
and there is clay of such ex- P rodacts 
cellent quality 'for earthenware that sev- 
eral towns have become noted for their 
potteries, as have Trenton and Cincinnati 
in the United States. 

Considering the abundance of coal and 
iron ore on the one hand, and Manufacturing 
of wool from the millions of i conditions 
sheep on the other, it is clear favorable to its 
that Great Britain has mate- a " el °P™nt 
rials for extensive manufacture. As in 



New England, the hilly sections have 
abundant water power due to the glacier, 
and this also has favored manufacturing. 
Later, when the use of steam became known, 
the abundant stores of coal were of great 

The use of steam has led to the building of many 
factories, and to the growth of large manufacturing 
cities. Therefore, the making of cloth on hand 

Fig. 372. — A country road in England. 

looms, at the homes of the weavers, has been gener- 
ally abandoned, although one still sees it in some of 
the country districts. 

Even in very early times the English were en- 
gaged in the weaving of woolen cloth. Later, 
owing to numerous wars, and to bad government 
on the continent, England became a refuge for 
industrial people from the mainland. This led to 
rapid progress in manufacturing. The peculiar 
energy and inventive genius of the British, which 
kept their machinery in advance of that used by 
other nations, must also be considered. For ex- 
ample, it was a Scotchman, James Watt, who in- 
vented the modern steam engine ; and it was George 
Stephenson who invented the first locomotive. 

The very smallness of the country is another 
advantage ; for no matter where a factory may 
be located, it is sure to be not far from coal fields, 
and within a few miles of a shipping point. 

In the mountainous section of northern 
England, near both coal and wool, there are 

hundreds of factories for the manufacture 
of woolen cloth. The principal center of 
this trade is Leeds, which has 2 Leading 
the added advantage of water kinds 
power. On the western side (l) Woolen 
of this hilly region is Bead- ^nufactuHng 
ford, noted for its broadcloth and worsted 
goods ; and neighboring cities manufacture 
woolen yarn, hosiery, carpets, and blankets. 
The woolen industry extends 
northward into Scotland and 
southward to Leicester, 
where the surrounding plains 
produce a breed of sheep that 
yields a wool suitable for the 
manufacture of worsted yarn. 

In spite of the enormous number 
of sheep in the British Isles, the 
manufacturing industry has so far 
outgrown the local supply of wool 
that millions of pounds must be 
imported every year. This condi- 
tion resembles that of New Eng- 
land, where much of the wool is 
brought from the West or from 
foreign countries. 

From the spinning and 
weaving of wool it was easy 
to turn to the (2) Cotton 

manufacture of manufacturing 

cotton goods ; and on the western side of 
the northern mountains we find a great 
cotton-manufacturing industry. Dampness 
is one of the points in favor of that sec- 
tion, for in a dry air cotton is in danger 
of becoming too brittle to spin and weave 
easily. Another reason why this work is 
best developed on the west side of the 
island is the fact that it is nearer the 
United States, from which so much of the 
raw cotton comes. 

Since, the British climate will not permit 
the cultivation of cotton, it is necessary to 
import all that is used. It requires over 
two billion pounds a year to supply the 
mills. Although much cotton is now ob- 
tained from Egypt, India, and other parts 
of the British Empire, our Southern States 



still supply the greatest quantity. The 
center of the cotton manufacturing is MAN- 
CHESTER. What other cities do you find 
situated near by ? 

The central portion of Great Britain, in- 
cluding southern Scotland and the two 
sides of the mountain range of northern 
England, is the seat of the greatest textile 
industry in the world. Can you name 

manufactures steel rails and armor plates 
for war ships. Glasgow is a center for 
shipbuilding and for the manufacture of 
locomotives and machinery of various 
kinds. In the smaller cities and towns 
near these places, there are similar works. 

As in New England, many places occupied with 
the textile industry also produce textile machinery 
and other iron and steel goods. The island is so 

Fig. 373. — Loch Lomond, a beautiful lake on the southern border of the Scottish Highlands. 

cities of New England which are likewise 
engaged in cotton and woolen manufac- 
ture (p. 42) ? 

The cities of Great Britain that are 
most noted for iron and steel products are 


steel manufac- in England, and Glasgow 

turmg j Q S cor land. BIRMINGHAM 

manufactures jewelry, watches, firearms, 
bicycles, steam engines, etc. Sheffield 
has for centuries been noted for its cutlery, 
the presence of grindstone quarries in the 
neighborhood being one reason for this par- 
ticular industry. Why ? Shellield also 

small that coal and iron are cheaply shipped to all 
points; and on this account, manufacturing, though 
best developed near the coal fields, is not confined 
to these districts. 

Thus we see that here, as in the United States, 
coal makes possible an enormous manufacturing in- 
dustry. There is so much coal in Great Britain 
that, in spite of the forest of chimneys in England 
and southern Scotland, the output of coal is more 
than sufficient to meet the demands. The raw ma- 
terials for manufacture, however, are not sufficient; 
for all the cotton, much of the wool, and part of the 
iron ore must be imported. 

The three industries connected with 
cotton, wool, and iron have made Great 



Britain one of the great workshops of the 
world. The most important is cotton man- 
ufacturing ; iron ranks next ; and wool is 

What has thus far been said applies 
chiefly to Great Britain ; but Ireland forms 
a striking contrast to Great 
Britain in several respects. 
In the first place, it is mainly 
a country of farms instead 
of manufactures (Fig. 374). 
The mild climate and damp 
air insure excellent grass throughout the 
year, and about four fifths of the farm land 

Contrast of 
Ireland with 
Great Britain 
1 . In promi- 
nence of its 

Fig. 374. — A country village in Ireland, surrounded by pastures and 
fields of grain. 

one twelfth of the entire surface of the island. The 
water in these bogs protects the swamp vegetation 
from decay, so that such vegetation collects until it 
forms a sod, which, when dug up and dried, makes 
a fairly good fuel (Fig. 8). It will be remembered 
that similar deposits, in the larger swamps of the Coal 
Period, were the beginning of the coal beds which 
are now of so much value (p. 2). 

On account of the lack of fuel, most of 
the manufacturing in Ireland is done on 
the eastern side, where coal is 3. inmanufac- 
easily obtained from England turing 
or Scotland. At one point the two islands 
are only thirteen miles apart. One of the 
most important manufacturing industries 
is the making of linen. The 
Irish linens, which take high 
rank in our country, are made 
from the inner bark of the 
flax plant. Flax is grown in 
various parts of the United 
States, but mainly for the 
sake of the seed, from which 
linseed oil is made for use in 
mixing paints and in making 
varnish. In Ireland, however, 
flax is raised chiefly for its 
fiber. The damp climate there 
is favorable to its growth, and 
the cheap labor makes possible 
the great amount of care re- 
quired in preparing it for the 
manufacture of linen. 

is in pasture. It follows, therefore, that 
great numbers of cattle, sheep, and horses 
are raised. As in Great Britain, the prin- 
cipal grain is oats ; but barley, wheat, pota- 
toes, and turnips are also grown. 

Again, unlike Great Britain, Ireland is 
very barren of minerals. Building stones, 
„ . . . such as o-ranite, marble, and 

2. In mining . & , ' , ' 

sandstone, are found, but there 
is very little coal or iron. 

The lack of cnal for domestic use is partly made 
up by the abundance of '• turf," or peat. Owing to 
the deposits of glacial drift, which have formed dams 
across the streams (Fig. 363), the level interior is so 
poorly drained that swamps, or logs, occupy about 

The stem of flax is tall and slender, and a field of 
it presents somewhat the same appearance as a field 
of oats. Instead of being cut, like grain, it is pulled 
up and left lying upon the ground for some time, 
exposed to the weather, so that the gummy sub- 
stance, which holds the woody matter and fiber to- 
gether, may decay. Travelers in northern Ireland, 
in summer, see field after field covered with flax, 
much of which is used in the linen factories of 

After the fiber has been separated from the woody 
core by machinery, it is split and combed out with a 
steel brush, and thus made ready for spinning. It 
is made into thread in much the same way as cotton 
and wool are, and this is then woven into napkins, 
tablecloths, etc. Name other articles made of linen. 

Ireland offers a fourth contrast to Great Britain 
in regard to population. Not only is it far less 



densely peopled, but the number of inhabitants is 
decreasing. Partly because of the unfavorable 
laws imposed by England, the Irish 
. n popu a have long been discontented with 

their lot ; and for many years they have been leav- 
ing their country. Since 
1*47, the number of inhab- 
itants has been reduced from 
eight million to four million 
four hundred thousand. 
They have sought refuge 
chiefly in the L'nited States 
and Canada. 

The cities most noted 

for manufacturing have 

. . , ... already been 
Principal cities . - 

. „. . . mentioned : 

1. Their loca- 
tion, and connec- 11 a iii e 1 y, 
tion with one LEEDS, 
another „ 

Manchester, Shef- 
field, Birmingham, 
and Glasgow. What 
industries are developed 
in each ? Tell where 
each is located. 

There are other large 
cities along the coast : 
for so much manufactur- 
ing calls for an enormous 
import of raw materials 
and food, as well as the 
export of manufactured 
goods. These cities 
must, therefore, be the 
gateways to and from 
the island. Since Great 
Britain lies far north, 
between Europe and the 
New World, these ship- 
ping points are naturally 
located on the eastern, 
western, and southern 
sides, at those points 
where the best harbors 
exist, and not far from the 
great industrial centers. 

First among the coastal cities to be noted 
is London, on the east side, with Bristol 
opposite it on the west coast. North of 

London is Hull, with Liverpool on the 
opposite side ; and in southern Scotland is 
Edinburgh, near the coast, paired with 
Glasgow on the west. On the south side 

Fig. 375. — The locatiou uf Londuu and Liverpool. 

the two most important ports are SOUTHAMP- 
TON and Portsmouth. What are the two 
principal cities of Ireland? Locate each. 



Steamships, railway lines, and canals con- 
nect the various cities, carrying immense 
quantities of freight. In Great Britain 
and Ireland there are nearly four thou- 
sand miles of canal and over twenty-three 
thousand miles of railway. 

London, the capital of the empire and 
the largest city in the world, is situated 
2. London on the Thames River. Like 

(1) Its location many other British rivers, the 
Thames has a wide, deep mouth, owing 
to the sinking of the land. London is 

Fig. 37C. — London Bridge across the Thames, over which a stream of 
people and wagons is almost constantly passing. 

located upon its banks as far inland as 
high tide allows vessels to go, or fifty miles 
from the open sea. The advantage of this 
position lies in the fact that, while it is in 
the interior of the island, it has direct water 
communication with foreign countries. 

New York, we know, owes its greatness 
largely to the fact that it is the gateway to 
a productive interior, with an enormous 
area ; but almost any point in England 
may be reached by rail from London in a 
few hours. Although Great Britain is so 
small, its population is nearly one half as 
great as that of the entire United States ; 
and the port of London is the point of en- 
trance for much of its food. 

Even before the Romans came to Eng- 

land, the site of London was a fortified 
camp, situated on a low hill surrounded by 
tidal marshes and mud flats. , 2 % Early Ms- 
The Romans had a ferry at toryandpres- 
this point ; and much later, ent size 
over eight hundred years ago, the first 
London Bridge was built (Fig. 376). This 
gave the city a great start. Since that 
time, it has grown until Greater London 
now includes over 7,000,000 persons. How 
does that compare with the number in Scot- 
land ? In Ireland? In New York City? 

As in all great cities, one 
of the principal industries is 
manufacturing. (3) Manufac . 
Nearly all kinds turing and 
of goods are commerce 
made, as in New York, Chi- 
cago, and Philadelphia. How- 
ever, the fact that London 
lacks coal and iron near at 
hand, places it at some dis- 
advantage in manufacturing 
as compared with Liverpool 
and Glasgow. 

London is the greatest ship- 
ping point in the world. Its 
rows of piers extend twenty 
miles down the river, and its 
railways radiate in all direc- 
tions (Fig. 375). It is not | 
so noted for its export of manufactured 
goods as are Liverpool and Glasgow, which 
are nearer the great manufacturing dis- 
tricts ; but it is the chief center for im- 
ports. For example, nearty all the tea and 
wine used in Great Britain enter through 
London. The great warehouses are filled 
with goods from all climes, such as flour, 
sugar, meat, tobacco, hides, and cocoanuts. 

Being a very old city, many of the streets are 
narrow and crooked. On that account transpor- 
tation of goods, and of people, is often slow and diffi- 
cult. Some of the principal streets are too narrow 
for street cars, so that, unlike American cities, the 
people have to be carried through these streets 
mainly by omnibuses (Fig. 377). One of the largest 
companies formerly ran as many as thirteen hun- 
dred buses, and employed rive thousand men and 




fifteen thousand horses. About a third of the 
omnibuses are now being run by electricity. As 
in New York and other American cities, under- 
ground railways have been built in various parts 
of the city, running under houses and streets. 

London is the capital of the British Em- 
pire (Fig. 381), which is the name given 
(4) Importance to the United Kingdom and its 
in other ways dependencies. It is a center 
for the publication of books and magazines, 
and is provided with noted picture gal- 
leries, libraries, museums, and magnificent 

Its wealth and trade are so extensive that 
it has been the money center of the world, 
though New York, the money center of the 
United States, now rivals it. The leading 
bank, called the Bank of England, is the agent 
of the government in much of its business, 
and employs about a thousand persons. 

Just below the city, on the south side of the river, 
is the Greenwich Observatory (p. 203), from which 
meridians of longitude are num- 
bered and time is regulated. A few 
miles up the Thames is Windsor 
Castle, one of the palaces of the 
sovereigns of the empire. Find Cambridge and 
Oxford (Fig. 366), the two leading university towns 
of Great Britain. 

(5) Places of 
interest near 

Fig. 377.- 

-Omnibuses in one of the narrow 
London streets. 


T ■■»»£» ... 


iff-s "*i/r 

■ m - . „. • 

-^;%.: :: #K - 



■ 4 ^/m^;^- 

- ■ *V 'A >>■-, W 

i' -K ■■■ ji i i 

1 ■■"-. _.:*■■--: U. "i! 

Fig. 37S. — The famous Westminster Abbey in London 

Southwest of London, on the coast, is 
Southampton, where many ocean steamers 

from the 3. other Eng- 
United lish cities 
States Stop 0-) In the south 

(Fig. 375), f £ '^ land 
and where fast trains 
wait to convey passen- 
gers to the metropolis. 
Close to Southampton 
is Portsmouth, which 
has a great navy yard. 

Almost due west of 
London, near the head 
of Bristol Channel, is 
Bristol, which is en- 
gaged in the lumber 
trade and in tobacco 
arid chocolate manufac- 
turing. It was formerly 
next to London in size, 
but Liverpool lias now 



far outstripped it. Can you suggest some 
reason why ? Just west of Bristol is Car- 
diff, in Wales, the chief British port for 
the export of coal. 

Knowing the occupation of the dense 
population in northern England, we can tell 

the principal exports of Hull 
(2) In the north ,K *■ -117 1 . 

and Liverpool. What must 
they be ? The former city naturally trades 
mainly with Europe, and the latter with the 
Americas and West Africa. 

Before the discovery of the New World, 
the west side of Great Britain had little 

center and shipping point, for the same rea 
sons that Liverpool is. State these reasons 
What must be some of its principal imports 
and exports ? Why ? 

Edinburgh, unlike the other large cities 
named, is not very important either as a 
shipping point or as a manufacturing cen- 
ter. It is distinguished as the capital of 
Scotland, and as one of the most beautiful 
cities in the British Isles. In former days, 
before Glasgow developed commerce with 
America, Edinburgh was much more im- 
portant than Glasgow ; for it commanded 


Fig. 379. — The city of Edinburgh. 

commerce, and Liverpool (Fig. 375), there- 
fore, had little business or growth. With 
the settlement of America, however, the city 
grew until it now has an immense trade with 
North and South America, and is the third 
city in size in the United Kingdom. Many 
passengers from America land at this port 
and go to London by rail. Besides its com- 
merce, Liverpool is also important for its 
shipbuilding. Why is this a favorable place 
for such an industry ? A ship canal, about 
thirty-five miles in length, has been built to 
Manchester, at an expense of 175,000,000. 
Glasgow (Fig. 366), on the west side of 
4. Cities of the Lowlands of Scotland, is 
Scotland second to London in size among 

British cities. It is a leading manufacturing 

the entrance to the Lowlands of Scotland. 
It still has important trade, and is a noted 
educational center. The well-known Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh is situated here. 
Leith, a short distance away, is the port 
for Edinburgh. 

Farther north, on the coast, are Dundee 
and Aberdeen (p. 267). The former sends 
forth a number of Arctic whaling vessels 
each year, and is also engaged in the manu- 
facture of linen. 

The principal cities of Ireland are on the 
east and south sides. Why ? What has al- 
ready been said about Belfast 5. Cities of 
(p. 270)? It is also noted i^nd 
for its shipbuilding. Dublin, the capital 
of Ireland, and the chief port for the Eng- 



lish trade, ships farm and other products to 
England and receives manufactured goods 
in return. Queenstown has a fine harbor, 
and is a port of call for vessels bound from 
America to Great Britain. 

While we have learned many facts about 
the British Isles, some important questions 

Fuller reasons are not 3^ fully answered, 
for greatness For example, why does this 
of British little country possess more 

Empire colonies (Fig. 381) than any 

other nation of the earth '? Further, why 
should it have the greatest foreign trade? 
And why the greatest number 
of vessels upon the sea? 

Some of the reasons in 
answer to these questions are 

1. Why so as follows : The 

many colonies f ac t that Great 

Britain is so small — no point 
in the island being more than 
seventy miles from salt water 
— is a reason why many of the 

I British have become sailors. 

!;It is not surprising, therefore, 
that they have been great 
Nor is it to be wondered at 

I that, as these explorers dis- 
covered new parts of the 

I world, they laid claim to them 

j in the name of their mother 

[ country. In this way, and by 

i war, Great Britain came into 

I possession of the Thirteen Colonies of 

I North America, and of Canada, India, Aus- 
tralia, much of Africa, and many other 

I places (Fig. 381). At present her ter- 
ritory includes about one fifth of the land 

I surface of the globe, and one quarter of 
its inhabitants. 

These colonies and dependencies help to 
explain Great Britain's enormous foreign 

2. Why so great commerce; for the colonies 
a foreign com- have found it more to their 
merce advantage to trade with the 
mother country than with other nations, 
which speak a different language and have 

less understanding of them or sympathy 
with them. The colonies sell raw products 
and food stuffs to the mother country, and 
she sends to them clothing, steel goods, and 
other manufactured articles. It is largely 
the exchange of goods with these colonies 
that has made the foreign trade of Great 
Britain nearly twice that of any other na- 
tion. Next to her colonies, Great Britain's 
greatest trade is with the United States. 

Some of the reasons why this little island 
owns more vessels than any 3 wh go 
other nation have already ap- many ships 

Fig. 380. — A street scene in Dublin. 

peared. In fishing, exploring, and making 
settlements, a large number of ships have 
been needed; and many war ships have been 
required for the proper defense of her 
widely scattered colonies. Another reason 
for so large a navy is the fact that the Brit- 
ish Isles are cut off from all other nations 
by water. For defense, therefore, the Brit- 
ish must rely upon war ships rather than 
upon a standing army. 

Further than this, the British are actually 
forced to own many ships. Here are over 
forty-five million people living on two small is- 
lands, from whose soil it is impossible to obtain 



the necessary food. They must send ships 
away for their flour, meat, sugar, tea, coffee, 
etc. ; and they must send abroad for much 
of their raw materials for manufacture. 
Also, in order to pay for the raw materials 
and food, their manufactured goods must 
be shipped to all parts of the world ; other- 
wise such extensive manufacturing would 
be impossible. From this it is plain why a 
very large number of vessels must be em- 
ployed ; and there are two reasons why the 

Fig. 382. — The House of Parliament in London, where 
the House of Lords and House of Commons meet. 

British, rather than other nations, should 
own them. In the first place, such trade is 
profitable ; and secondly, when they own 
their own vessels, they can send them where 
and when they will, and are, therefore, better 
able to secure food and supplies in case of war. 

These facts, coupled with the remarkable 
energy of the British, are the principal 
reasons why the United Kingdom greatly 
surpasses all other nations in number of 
war ships and merchant vessels. 

The government of the United Kingdom 
Government of is a limited monarchy, the 
the United present ruler being King 

Kingdom George V. We know that 

in the United States our general laws are 
made at Washington by a Congress com- 
posed of a Senate and a House of Repre- 
sentatives. In the United Kingdom the 
law-making body, which corresponds to our 
Congress, is called Parliament. It is like- 
wise composed of two bodies, the House of 
Lords and the House of Commons. 

The House of Lords is made up of members of the 
nobility, or men "with inherited titles, who are not 
elected by the people. In former times the Lords 
were so powerful that the people had little control 
of the government; but for many generations the 
Lords have had much less power. The House of 
Commons, whose members are elected by popular 
vote, is now by far the more important. Through 
them the people are able to make their own laws, 
and the government is therefore one that allows 
great freedom. 

The sovereign corresponds to our President; but 
the execution of laws is really in charge of a Cabinet, 
composed of a Prime Minister and several other Min- 
isters, who are responsible to the House of Commons 
for their actions. If the Ministers lose the support 
of the House, they are obliged to resign ; and then 
others are appointed who will carry out the wishes 
of the people. 

1. What remarkable facts can you state about 
the position, size, and importance of these islands? 
2. How does the character of the in- _ . 
habitants help to explain the impor- _ 
tance of the islands V 3. How is the " 
importance of the islands also partly explained by 
the prevailing winds? 4. By the character of the 
surf ace of the land ? 5. By the irregular coast line? 
6. By the natural resources? 7. Tell about the 
raising of live stock on these islands. 8. What are 
the other leading farm products? 9. Of what im- 
portance is fishing? 10. What important minerals 
are found? 11. What conditions greatly favor 
manufacturing? 12. What can you tell about the 
woolen manufacturing? 13. Cotton manufactur- 
ing? 14. Iron and steel manufacturing? 15. How 
does Ireland compare with Great Britain in promi- 
nence of agriculture? What are the farm products, 
of Ireland? 16. How does Ireland contrast with 
Great Britain in mining? IT. In manufacturing?!: 
Describe the chief manufacturing industry. 18. What 
about the population of Ireland? 19. Name and 
locate the principal cities of the British Isles, i 

20. Tell further about the location of London. 

21. Its early history and present size. 22. Its 
manufacturing and commerce. 23. Its importance 
in other ways. 21. What places of interest are near 
London ? 25. Locate and state the important facta 
about other cities in the south of England. 26. In 



the north. 27. Tell about the leading cities of 
Scotland. 28. Of Ireland. 29. How has the Brit- 
ish Empire come to have so man}' colonies? 30. So 
great a foreign commerce? 31. So great a navy 
and so many merchant vessels? 32. Describe the 
government of the British Isles. 

1. Make a sketch map of Great Britain, showing 

the position of the highlands and lowlands, principal 

. rivers and cities. 2. Considering 

°° the prevailing winds, which side of 

the great cities must be most free from smoke? 
3. Why are sheep able to' eat shorter grass than 
cattle? 4. Make a list of goods manufactured 
from flax, and place samples in the school cabinet. 
5. 'Write a short paper telling in what ways the 
people of the British Isles and the United States 
depend on one another. C. State ways in which 
New England and Great Britain resemble each other. 
7. What names of British cities have you met in 
your study of the United States? In what portion 
of the United States are they? 8. Bead in George 
Eliot's " Silas Marner " a description of old-fashioned 
manufacturing by hand looms. 9. Also in "John 
Halifax, Gentleman," an account of the introduction 
of steam into the factories. 10. What books writ- 
ten by Englishmen have you read ? 11. What early 
English explorers took part in the exploration of 
North America? 

III. The Netherlands, Belgium, and 
Luxemburg (Fig. 416) 

1. Compare the area of The Netherlands with 
that of Belgium (p. 421); with that of Great 
Britain. 2. Compare the coast lines 
of The Netherlands and Belgium. 
3. What large river crosses The Netherlands? 
Through what countries does it flow ? 4. What 
countries border The Netherlands? 5. Belgium? 
8. Make an outline map of these two countries. 

Map Study 

i. The Netherlands 'Holland; 

Figure 383 shows The Netherlands to be a 
peculiar country. The greater portion is 
Surface very low, and some parts are 

features as muca as fifteen feet below 

sea level. In fact, if protection against sea 
and river were not provided, about one half 
of the surface would be under water at least 
a part of the time. This explains why the 
country, sometimes called Holland, is more 
commonly known as TJie Netherlands, mean- 
ing the low country. 

The Rhine has brought much of the soil ; 
some of it, no doubt, all the way from the 
Alps. A large part of the country is, in 
fact, a delta of sand and clay built by the 
Rhine. It is so low and level that, over 
much of the surface, the only notable eleva- 
tions are either sand dunes, thrown up by 
the wind, or glacial moraines of sand and 
gravel (p. 9). In Figure 363 notice how 
far the ice sheet advanced in this section. 
Hard rocks are found only in the extreme 
eastern and southeastern parts, where the 

,w Sea level 
1 Leee t nan 35 feet above Sea level 
§Oii-r 5b feet 

*riuuu>& ML C 

Fig. 383. — Map to snow the portion of The Netherlands 
that is helow sea level. 

highest point is a little over a thousand feet 
above the sea. 

As the population increased, and there 
was need for more land, it was found possi- 
ble by building embankments, how the low- 
called dikes, to keep the high land has been 
tides and rivers from overflow- reclaimed 
ing the salt marshes and flood plains. The 
people have even undertaken the difficult 
task of reclaiming the shallow sea bottom 
itself. Such drainage began in the twelfth 
century and has continued until the present 
day. It has already about doubled the area 
of The Netherlands, and now a scheme is 
projected by which the Zuider Zee is to be 



The first step in reclaiming a section of land is to 
build dikes around it. Then the water is pumped 
from the inclosure and emptied into the rivers, or 
into the sea. Windmills were formerly the only 
means for such pumping, and many are still in use 
(Fig. 384) ; but now many steam pumps are also 
used. These pumps must be worked all the time in 
order to keep out the rain water, as well as that 
which soaks through the soil. 

There are sixteen hundred miles of sea dikes, 
some of which are fully three hundred feet thick, 






- - jM/%j. ' 

Ijf 1 

! HI/ 


i ■wf'*;'- 

rrr^ w I .TBUfflTflj 

■P ""if mJmiS 

Fig. 384. 

■A Dutch windmill, used for pumping the water 
low lands behind the dikes. 

and thirty feet high. Some idea of the need of 
such great walls may be gained by standing behind 
one of them during a storm and listening to the fierce 
beating of the ocean waves on the opposite side, 
several feet above one's head. 

The ditches for draining the land really form ca- 
nals, which, by means of their embankments, inclose 
houses, gardens, and fields, much as fences or stone 
walls inclose houses and gardens in other countries. 
They are so numerous that they extend over the 
lowlands in a great network. 

It might seem that a country so small as 

Number and this ' and with such a surface > 
character of could not support a large 
the people population. Nevertheless, The 

Netherlands has about two thirds as manj 
inhabitants as the remarkably productive 
state of New York, which is four times 
large. They are a very prosperous people, 

Perhaps the leading cause for this prosperity is the 
excellent character of the Dutch people, as the Neth- 
erlander are called. For centuries they have felt an 
intense love for civil and religious liberty ; but, being 
a small nation, they have suffered many 
hardships in attempting to maintain such 
liberty. At one time they were under 
German control ; later they came under 
the cruel rule of Spain ; but finally they 
obtained their independence, and their 
form of government is now a limited 

While their efforts for freedom brought 
untold suffering to the Dutch people, it 
helped them, in one way, by causing people 
of advanced ideas to seek refuge among 
them. Thus it was to Holland that the 
Pilgrims first fled when religious persecu- 
tion drove them from England ; and from 
time to time large numbers of Huguenots, 
Germans, and other persecuted people found 
refuge there. Such people brought new 
ideas, and had a great influence on the 
intelligence with which Dutch industries 
were developed. 

Agriculture is the principal in- 
dustry of the Kingdom. The lead- 
ing farm products are 
grains, such as rye, 
oats, wheat, barley, and buckwheat. 
Potatoes, sugar beets, beans, peas, 
and flax are also grown. There are 
many gardens, including flower gardens 
where bulbs are raised. The Dutch raise 
such excellent bulbs that they are sold all 
over the world. 

More land is devoted to pasture (Fig. 
385) than to all these crops. This is partly 
because much of the higher land is too sandy 
for cultivation, and partly because the mois- 
ture in the lowlands aids in the growth of 
excellent grass. Cattle, hogs, sheep, and 
horses are raised in great numbers ; and 
quantities of butter and cheese are made. 

Both the Zuider Zee and 
the North Sea, near at hand, FisMn 8 


from the 



contain many food fish ; and this fact lias 
made fishing an important Dutch industry. 

In so level a country there can be little 
water power ; and little mineral wealth is 
Mining and to be expected in a land made 
manufacturing up of soft clays and sands. A 
poor grade of iron ore is found in the bogs, 
and a little coal is mined in the extreme 

Under the circumstances, one might not 
expect much manufacturing. Fortunately, 
however, there is an abundance of coal near 
by in Belgium, Germany, and England. 

of clay, and needing both bricks and tile in their 
drainage work, they developed manufacturing in 
these directions. Some of the Dutch pottery, known 
as Delft ware, is greatly prized for its beauty. In 
fact, manufacturing now ranks next to agriculture 
in importance here. 

Commerce is highly developed for several 
reasons. In the first place, _ , 

Rccisoiis tor 

the ditches, built for the pur- extensive 
pose of drainage, are also commerce 
useful as canals; and these, !• Easy trans- 
together with the rivers, make po a on 
transportation by water very easy to all 

Fig. 385. — Cattle feeding in the rich pastures of Holland. A typical Dutch scene. 

And, since the Dutch people require quan- 
tities of cloth, shoes, machinery, etc., they 
import both coal and some of the raw mate- 
rials in order to manufacture for themselves. 

The strangers who fled to The Netherlands to es- 
cape persecution did much toward developing early 
manufacturing. Its growth has been further aided 
by the efforts of the Dutch to reclaim land from the 
sea. The windmills, with their inclosing buildings, 
were valuable not merely as houses, storehouses, and 
pumps, but also for the purpose of grinding grain 
and doing other kinds of work. Thus, lacking water 
power, the Dutch learned to make some use of wind 
power. Besides, in order to build the canals and 
dikes, and to drain the land, they needed imple- 
ments, such as plows and pile drivers, and these 
they manufactured. Again, having an abundance 

sections of the country. Furthermore, the 
flat-topped dikes make excellent wagon 
roads ; and the level nature of the land 
renders the building of railways a simple 

A second reason for the importance of 
commerce is the position of Holland. This 
country lies directly in the 2. Position 
path of entrance to northern of Holland 
Europe ; and it is crossed by the Rhine 
River, which is navigable for a long dis- 
tance through German)-. Therefore, much 
of the American and British trade with cen- 
tral Europe is carried on through Holland. 

The Dutch colonies (Fig. 417) furnish a 



3. Its colonies 

third reason for the extensive commerce. 
Since the very earliest times the Dutch 
have been in close contact 
with the salt water. Not only 
have they battled with the sea in reclaim- 
ing their land ; but to visit some of their 
near neighbors they have been obliged to 
go by boat. The men have, therefore, be- 
come expert sailors •, and when discoveries 


Fig. 386. — A caual in the city of Amsterdam. 

of new lands were being made, the Dutch 
sailors naturally took part. This, of course, 
was followed by the founding of colonies in 
distant lands. 

The attempt of the Dutch to colonize our 
Hudson Valley was stopped by the Eng- 
lish ; but Holland retains possession of 
other important regions. Of these, Dutch 
Guiana in South America has already been 
mentioned (p. 248); but the most im- 
portant Dutcli colonies are Java and sev- 

eral other East India islands (Fig. 417) 

The manufacture of raw products obtained 

from the colonies forms one of the principal 

industries of the coast cities. 

Amsterdam and Rotterdam are the two 

principal cities. The former, the largest 

city in The Netherlands, is 

about the size of Baltimore. 

It is connected with the ocean by canal, and 
is noted for its university and 
museums, as well as for its ship- 
ping, manufacturing, and dia- 
mond cutting. The rulers of 
Holland are crowned at Am- 
sterdam, although the royal 
family resides at The Hague, 
where the government build- 
ings are situated. 

Rotterdam, next to Amster- 
dam in size, is the chief seaport 
of The Netherlands. Its loca- 
tion, near the mouth of the 
Rhine, makes it one of the prin- 
cipal ports for entrance to the 
interior of the continent. This 
explains why Rotterdam is the 
European terminus for some of 
the important steamship lines 
from New York and other parts 
of the world. 

2. Belgium (Fig. 416) 
In much of Belgium the su 
face of the land reminds us 
Holland. The Comparison of 
country is low and surface with 
flat in the northern «»at of Holland 
and western parts, but gradually rises, and 
grows more rolling toward the south and 
east. There is much more of this hilly 
land in Belgium, and the highest point 
(2230 feet) is more than twice that in 
The Netherlands. 

Although Belgium is even smaller than 
Holland, its population is much larger, or 
over seven million. How does Number and 
that compare with the popula- character of 
tion of New York State? Little the people 



Belgium is, in fact, the most 
densely populated country on 
the earth. 

Like the Dutch, the Belgians 
have endured untold sufferings in 
their long struggle for independence. 
Their country has been, from time 
to time, a battlefield for the larger 
countries, or Powers, of Europe; for 
example, the Battle of Waterloo, by 
which the career of Napoleon Bona- 
parte was ended, was fought here 
in 1S15. 

Belgium, together with parts of 
France and The Netherlands, once 
formed the country of Flanders, 
and nearly half the Belgian people 
still speak the Flemish language. 
Since 1830, Belgium has been an 
independent country, and the pres- 
ent form of government is a limited monarchy. 

The intelligence of the Belgians is of the highest 
order. Even during the Middle Ages their woolen 
manufactures were the best in Europe ; and at vari- 
ous times the kings of England induced Flemish 
artisans to move to England for the purpose of im- 
proving the manufacturing there. Once the Great 
Powers of Europe declared Belgium neutral territory, 
thus prohibiting further fighting there. The Bel- 
gians, like the people of Luxemburg, have not been 

Fig. .tS8. — A Belgian woman working at the spinning 
wheel. There is much of this hand work in Belgium. 

Fig. 387. — A view in the hilly southern portion of Belgium. 

able to maintain their neutrality. They devoted 
themselves to the industries. As a result, Belgium 
has enjoyed a wonderful growth in times of peace. 

More than half the inhabitants are en- 
gaged in agriculture, the chief products, 
besides live stock, being grain, 
flax, hemp, fruit, and sugar gn u 
beets. Among the farm animals, the 
Flemish horses are especially noted for 
their great size and strength. 

The Belgian method of farming forms a striking 
contrast to that in the U"nited States. Instead of 
farms with from one hundred to several thousand 
acres, as in our country, the Belgian farms usually 
contain not more than two or three acres. To a 
large extent, spading takes the place of plowing ; 
and such hand labor, guided by the experience of 
many generations, secures large crops of the best 
quality. In spite of such careful cultivation of the 
soil, however, there are so many people in Belgium 
that much food has to be imported. 

Quite different from the level northern 
plain, close set with farms and towns, is the 
hilly region of the southern Mining and 
angle, covered with forests, manufacturing 
The weathering of ages, which has worn 
these mountains so low, has brought to 
light valuable mineral deposits, especially 
coal and iron ore. As in England, these 
two minerals occur near together. Lead, 
zinc, and silver are also found here ; and 



of marble and 

there is much quarrying 
other building stones. 

Belgium, therefore, possesses advantages 
for agriculture similar to those of Holland, 
while the minerals give far greater oppor- 
tunity for manufacturing. These facts help 
to explain why the population is so dense. 

By its position Belgium secures many of 

the advantages that Holland enjoys ; that 

is, it is a gateway to and from _ 

' ■ , ■ t t? t Commerce 

the interior ot Europe, lo 

be sure, its coast line is only about forty 
miles in length and the water there is shal- 
low; but Antwerp has an excellent harbor 

Fig. 389. — Some of the quaint houses of Ghent faeing one of the canals on the low plain of northern Belgium 

More than one hundred thousand men are 
engaged in mining, and coal and coke are 
among the leading exports of the kingdom. 
The northwest slope of the hilly region 
is one of the world's busiest industrial 
regions. As in England, the three most 
important kinds of manufacturing are cot- 
ton, wool, and iron and steel. Linen and 
glass are also made. The country is so 
small, and there are so many water ways and 
railways, that coal is transported cheaply 
to all sections. Manufacturing, therefore, 
is well distributed over the kingdom, al- 
though coal is found only in the south. 


on the broad lower course of the smal 
Scheldt River. 

There is no large river, like the Rhine in Hol- 
land, but two smaller streams, rising in France, are 
navigable for some distance across the plain. There 
is also an extensive system of canals. Besides these 
water ways, Belgium has more miles of railway, for 
its size, than any other country. For these rea- 
sons transportation of goods is one of the leading 

The Belgians do not possess such valuable colo- 
nies as the Dutch, but they have been prominent in 
African exploration. It was the Belgian king who 
sent Stanley to Africa, and the Belgian Congo is 
now a Belgian colony. 

LonglluJp WcBifroro (Srccnwloh 

lj.nfiiu.1p Km* !>ora ilroi-imK-h 

FIG. 3iW. 




Brussels, the capital and largest city, is 
situated in the heart of the kingdom. The 
name Brussels carpets suggests 
one of its industries ; but car- 
riage and lace making are at present among 
its most important kinds of manufacture. 
Brussels is an educational as well as a politi- 
cal and commercial center, having numerous 
picture galleries, museums, and schools. 

Antwerp, next in size, is some distance 
inland on the navigable Scheldt River. 
Some of the great steamship lines from New 
York have their European terminus here, 
and the port is one of the most important 
in Europe. The leading kinds of manufac- 
turing are sugar refining, distilling, lace- 
making, and shipbuilding. 

Many other cities and towns are important 
manufacturing centers. The largest are Liege, 
the " Birmingham of Belgium," engaged in the 
manufacture of firearms, cutlery, glass, and various 
kinds of machinery; and Ghent (Fig. 389), noted 
for linen and cotton goods, and for machinery. 

3. Luxemburg 

On the southeastern border of Belgium is the 
small duchy of Luxemburg, governed by an heredi- 
tary grand duchess and a Parliament. Like Belgium, 
by agreement of the Great Powers of Europe, it was 
until 1914 neutral territory. Agriculture, iron min- 
ing, and manufacturing are the principal industries. 

The Netherlands. 1. Describe the surface of Hol- 
land. 2. How has the lowland been reclaimed? 
3. What about the number and 
character of the people? 4. Tell 
what you can about the agriculture ; 
5. What about mining? 6. Ac- 
j count for the importance of manufacturing. 
, 7. What reasons can you give for the extensive 
commerce of Holland ? 8. Name and locate the 
• principal cities. 

Belgium. 9. Compare the surface of Belgium 

with that of Holland. 10. What about the number 

.and character of the Belgian people? What kind 

of government have they now? 11. What is the 

condition of agriculture? 12. Of mining and 

.manufacturing? 13. Of commerce? 14. Locate 

1 and state important facts about the cities. 15. Tell 

about Luxemburg. 

The Netherlands. 1. Why are the winds likely 
< to blow with special force and regularity across 


about fishing. 

Holland? 2. Why is this fact of special value to 
the Dutch ? 3. Find out more about the flower 
gardens of the Dutch. 4. Have you 
seen any Dutch pottery, especially " es lons 
Delft wares? 5. Find out why the Pilgrims did 
not remain in Holland instead of coming to America. 
6. Why should not Rotterdam be as large a city 
as New York? 7. Find out about the Peace Con- 
ferences of 1899 and 1907 at The Hague. 8. What 
reasons are there for selecting a small country like 
Holland for such a conference, and for making 
treaties between nations which have been at war? 
Belgium. 9. There are greater extremes of tem- 
perature in Belgium than in England. Why? 
10. Find out some facts about the battle of Water- 
loo. 11. Give several reasons for spading instead 
of plowing land. 12. Examine a piece of lace. 
From what material is lace made, and how is the 
work done ? 13. Towns in Belgium are often known 
by two names. Why? 14. Figure out the number 
of persons per square mile (see Appendix, p. 424) 
in Belgium and compare it with the number in 
New York, or in your own state. 

IV. France 

1. France is the nearest country to the British 
Isles. Estimate the distance between the two. 
2. Compare the two countries as to 
area. 3. As to population. 4. What 
countries border France? 5. What waters? 6. In 
what respects is its position favorable to commerce ? 
7. What do you observe about the general direction 
of the rivers? Name them. Locate the island of 
Corsica, which belongs to France. 

The early inhabitants of France, called 
Gauls, were conquered by the People and 
Romans, who gave them their government 
language and many of their customs. 

After the fall of Rome, France was di- 
vided into independent kingdoms, which 
were often at war with one another or with 
neighboring countries. The natural bound- 
aries of France have, however, tended to 
bring these kingdoms together; for the 
country is inclosed on two sides by the sea, 
and elsewhere, in large part, by mountains. 
Notice how completely the Pyrenees sepa- 
rate France and Spain; and what a bar- 
rier the lofty Alps form along the Italian 
and Swiss borders. Even north of the 
Alps, a part of the boundary is formed by 
highlands (Fig. 360). 



While the inhabitants were thus partly 
protected from invasion, there were few 
barriers within France itself to keep the 
people of different sections apart. It was 
not difficult, therefore, to bring the several 
kingdoms under one rule. 

Monaco in the southeast, and Andorra in the 
Pyrenees (p. 291), are the only exceptions. The 
principality of Monaco, only eight square miles in 
area, is a noted winter resort because of its fine 

France has changed its form of govern- 
ment several times. For a long time it was 


Fig. 391. 

- A road across the rugged Pyrenees which lie between France 
and Spain. 

a monarchy, and over a century ago it be- 
came a republic ; but this did not continue 
long, for Napoleon Bonaparte became so 
powerful that he was made emperor. There 
have been other changes since then, the last 
one being in 1871, when the republican form 
of government was again established. 

As we have seen, the chief highlands of 
Surface tea- France are in the south and 
tures and rain- southeast. Among these the 
fall loftiest are the Alps, whose 

highest peak, Mont Blanc (15,781 feet), is 
in France. Since there are no mountains in 
the western part of the country, the west 
winds are able to bear vapor to all parts of 
France, thus supplying all sections with an 
abundance of rain for agriculture. 

The position of the highlands is favorable 
to commerce as well as to farming. Fully 
three fourths of France is a plain, sloping 
westward from the low central plateau. All 
but one of the large rivers rise in this 
plateau, and flow gently across the plain to 
the Atlantic. Thus navigation is possible 
far into the country. Locate 
and name the four largest 
rivers. How does the Rhone 
differ from the other three? 

As might be expected, the 
summers are warmer than in 
England, since 
France lies al- 
most entirely south of that 
country, and is less under the 
influence of the ocean. The 
southeastern section, although 
it lies as far north as Boston, 
has a semi-tropical climate 
(Fig. 392). This is because 
of the warm Mediterranean 
waters, and the protection 
from cold north winds afforded 
by the mountains (pp. 262 and 

With so favorable a climate, 
and so much level land, France 
has naturally be- Agriculture 
come a farming 1. Crops 
country. Nearly half the people are en 
gaged in agriculture. The same grains are 
raised as in England. What are they 
(p. 265)? Wheat is the most important, 
and more of this grain is produced than in 
any other European country excepting 
Russia. Yet France raises only about half 
as much wheat as the United ' States, and 
not nearly enough for the needs of her 

Grapes, not important in the British Isle: 





thrive in the warmer climate of central and 

southern France. This fruit is the most 

valuable of all French crops, and more 

grapes are grown in France than in any 

other country except Italy. In the Rhone 

Valley, and on the warm Mediterranean 

coast, there are groves of olive, orange, and 

mulberry trees. The leaves 

of the latter furnish food for 

the silkworm (p. 286). 

As in England and other 

countries, the highlands are 

unsuited to cul- 
2. Live stock .... ■■ 

tivation, and are 

in large part given over to 
grazing. As in England, 
too, there are broad tracts of 
lowland that are used for 
pasture. These facts ex- 
plain why there are more 
than fourteen million cattle 
and eighteen million sheep 
in France. 

France is inferior to the 
British Isles in mineral prod- 
ucts. Coal is 
Mining ,, , 

the most valu- 
able mineral ; but while Great 
Britain, after supplying her 
many factories, has a large 
amount of coal left for ex- 
port, France has to import some. The 
principal coal beds lie close to Belgium. 
The)' are, in fact, a continuation of the 
coal deposits of that country. Small coal 
beds are found at other points, as near 
St. Etienxe. 

A small quantity of iron is produced, 
mainly in the northeast near the coal fields. 
Fine clays for porcelain are found in central 
France, and building stones are quarried in 
many places. 

In spite of the limited supply of fuel, 
France is a great manufacturing nation. 

Manufacturing Tt ranks nfth in the production 
1. Why very of silk, second in the produc- 
extensive (-j on f ^ nPi ail( j there is ex- 

tensive manufacturing of metal, cotton, and 

woolen goods. One reason for these manu- 
factures is the fact that coal is easily ob- 
tained, either in France or from Belgium, 
Germany, and England. 

Another reason is found in the nature of the 
people themselves. Frenchmen have a peculiar ap- 
preciation of what is graceful, delicate, and elegant. 

Fig. 392. 

■A view in Nice showing the semi-tropical foliage of 
southern France. 

This is illustrated by the fact that so many of our 
fashions in dress come from France ; and a gown, a 
pair of gloves, or a hat from Paris is expected to be 
a trifle more desirable than one bought elsewhere. 
On this account the French have given much atten- 
tion to the manufacturing of the finer kinds of 
goods. Thus their artistic taste has had great influ- 
ence upon both the kind and amount of their manu- 

The northern part of France, including 
Lille, Roubaix, and Reims, as well as 
cities near the mouth of the „ . 

„ . , .. ... 2. Leading 

seme, is the section especially tanis 

noted for the woolen industry. (i) Woolen and 

Here coal is most easily ob- cotton »«'»«- 

tained ; and large numbers of 

sheep are raised on the hills and plains 

near by, while foreign wool from Argentina 



and Australia is easily imported at Havre 
and at the Belgian port of Antwerp. Re- 
membering that the hosiery, carpets, under- 
clothing, and other goods are of high 
grade, and such as wealthy people wish, we 
see that this location, between the two 
wealthiest capitals of the world, is especially 
favorable. Next to silk goods, woolen cloths 
form the most important French export to 
Great Britain. 

There is also much cotton manufacturing 
near the coal fields of northern France. An 

Flo. 393. — Piles of silkworm cocoons ready to be 

important reason for such work in this sec- 
tion is the ease with which American cotton 
may be imported; and this explains why 
Rouen, on the Seine, is a center for cotton 
goods. There are cotton factories in east- 
ern France, also, where water power is used 
instead of steam power. Why should you 
expect water power in that section ? 

Because the climate and soil of the Rhone 
Valley are favorable to the growth of the 
(2) Silk manu- mulberry tree, and because coal 
facturing mines are near by, this section 

is a great silk-manufacturing region. Lyon 
is the center, but St. Etienne and Paris 
are also noted for this industry. Some of 

this manufacturing is done in large facto- 
ries, some in the homes of the workmen 
where hand and foot power are used in 
place of steam. 

The traveler in the Rhone Valley sees grove after 
grove of mulberry trees, carefully tended in order 
to supply an abundance of leaves for the silkworm 
to eat in summer. The silkworm moth, at the end 
of the caterpillar stage, weaves a cocoon about itself. 
The material of which the cocoon is composed is a 
thread, about two miles in length, which must be 
carefully unwound. The single thread is so very 
fine that, in order to make a fiber strong enough 
for spinning and weaving, it must first be united 
with several others. 

Since the worms are reared under cover, the silk 
industry may be carried on in any climate in which 
the mulberry tree will grow. It is possible, there- 
fore, to produce raw silk in many parts of the 
world ; but the feeding of the worms, and the chang- 
ing of the cocoons into silk for the market, require 
much labor, care, and skill. On that account silk 
production is chiefly confined to those parts of the 
world where laborers will accept low wages, and where, 
because several generations of people have done this 
work, habits of watchfulness and care have been de- 
veloped. China, accordingly, produces the greatest 
amount of raw silk ; but France, in the midst of 
Europe, where the market for silk goods is greatest, 
also produces a large quantity and is the leading 
country for the manufacture of silk. Make as long 
a list of articles made from silk as you can. 

The extensive cultivation of grapes has 
been mentioned. Great quantities of grapes 
are made into wine for export (3) other 
or for use in France. In that manufacturing 
country nearly every one drinks wine at h 
meals, or wine mixed with water. 

The manufacture of steel goods is impor- 
tant in some places, but to no such extent as 
in Great Britain. Other kinds of manufac- 
turine are mentioned under the cities. 

Paris, the capital of France, is the largest 
city on the continent of Europe, and the 
third largest in the world. It Principal cities 
numbers more than 2,840,000 1. Pans 

Paris is situated on the Seine at a point 
where there is a small island in the river. 
This island was once a good (i) important* 
place for defense, and also of its location 
an important aid in bridging the river 



(Fig. 394). The location is especially 
favorable to the growth of a large city, for 
several reasons. The 
Seine, having a slower 
current than the Rhone, 
and being less subject to 
overflows than the Loire, 
is more easily navigable 
than any other river in 
France. Its upper tribu- 
taries, too, bring Paris 
into close touch with 
eastern France ; and, by 
the aid of canals, there 
is water connection with 
the Loire and Saone also, 
and with the Rhine in 
Germany. Furthermore, 
Paris is situated on the 
main trade route from 
the Mediterranean to 
northern and central 
France, which follows 
the Rhone, the Saone, 
and the Seine. Finally, 
Paris is located in the 
midst of the most fertile 
portion of the country, 
and not very far from 
several other densely 
populated countries. 
For all these reasons 
it has always been 
the principal French 

Reference has already 
been made to the artistic 

(2) Its impor- taste of the 
tance as an art French. 

P - "" Napoleon 

and other rulers col- 
lected art treasures from 
various nations, and 
founded museums and 
schools which have made Paris famous. 
This explains why large numbers ol 
Americans go to Paris every year to study 

One of the old palaces, known as the Louvre, is 
the most noted art gallery in the world. It contains 

Fig. 3!M. — To show Paris and surrounding country. Notice how closely the 
railways follow the stream valleys. Why should they? 

thousands of works of art. the most celebrated of all 
being the marble statue called the Venus of Milo. 
Among the paintings, one of the most famous is 
Raphael's " Madonna and Child with St. John," 
copies of which are often seen in our homes. 



Fig. 395. — A view in Paris showing the broad streets and parks. 

Among the many interesting suburbs of Paris is 
Versailles, where there is another palace that was 
erected in the days of royalty. It is now used mainly 
as a museum, and scores of the large rooms are deco- 
rated with the finest of paintings. It is among such 
treasures that the students of art spend much of 
their time. 

It is not strange, therefore, that Paris should be 
noted, the world over, for its beauty as a city (Fig. 
395). The wide streets, the beautiful parks with 
their fountains and statues, and the fine public 

Fig. 396". — Notre Dame Cathedral, one of the most famous buildings in 
Paris. General view from the river. 

buildings and old royal palaces are wonderful! 
attractive. Even the dwelling houses are in good 
taste, for it is required by law that new buildings be 
so planned as to be in keeping with those near by. 
Therefore one seldom sees an unattractive buildin; 
in Paris. 

Like other great cities, Paris has inanj 
manufacturing industries. The superior 
taste of the Parisians has led them to pay 
especial attention to the manufac- 
ture of articles which (3) its manu- 
cotnbine usefulness J' ac tures 
with beauty, such as jewelry, furni- 
ture, gloves, and fashionable shoes. 
The Sevres porcelain is made in 
the suburbs of Paris ; and both 
this and the Limoges ware, manu- 
factured at Limoges, are celebrated 
for their beauty. 

Although so far inland, Paris 
ships more goods by water than 
any other French city. (4) It3aom - 
The extensive system merce 
of canals, by which the country is 
crossed in all directions, has al- 
ready been mentioned (p. 287). 
Vast sums have been spent in 
dredging the lower Seine, so that 




the depth of water between Rouen and 
Paris now exceeds ten feet. Small vessels 
can proceed directly to Paris ; but larger 
ships transfer their goods to trains, or 
smaller boats, at Havre and Rouen. 
Railway transportation is also well provided 
for, since the chief railways of France radi- 
ate in all directions from Paris (Fig. 394). 

Bordeaux, on the Garonne River (Fig. 
397), in the midst of a fertile grape-raising 

district, is the chief port for (2) Bordeaux 

the export of French wines. and Ll J' m 
Locate the cities previously named (pp. 285 
and 286), and tell for what each is impor- 
tant. Note especially Lyon, the center of 
the silk industry of France. 

Fig. 397. — A part of Bordeaux and the Garonne River. 

Altogether, therefore, Paris is the political, 
artistic, manufacturing, and commercial 
center of France. 

Havre, which is almost as busy a port 
as Marseille, has an extensive trade in cof- 

2. Other cities fee fr0m Brazi1 ' and in wheafc 

(1, Havre, 

and other materials from the 

Boulogne, and United States. Farther to the 
northeast is Boulogne, where 
some of the American steamships stop ; and 
not far distant is Calais, the nearest port 
to England, where boats cross the Strait of 
Dover to England. 

The leading seaport of France on the 
Mediterranean is Marseille, located near 
the mouth of the Rhone. The 
delta of the Rhone is too 
marshy for a city, and Marseille occupies 
the nearest point where there is a good 
harbor and high ground. For many cen- 
turies the Rhone Valley was the principal 
gateway from the Mediterranean to central 
Europe, and it is natural, therefore, that a 
city should grow near the mouth of the 
Rhone River. One route leads to the Seine 
Valley, and thence to Paris (p. 287), north- 



Weakness of 
France as a 
naval power, 
with reasons 

em France, and Belgium. Another ancient 
route of travel enters Switzerland past Lake 
Geneva, out of which the Rhone flows ; and 
still a third route leads, through an opening 
in the mountains, into the Rhine Valley and 

In spite of the great amount of internal 
commerce on the numerous rivers, canals, 
and railways, and in spite of 
the extensive foreign trade, 
France is not a great naval 
power like the United King- 
dom. In fact, France has only one nine- 
teenth as much tonnage as Great Britain, 
and only nine tenths as much as Norway. 

This is not entirely because of lack of 
acquaintance with the sea, for there are 
many French fishing and merchant ships. 
The small number of good harbors, and the 
frequent and destructive wars during the 
last century, are among the reasons why 
France depends so largely upon other na- 
tions, such as Great Britain and Norway, 
for vessels to carry her goods. Why is it 
safer for France than for Great Britain to 
be thus dependent? 

On the other hand, France has taken a 
leading part in the exploration and settle- 
ment of new lands. You will 
remember that the French for- 
merly had extensive possessions in North 
America. Where were they? Where are 
her present colonies in the New World 
(Fig. 417)? 

In Asia, France holds a part of Indo-China and a 
very small bit of India; and she owns numerous 
islands in different portions of the world (Fig. 417). 
Her most important colonies at present are in Africa, 
as follows: (1) Algeria and Tunis, across the Medi- 
terranean ; (2) a vast area south of these countries, 
including a large part of the Sahara Desert, the 
Sudan, the upper Niger, and the country north of 
the Congo River ; and (3) the large island of Mada- 
gascar, east of southern Africa. 

1. What can you tell about the people and gov- 
ernment of France ? 2. Locate Monaco and Andorra. 
Review ^' Describe the surface of France ; 

Questions the CUmate - 4. What about agri- 

culture there? 5. Mining? 0. Why 
is manufacturing extensive, in spite of lack of fuel ? 

French colonies 

7. Tell about the woolen and cotton manufacturing. 

8. Silk manufacturing. 9. Other manufacturing. 

10. Explain the importance of the location of Paris. 

11. Show how Paris is important as an art center. 

12. As a manufacturing center. 13. What about 
its commerce? 14. Locate and state the important 
facts about other cities in France. 15. What about 
the weakness of France as a naval power? 16. Name 
and locate the principal colonies of France. 

1. What is the name of the president of France? 
2. Give reasons why one river, such as the Loire, 
might be much more subject to over- 
flows than another, such as the Su gS estl0ns 
Seine. 3. Examine Figure 363 to see if the glacier 
reached into any part of France during the Glacial 
Period. 4. Raise a silkworm from the egg. 5. Ex- 
amine a cocoon, and see if you can unravel some of 
its thread. 6. Also unravel a piece of silk goods 
and examine the threads. 7. What influence have 
the railway tunnels through the Alps probably had 
upon the commerce of Marseille ? 8. The Suez 
Canal? Why? 9. See if you can find any Sevres 
or Limoges ware. 10. Draw an outline of France, 
with the principal mountains, rivers, and cities. 

V. Spain and Portugal (Fig. 390) 

1. What cities in the New World are in about 
the same latitude as Madrid (Fig. 390) ? 2. Com- 
pare the area of the Spanish penin- , 
sula with that of France (Appendix, 
p. 424). 3. Compare the populations (Appendix, p. 
424). 4. Compare the directions taken by the rivers 
(Fig. 359). 5. Judging from the map (Fig. 390), 
what about the probable number of good harbors? 
6. What has been stated about the temperature and 
rainfall in Spain (p. 262) ? 7. What islands in the 
Mediterranean Sea belong to Spain ? 

The people of this peninsula once had 
much the same rank among nations as is now 
held by the British. Name 
countries that they controlled. 
Now, however, both Spain and 
Portugal are classed among 
nations of Europe. 

One cause for this decline is the back- 
wardness of the people. The mountainous 
character of the peninsula is another. The 
various races on the peninsula, cut off from 
one another by table-lands and mountain 
ranges, have never been firmly united into 
one nation with common interests. For 
centuries they were divided into small, in- 
dependent kingdoms, but just before the 

Reasons for 
the decline of 
these countries 

the weaker 



discovery of America, most of these states 
were brought under one rule ; and later 
even Portugal was joined to Spain. 

Portugal, which is partly separated from 
Spain by deep gorges and canyons, soon 
broke away. .Andorra, a tiny country in 
the Pyrenees, was never fully conquered, 
and is still independent ; and the union of 
some of the others has been by force rather 
than by choice. At present Spain is a 
limited monarch}-; but in 1910 Portugal 
drove the king away and became a republic. 

Mam- of the important facts 
about Spain and Portugal are 
The highlands explained by the 

1. Their extent elevation of the 
land. On the northern bound- 
ary stand the Pyrenees (Fig. 
391 ), continued on the west 
by the Cantabrian Mountains, 
while in the extreme south are 
the lofty Sierra Nevada ranges 
(Fig. 359). Between these 
two mountain systems is a 
broad plateau, two or three 
thousand feet above sea level, 
broken by numerous short 
mountain ranges (Fig. 360). 

In the Ebro Valley on the 
northeast, and the Guadal- 
quivir (meaning Great River) 
Valley on the southwest, there are lowlands. 
Point to these rivers on the map (Fig. 
390). The only other extensive lowland is 
a narrow strip near the sea, which reaches 
most of the distance around the peninsula. 
A very large portion of the surface, there- 
fore, is made up of plateaus and mountains. 

The highlands have an important in- 
fluence on the climate. Owing to the 

2. Their influ- elevation of the land, the in- 
ence on climate terior has cold winters, though 
the summers are hot ; and because of the 
fringe of mountains, the rainfall is light- 
everywhere except near the northwestern 
coast. Here the ocean winds lose their 
moisture in rising over the slopes, and thus 
cause abundant rainfall (^Fig. 365). The 

southern portion of Spain, like southern 
California, is in the horse latitudes (p. 209) ; 
and here the climate is so arid that irrigation 
is necessary for agriculture. 

The position of the Spanish peninsula, 
between the two busiest seas of the world, 
and between Africa and cen- 3 iheirinfla- 
tral Europe, suggests that it ence on com- 
might be a natural route for merce 
commerce between the two continents. 
But the highlands separate, rather than 
unite, these regions, so that the Spanish 

Fig. 398. — A village ou the plateau of Spain. 

peninsula has never been a great thorough- 
fare for the transportation of goods. 

There are several other important effects of the 
highlands. In the first place, the rivers are not 
navigable ; for in descending from the arid plateau 
their courses are rapid and their volume slight. Be- 
sides that, most of them have cut such deep, narrow- 
valleys, like our 'Western canyons, that they are 
useless for irrigation and are even a hindrance to 
travel. The principal exception is the Guadal- 
quivir, which has a wide valley, and up which 
vessels are able to go as far as Seville. 

Since the interior is so arid and rugged, Spain has 
little forest, little agriculture, few roads, railways, 
and canals, and not a dense population. With a 
few exceptions, therefore, the chief towns are to be 
found along the coast. 

In one respect the elevation of the land 
is an advantage because it causes great 



variety of climate, and hence many kinds 
of farm products. What countries of 
Agriculture South America does this con- 
1. Grazing dition call to mind? 

In such a country we may expect graz- 
ing in the uplands and along the mountains; 
and Spain is, in fact, noted for the excellent 
grade of its sheep and mules. There are 
also many cattle, especially in the rainy 
northwest ; but the fact that so much of the 
country is arid explains why there are 
many more sheep and goats than cattle. 


Fig. 399. — A Spanish peasant bringing vegetables to market in his 
donkey cart 

The sheep often wander about in large 
flocks, sometimes as many as ten thousand 
together, under the care of a number of 
shepherds and their dogs. In summer they 
feed among the mountains, but in winter 
they are driven down to the more protected 
lowlands for shelter. 

Wheat is the most common farm crop 
in Spain, since it requires little rain ; but 
many of the farmers are so 
unprogressive that less wheat 
is raised than might be. In many of the 
valleys, where irrigation is possible, and on 
the lowlands along the coast, the farmers 
are more progressive and prosperous. Bar- 
ley, rye, and corn are grown, in addition to 
wheat, and these are among the staple 
foods of the people. Quantities of grapes 
are also raised in Spain and Portugal ; and 

2. Farming 

in the southern part of the peninsula tb 
bark of the cork oak is a source of incom 
to both countries. 

The arid southeastern coast is wonder 
fully productive. One reason for this is 
the warm climate, due to the Mediterranean 
(p. 262) ; another is the number of moun 
tain streams, which, though useless for 
navigation, are very valuable for irrigation. 
Some of the products of this section, be- 
sides wheat and corn, are cotton, grapes, 
olives, figs, dates, oranges, lemons, and rice. 
Several crops of some products 
may be raised in a year. 

The Spanish peninsula is re- 
markably rich in minerals, lead, 
silver, copper, and 
quicksilver, or mer- 
cury, being among the most 
important. Spain produces 
more quicksilver than any other 
country, and is exceeded only 
by the United States in the 
output of copper and lead. 
Coal and iron ore are also 
found in several parts of the 
peninsula, but the coal is of no 
great value. The iron, which 
is mainly found on the northern 
slope of the Cantabrian Mountains, occurs 
in large beds, and is very valuable. 

In mining, as in other industries, the un- 
progressive character of the people prevents 
proper development of the resources. Much 
of the benefit from the mines is due to the 
capital and enterprise of foreigners rather 
than to the Spaniards. 

From what has been said above, it is 
plain that manufacturing does not flourish. 
This fact is all the more evi- 
dent when we consider that 
more than two thirds of the Spaniards and 
three fourths of the cannot read. 
A nation so backward can hardly be expected 
to have developed extensive manufacturing. 
Thus, although they have some coal and 
could easily import more, much of their 
iron ore is shipped to the coal fields of 




Great Britain instead of being smelted at 
home. In some places, however, as will be 
seen in our study of the cities, there is ex- 
tensive manufacturing. 

Madrid, the capital and metropolis of 
Spain, has over a half million inhabitants ; 

Principal citie 3 but lmlike niost other lar g e 
of Spain cities so far studied, it is not 

1. Madrid and an important manufacturing 
vicuuty center. The reasons for its 

size are its central location, and the fact 

tree, nor fence, nor house; only the weeds and scat- 
tered vegetation of an arid waste. One of the most 
frequented places in Madrid is an enormous build- 
ing with seats for many thousands, in which bull 
fighting takes place (Fig. 400). This brutal sport is 
enjoyed by most of the Spaniards as a baseball or 
football game is in our country. 

Another place of note among the high- 
lands of Spain is Granada, the 2 Granada 
last stronghold of the Moors, 
who invaded Spain, from Africa, centuries 

Fig. 400. — A bull fight watched by thousands of spectators. 

that it is the seat of the government. All 
the principal railway lines crossing the pen- 
insula, to connect the coastal cities, con- 
verge at this point. 

Madrid, with its wide streets, magnificent royal 
palace, and one of the finest art galleries in the 
world, is in some respects a very attractive city. 
The surrounding country, however, is far from 
attractive; for from the streets of Madrid one looks 
across the country for miles aud miles, seeing not a 

ago. To this point among the mountains, 
at the crossing of the best routes of travel, 
from east to west, and from north to south, 
the Moorish people withdrew. Here they 
were able to hold out against the Spaniards 
for two hundred years, and the city grew 
to a population of four hundred thousand. 
At present, Granada contains less than one 
fifth as many inhabitants, and its principal 
attraction is the Moorish palace, or Alham- 



Fig. 401. — The Court of Lions in the Alhambra. 

bra (Fig. 401), one of the finest examples 
of Moorish architecture. 

On the lowlands west of Granada are 
Seville and Cadiz, both flourishing cities 
in former days, when vast stores of plunder 

were brought from Spanish colonies in the 
New World. Cadiz is now a fortified naval 
harbor; and Seville is re- 3 other cities 
covering some of her former in southern 
commercial importance. It s P ain 
has some manufacturing, especially of to- 
bacco ; and in one factory about five thou- 
sand women are employed in making cigars 
and cigarettes. 

Malaga, which has one of the -warmest climates 
in Europe, is engaged in the shipment of wine, rai- 
sins, and grapes. Of what grape does the name 
remind you ? 

Gibraltar, a steep hill, with bold cliffs rising on 
nearly all sides, and with a town at its base, has be- 
longed to England since 1704. This 
hill of solid rock (Fig. 402) is, per- 4 ' (jlbraltar 
haps, the strongest fortification in the world, and 
guards the entrance to the Mediterranean. Why 
should the English especially want such a stronghold 
here ? 

On the whole, Spain is poorly provide- 
with harbors ; and while the majority o 
the people dwell near the coast, 5. Principal 
they take a small share in seaports 
foreign commerce. Barcelona and Va : 
lencia are the leading seaports. Bakce 
lona, the second Spanish city in size, is 
the more important port and is a textile 
manufacturing center as well. The region 
about Valencia is a beautiful garden, much 
like that around Los Angeles in southern 

Flo. 402. — The rock of Gibraltar, seen from the Spanish mainland. 



California. The two sections are quite alike 
both in climate and products. Name some 
of these products (p. 131). In addition to 
the products of southern California, rice is 
grown on the lowlands near the coast. 

The only remnants of her vast foreign possessions 

now left to Spain are mainly in Africa. These in- 

L , . elude a few small settlements on the 

Colonies of , ,, .. , ., 

„ coast of Morocco ; a portion of the 

western coast of Sahara, having little 

value; and a coastal strip and a few small islands 

in the Gulf of Guinea. The Canary Islands, west of 

the northern coast of Africa, and the Balearic Isles, 

in the Mediterranean, also belong to Spain. 

Lisbon and Oporto are the chief cities of 
Portugal. The former, the capital and 
: principal cities metropolis, is a very beautiful 
of Portugal city. It lies on a broad bay 
where the Tao-us River enters the sea, and 
lias one of the finest harbors in existence. 
Oporto gives the name to port wine. The 
lower part of the Douro Valley is one of the 
richest wine districts in Europe ; and Oporto 
is an important point for its export. 

Portugal, like Spain, has lost much of her foreign 
territory. The Azores Islands, far to the west in 
. the Atlantic, and the Madeira Is- 

_ lands, to the southwest, are a part of 

the kingdom. The Cape Verde Is- 
lands, off the west coast of Africa, are also depend- 
encies. In addition, Portugal has large possessions 
in Africa, anil. some small ones in Asia. 

1. What was the former rank of these coun- 
tries ? State reasons for their decline. 2. State the 
extent of the highlands. 3. What 
influence have the highlands on the 
climate? 4. How do the horse lati- 
tudes affect the climate ? 5. Explain the influence 
of the highlands on commerce. 6. State the main 
facts about the grazing. 7. Name the farm products. 
8. What minerals are found? 9. Why is manufac- 
; turing of so little importance? 10. State facts 
about Madrid and vicinity. 11. About Granada. 
12. Locate and state the important facts about other 
cities in southern Spain. 13. For what is Gibraltar 
important? 11. Tell about the principal seaports of 
Spain. 15. Name and locate the colonies of Spain. 
16. Locate the principal cities of Portugal, and tell 
for what each is important. 17. What colonies has 

1. About what portion of the boundary line 
between Spain and Portugal is formed by rivers? 


2. What must be the influence of railways upon 
the old-fashioned methods of farming in the in- 
terior of Spain? 3. Look in the 
report of the United States Census Su gS estl0ns 
to see what per cent of our population cannot read. 

4. Learn what is meant by the Pillars of Hercules. 

5. Find pictures of Moorish architecture. 6. Read 
Washington Irving's "The Alhambra." 7. Make a 
sketch of the Spanish peninsula, including the prin- 
cipal mountains, rivers, and cities. 

VI. Norway, Sweden, and Denmark 
(Fig. 358) 

1. The Scandinavian Peninsula is the largest in 
Europe. What is its length in degrees (Fig. 35$) ? 
In miles? 2. How does its western 
coast remind you of the western coast 
of Scotland and Ireland ? 3. What proofs do you see 
of glacial action ? Where? 4. What do you observe 
about the rivers of Sweden ? 5. Which of these 
three countries has the largest population ? 6. How 
does it compare with New York State in area and 
population ? With your own state ? (See Appen- 
dix, pp. 124 and 425.) 7. What points in North Amer- 
ica have about the same latitude as Christiania and 
Stockholm ? 8. On Figure 312 find how near to 
Scandinavia the west wind drift reaches. 9. Locate 
Denmark; point out the islands that form a part 
of the country. 10. At the entrance to what sea 
does Denmark lie ? 

These three countries have long been 
more or less united. The reason for this is 
that the best settled parts are p eop i e 
close together and not sepa- i Their rela . 
rated by any important barrier, tion to one 
Most of the inhabitants of another 
Norway and Sweden live in the southern 
part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, with no 
natural barrier between them ; and only a 
narrow, shallow sea separates Scandinavia 
from Denmark (Fig. 416). 

The people of the three countries are 
descended from a common stock, and at 
times have had a single government, though 
now independent of each other. Therefore 
they have many interests in common. The 
written language of the Norwegians and 
Danes is still the same, and, until recently, 
Norway and Sweden were united under one 
king. At present each country is a limited 

These people have been closely connected 



with our own history, for they made some of 
the early invasions and settlements in Great 
2. Their reia- Britain, and thus are to be 
tiontous numbered among our ances- 

tors. Their daring seamen reached Green- 
land, by way of Iceland, and discovered 
America nearly five hundred years before 
Columbus visited it. During the last cen- 
tury they have migrated to the United States 

Some reasons 
for the inde- 
pendence of 
these countries 

Fig. 403. — Peasants of Norway in their native dress. 

by thousands, and have chosen homes in 
many states. 

In these three countries together there 
are only about one fourth as 
many inhabitants as in the 
much smaller British Isles. 
Yet in spite of frequent Euro- 
pean wars, they have remained independent 
through many centuries. 

This has been possible, in part, because 
of their peculiar position. The only ap- 
1. Their posi- proach to Scandinavia by land 
tion is through Lapland in Russia, 

which is so far north that it has a very cold 
climate. Thus the peninsula is almost as 
isolated from other nations as is Great 

The peninsula of Denmark, on the other 
hand, is partly connected with Germany (Fig. 


416). However, the islands, which are the moi 
important parts of Denmark, are completely 
cut off from neighboring lands. Standing, 
as it does, at the entrance to the Baltic Sea, 
Denmark guards the approaches to this in- 
land sea. Both Germany and Russia have 
long coveted little Denmark on this account. 
But since neither of them has been willing 
that any other Great Power should hold it, 
Denmark has remained free. Thus the 
very importance of its position has pro- 
tected it. 

The rugged surface and severe climate of 
Scandinavia have likewise protected it from 
invaders. From its southern 2 xheir rugged 
to its northern end, the penin- surface and se- 
sula is mountainous, for it is an vere cUmate 
ancient mountain land (p. 257), much worn, 
and crossed by deep valleys. Some peaks 
reach an elevation of six to eight thousand 
feet ; but most of them are lower and rise 
to nearly the same height, giving to the up- 
land the appearance of a plateau. The 
mountains descend steeply into the ocean 
on the western side, so that, in all but the 
southern part, Norway is a narrow, moun- 
tainous country crossed by short streams 
flowing in deep, steep-sided valleys. The 
boundary between northern Norway and 
Sweden follows the divide between the 
east- and west-flowing streams. 

Although Denmark has no mountains, 
much of the land is sandy and barren. 
That all three of the countries have a severe 
climate is shown by the fact that even 
Denmark, the most southerly, lies about as 
far north as Scotland. 

The west winds that blow from over the 
warm ocean exert a great influence here, a.- 
in the British Isles. Most of The agricultu- 
Norway, however, is too rug- ral districts 
ged and cold for farming. Out of a tota 
area of about one hundred and twenty-foui 
thousand square miles, less than four thou 
sand have a soil and climate suitable t< 
agriculture or pasturage. Sweden has mucl 
more low land, because the slope on th 
east side of the mountains is much th 



Industries and 
cities of Nor- 

1. The less 



longer. Yet these lowlands are so far 
north, and so cut off by the mountains 
from the influence of the sea, that agricul- 
ture is of little importance anywhere except 
in the southern half of the country. 

The northern and western portion of the 
Danish peninsula, called Jutland, is a sandy 
waste. Therefore only the islands and the 
southeastern part of Jutland are very pro- 
ductive. As a result of these conditions, 
the amount of land suitable for 
agriculture in the three coun- 
tries is very small. The best 
sections are near together in 
southern Norway and Sweden 
and in eastern Denmark. 
■ Since Norway lias so little 
land that is suited to farming 

or pasturage, the 

amount of stock 

and grain pro- 
duced is small. 

Therefore, much 

meat, flour, and 
other food must be imported. 
There are some silver and 
copper mines, but coal is 
entirely lacking. Manufactur- 
ing, therefore, is not greatly 
developed. Even the fine 
water power is little used, because raw prod- 
ucts for manufacturing are not abundant. 

On what, then, do the two million Nor- 
wegians depend for a living ? They have 
2. The three ^wo ver y valuable resources, 
leading indus- — lumber and fish. More 

than one fifth of the country is 
forest-covered, pine being the most com- 
mon tree. As in Maine, the rapidly flowing 
rivers are of use in moving the logs from 
the forest, and also in supplying power for 
the sawmills and planing mills. Lumber, 
wooden goods, and paper are the most im- 
portant exports of the country. 

Fish abound on the shallow banks along 
the irregular western coast, especially cod- 
fish in the neighborhood of the far northern 
Lofoden Islands. The North Sea, with its 

many fish, is also close at hand, and the 
Arctic Ocean with its seals and whales. 
Over a hundred thousand Norwegians are 
engaged in the fishing industry. Along 
the fiords every family owns a boat, and 
knows how to make one as well as how to 
use it. While the men are at sea, the 
women work the small farms or garden 

Centuries of experience in navigating the 

Fig. 401. — Laplanders who live, mainly by fishing, in northern Norway 

deep fiords, and in fishing, have bred in 
these people a love for the sea, which has 
given rise to a third great industry, — that 
of carrying goods for other nations. The 
timber for wooden vessels is easily supplied, 
so that they can be cheaply built. At 
present this small Norwegian nation has a 
greater number of freight vessels than any 
other European country except the United 

All these facts together explain why the 
Norwegian towns lie along the coast. In- 
deed, it is rare to find even a 
village in the rugged interior. 
Christiania, the capital and largest city, 
is situated at the head of a long, narrow 
bay, which makes an excellent harbor. 
Tins city is the principal seaport and dis-' 

3. Cities 



Fig. 405. — A view in one of the grand fiords 
of Norway. 

tributing center for southern Norway. 
Bergen, the next city in size, is an impor- 
tant fishing port, like Aberdeen in Scotland, 
and Gloucester in Massachusetts. 

A sinking of the Scandinavian peninsula 
has caused the sea to enter the deep moun- 
Scenery on the tain valleys, forming many 
western coast bays, peninsulas, and islands. 
It is estimated that there are 
fully ten thousand islands 
along the coast of Norway ; 
and there are hundreds of 
bays and peninsulas. 

The long, narrow bays, inclosed 
in steep mountain walls, are called 
fords (Fig. 405). Some of these 
extend fully ninety miles inland. 
The cliffs are often only barren 
rock; but here and there, where 
the slopes are not too steep, green 
forests cover the surface. Glaciers 
are frequently in sight; and water- 
falls abound on every hand. In 
some places the swollen streams 
from the mountains plunge down- 
ward for a thousand feet or more, 
over the nearly vertical cliffs which 
bound the fiords. 

Here and there, upon a level patch, a hamlet of 
fishermen's homes is seen. These hamlets are usu- 
ally upon the deltas of small streams and are con- 
nected with the outer world, and with other villages, 
by no road or pathway except the waters of the 
fiord. So isolated are these hamlets that each man 
must learn to do many things, — farm, fish, tan his 
leather, make his shoes, build his boat, his house, etc. 

Every summer hundreds of visitors, from all parts 
of the world, travel by steamer along this coast to 
enjoy the beautiful scenery. Another attraction is 
the sight of the sun at midnight (Fig. 406). At 
Bergen, Christiania, and Stockholm, which are in 
nearly the same latitude, the shortest night is less 
than six hours ; at Trondhjem it is about four ; and 
at Hammerfest (Fig. 358), north of the Arctic Cir- 
cle, and near North Cape, the sun does not set from 
May 13 to July 29. 

Agriculture is the leading industry of 
Sweden. Here, fertile soil, swept from 
the highlands by the glacier industries 
(Fig. 363), has been scattered of Sweden 
over the lower lands. This 1- Agriculture 
gives to the southern part of the country 
much the same appearance as New England 
presents. Oats are raised in greatest abun- 
dance, but rye, barley, wheat, and potatoes 
are also produced. In addition, much live 
stock is raised, and butter is exj)orted. 

A large part of the land that is too bar- 
ren and rocky for farming „ , . . 

J , - . . 2. Lumbering 

supports a growth ot timber. 

Nearly one half the area of Sweden is 

Via. 406. — The midnight sun at North Cape, th 



covered with forest, and lumber is the prin- 
cipal export, as in Norway. Indeed, these 
two countries supply much of the lumber 
used in western Europe. 

Mining is the third important industry. 
There are silver and copper mines ; and a 
3. Mining and small amount of poor coal is 
manufacturing f olm d in the south. Sweden 
has long been noted for its iron ore, but 
since there is no good coal for smelting it, 
there is little iron manufacturings How- 


evei, some of the iron ore is smelted by the 

use of charcoal, and some by 

the use of coal brought from 

other countries. The Swedish 

iron is of such excellent quality 

that much of it is shipped to 

Sheffield, in England, for use 

in the manufacture of the 

highest grade of steel tools. 

Sweden possesses excellent 
water power for various kinds 
of manufacturing, and some 
of the numerous rivers are 
used as a source of power. 
Manufacturing, by use of 
water power, is making rapid 
progress here. 

The two principal cities — 
Stockholm, the capital (Fig. 
Cities of 407), and Goth- 

Sweden exburg — are on the coast; 

but there are other small seaports and 
inland mining towns. The situation of 
Stockholm is one of great beauty. It is 
on an excellent harbor ; and is connected 
by lake, canal, and rail with the chief 
points in the country, including Gothen- 
burg. It is the principal distributing cen- 
ter for imports, while Gothenburg is the 
leading center for exports. The fact that 
the harbor of Stockholm is blocked with 
ice for four "months each year, while that 
of Gothenburg is rarely frozen, gives the 
latter city one advantage as a shipping 

The principal foreign trade of both Nor- 
way and Sweden is with Great Britain. 

Give reasons for this. What must be the 
main articles of import and -export ? Next 
to Great Britain comes Ger- Foreign trade 
many. Can you suggest of Norway 
reasons for this"? and Sweden 

Farming, especially dairying, is the chief 
industry of Denmark. In this small coun- 
try there are over a million and a half dairy 
cows and about half as many industries of 
sheep, besides large numbers Denmark 

of horses, goats, and pigs. *■ Agriculture 

Butter forms one half the exports of Den- 

Fig. 407. — A view of Stockholm. 

mark. The laws of the nation discourage 
large farms, so that, as in Belgium, by care- 
fully cultivating a small patch of land, each 
farmer obtains the most that the soil can 

The nearness to good fishing has natu- 
rally made fishing important; but the fish- 
eries of Scandinavia are of far 2 Fishing 
greater value than those of commerce, and 
Denmark. The Danes have minin £ 
much commerce, and some of the men 
serve as sailors on the ships of other na- 
tions, though to a far less extent than the 
Swedes and Norwegians. 

There is neither coal nor metal in the 
rocks of Denmark, so that there is no min- 
ing in the countrj-. The only mineral prod- 



uct of value is clay. As in Ireland, the 
lack of coal for fuel is partly met by peat 
from the bogs iind swamps. 

The position of Denmark, on one of the 
leading highways of European commerce, 
3. Manufac- has brought its people into 
turin s close contact with the rest of 

the world. The Danes are a very highly 
educated people, and have much manufac- 
turing. In spite of their lack of raw ma- 

Norway and Denmark separated, these colonies 
remained a part of the latter country. Although 
some of these have been lost, Green- 

Colonies of 
Denmark and 

Fig. 408. — A scene in Copenhagen. 

terials, they make machinery, ships, beauti- 
ful porcelain, and many other articles. 

As in the case of Norway and Sweden, 
the principal foreign trade of Denmark is 
Foreign trade with Great Britain. Therefore 
and leading one might expect to find an im- 
city of Den- portant seaport on the western 
coast; but that coast is so low, 
and so shut in by sand bars, that good har- 
bors are lacking. In fact, in all Denmark 
the only harbor that admits large vessels is 
Copenhagen (meaning merchants' harbor) 
on Seeland Island. Since this point guards 
the entrance to the Baltic Sea, there is a 
double reason why Copenhagen is the prin- 
cipal city of Denmark. The fact that it 
is the capital also increases its importance. 

The daring Norwegian sailors of early times, called 
Norsemen, explored many lands, and had colonies even 
before other countries of northern Europe. When 

land (p. 170) and the Faroe Islands 

are still Danish colonies, and Iceland , 

T , . , , , T ,, their products 

is a Danish dependency. In the 

Faroes, a score of small islands north of Scotland, 
the principal products are sheep and fish. Denmark 
also owns three islands — St. Croix, St. Thomas, and 
St. John — in the West Indies. From these, sugar 
and trojjical fruits are obtained. 

Iceland, which is larger than Ireland, and more 
than twice the size of Denmark, is 
an island of volcanic origin. Over a 
hundred volcanoes are found there, 
twenty-five of which have been in 
eruption in recent times. Mount 
Hekla is one of the most noted of 
these. Destructive earthquakes are 
common, and there are also geysers 
similar to those found in our Yellow- 
stone National Park. The interior 
is a desert plateau, in part covered 
by glaciers, and hence not inhabited. 
Near the sea, however, there is some 
good pasture land, and the people 
are mainly engaged in raising sheep 
and in fishing. Eider down, from 
the eider duck, is one of the im- 
portant products of the island. The 
people are highly educated. What 
is the capital of Iceland? 

1. What relation have the peojiles 
of these three countries to one another? 2. How 


have they been connected with us? 
3. How has the position of these „ 
countries helped to preserve their " 
independence? 4. How have their surface and cli- 
mate helped toward the same end ? 5. Where are the 
principal agricultural districts ? 'What about their 
extent? 6. What are the less important industries of 
Norway? 7. The three leading industries? 8. Name 
and locate the cities of Norway. 9. Describe the 
scenery on the western coast. 10. What about 
agriculture in Sweden ? 11. Lumbering? 12. Min- 
ing and manufacturing? 13. Name and locate the 
chief cities of Sweden. 14. What about the foreign 
trade of Norway and Sweden? 15. What are the 
agricultural products of Denmark ? 16. State the 
principal facts about the other industries. 17. Tell 
about the foreign trade and leading city of Denmark. 

18. Name and locate the colonies of Denmark. 

19. What are their principal products? 20. State 
the principal facts about Iceland. 

1. Why should the telephone prove of special im- 
portance among the fishing towns Suggestions 
scattered along tlie coast of Nor- 
way? 2. By use of a globe explain why the sun does 


The M.N.Co,Buffalo. 

Fig. 409. — Some of the native animals of Europe. 



not set for weeks at a time at Hammerfest. 3. Why- 
should Bergen be one of the rainiest cities of Europe ? 
4. Give reasons why harbors on the Baltic are blocked 
by ice much oftener than those on the western coast 
of Norway. 5. Find out about the early Norse ex- 
plorations of North America. 6. Hans Christian 
Andersen was a native of Denmark. What fairy 
stories do you know that were written by him? 
7. Read and tell stories of the Norse gods in old- 
time mythology. 

VII. Russia (Fig. 358) 

1. About how much of Europe is included in 
Russia (Fig. 358) ? 2. What part of the distance 
„, , from pole to equator is included? 

3. What does this suggest concern- 
ing climate? 4. How much of the boundary of 

Fig. 410. 

- The city of Moscow, situated iu the midst of the vast, level 
Russian plain. 

Russia is seacoast? 5. Name the seas which border 
it. 6. Name the mountains on or near the border. 
7. What portion of Russia is occupied by plains 
(Fig. 300) ? 8. In what directions do the large rivers 
flow? Name the three longest. 9. Is there any 
outlet from the Caspian Sea? What does that fact 
suggest? 10. Find Poland, Finland, and Lapland. 
11. What parts of Asia are in the Russian Empire 
(Fig. 455). 

Russia in Europe is as large as all the 
Its size and other European countries to- 


gether ; and the Russian Em- 

pire, which includes Siberia and other lauds 

in Asia (p. 352), occupies about one sixth of 
all the land upon the globe. What coun- 
tries in North and South America approach 
European Russia in area? In variety of 

In spite of its vast extent, the develop- 
ment of Russia has been greatly hindered 
by its position, which causes a lack of 
good harbors. In this respect it contrasts 
strongly with the United States. To be 
sure, the sea forms a large portion of the 
Russian boundary ; but Archangel, the 
principal port on the White Sea, is ice- 
bound for nine months, and the Baltic 
ports for four or five months, each year ; 
while the entrances to the 
Baltic and Black seas are 
guarded by foreign nations. 
Why are the Caspian ports 
of no use for foreign com- 
merce ? 

Most of the large rivers of 
western Europe have their 
sources in the Surface 
mountains. Give features 
examples (Fig. 359). It is 
not so, however, in Russia, 
where the central divide is a 
low, hilly region, less than 
twelve hundred feet above 
sea level at its highest point. 
Except for the mountains on 
and near the border of the 
country, this is the highest 
part of Russia. 
From what has been said, it 
is easily seen that most of Russia is a re- 
markably level plain (Fig. 410). Since 
several of the rivers are very long, what 
must be true as to the swiftness of their 
currents? What, then, must follow as to 
their value for navigation ? What about 
the ease with which canals can be built ? 

In southeastern Russia, on the other 
hand, are the lofty Caucasus Mountains 
(Fig. 361), one of whose peaks, the extinct 
volcano Mount Elburz, is the highest moun- 
tain in Europe. At the very base of these 



2. Rainfall 

mountains, however, are broad plains bor- 
dering the Caspian Sea. In some places 
these plains are even below sea level. 

The great distance of Russia from the 
Atlantic Ocean, over which the west winds 
Climate blow, has had an important 

1. Temperature effect on both the temperature 
and rainfall. For example, Moscow is in 
the same latitude as Edinburgh; but while 
at Edinburgh the average temperature for 
January is 37°, at Moscow it is nearly 25° 
colder. What effect must this cold have 
upon navigation of the rivers? Notice 
which isotherms pass near Moscow and 
Edinburgh in July (Fig. 317). From this 
you see that, though the winters are colder, 
the summers are much warmer in Russia 
than in Scotland, in the same latitude. 

There is far less rainfall in Russia than in 
Scotland. In the eastern part of the coun- 
try there is an average of less 
than twenty inches a year 
(Fig. 365). Since this amount is barely 
enough for agriculture, the crops often 
suffer, and famines follow in especially dry 
seasons. Southeastern Russia is in the belt 
of the horse latitudes, and is so far from the 
ocean that it is too arid for farming without 

The Caspian Sea, into which the longest river of 
Europe pours its floods, is the largest inland sea in 
the world. In spite of the enormous volume of 
water which enters this sea, the evaporation in that 
dry climate has caused it to shrink in size until it is 
no longer connected with the ocean. The same is 
true of the Aral Sea (Fig. -too). There is so much 
evaporation in this region that the surface of the 
Caspian Sea is eighty-five feet below sea level. 

Russia may be divided into several belts, 
according to climate. In the north are the 
3. Climatic frozen tundras, even in summer 
belts too cold for agriculture. The 

(1) Tundras scat tered Laplanders, who live 
upon the tundras, have habits resembling 
those of the Eskimos. 

South of the tundra belt the warmer 
climate permits the growth of 

(2) Forests . . K , ,. l . 

forests, including such trees 
as pine, fir, oak, beech, and birch. Some 

of this timber has been cut away, and farms 
have taken the place of forests ; but much 
woodland still remains. 

The forest belt is gradually replaced on 
the south by open, grass-covered plains 
similar to those of the central „s r , 

\o) Grassy 

and western parts of the United plains and arid 
States. - This is the best agri- sieppes 
cultural region of Russia, and here grains 
are raised in enormous quantities, especially 
in the " black earth " section where the soil 
is fine-grained, black, and very fertile. The 
climate of the grassy plains gradually be- 
comes more arid toward the south and east, 
until on the steppes, which resemble our 
Western arid lands, farming without irriga- 
tion is impossible. 

In the extreme southern part of Russia, 
near the Caucasus Mountains, there is abun- 
dant rainfall ; and, being so (4) The Cauca- 
far south, the crops of warm sus region 
temperate climates are raised, but around 
the Caspian Sea most of the land is a barren 

The plains of Russia have offered no bar- 
rier to invasion. Therefore, many differ- 
ent peoples have come to this people 
region from various directions, l. Races and 
and they are now united under languages 
Russian rule. Most of these belong to the 
white race, though to a different division 
from the German and British peoples. 
These Russians are Slavs, while the in- 
habitants of Germany, Scandinavia, and 
the British Isles belong to the Teutonic 
division of the white race. Russia also 
contains many Jews, Teutons, and other 
people, including Lapps (Fig. 404) and 
Finns, both of whom are classed with the 
Mongolian race. All together, not fewer 
than forty languages are spoken within the 

In former centuries, while other parts of Europe 
were advancing in civilization, Russia was still be- 
ing raided by hordes of outsiders. 2 civilization 
The country was so far away from 
western Europe that it felt little influence from 
the growing civilization of the West. Moreover, 
approach by water was then even more difficult 



than now, for at that time the only seacoast that 
Russia owned was on the Arctic Ocean. It was 
not until the time of Peter the Great (1682-1725) 
that Russia began to learn the lessons of civiliza- 
tion from other European nations. 

These facts help to explain why Russia 
is so slightly advanced in some directions. 
While the common people of other European 
nations were demanding greater liberty, and 
were steadily gaining education, the masses 
of the Russians were kept in poverty and 
ignorance. They were mere serfs, who 
were little better than slaves to their lords, 

Fig. 411. — A family of Russian peasants. 

the nobles. The serfs were freed in the 
middle of the last century ; but, even now, 
little attempt is being made to educate the 
masses, and they have little liberty. 

The emperor, or Czar, is an absolute 
monarch, "whose will alone is law." In 

Government P urel y local matters, however, 
the peasants have a voice. 
Those of each locality meet in a Mir, or as- 
sembly, to discuss matters of common inter- 
est and to elect officers from their number, 
somewhat as is done in town meetings in the 
United States. 

Many of the Russians have long been dis- 
satisfied with this form of government, and 
have demanded that the people be given 
more power. At lust the Czar has allowed 

the people to elect a national body of repre- 
sentatives, called the Duma. They are, 
however, able to do little beyond what the 
rulers allow, and there is still much com- 

Nearly a third of European Russia is 
forest-covered ; and, as in Norway (p. 297), 
timber is one of the leading Lumbering 
resources. Many fur-bearing and fishing 
animals live in the forest, and Russia, like 
Canada, exports large numbers of valuable 

Fishing is an important industry in Rus- 
sian waters, and the varieties of 
fish resemble those of Norway 
and Sweden. There is a special 
demand for fish, owing to the 
number of fast days kept by 
the Grseco-Russian Church, to 
which the majority of Russians 

Both in the forest region and 
on the open plains to the south, 
there is extensive Agriculture 
agriculture. Fully 1. Farming 
nine tenths of the people are 
supported by farming, which 
shows that Russia is mainly an 
agricultural country. 

The most important crops are 
the grains, especially rye, wheat, 
barley, and oats. Russia ranks next to the 
United States among the grain-producing 
countries of the world, and wheat is one of 
its principal exports. Another important 
crop is hay ; and potatoes, sugar beets, and 
flax are extensively raised in the cool tem- 
perate climate. In southern Russia the 
warm climate permits the culture of grapes, 
tobacco, and corn ; and south of the Cau- 
casus even olives and cotton are grown. 

On the grazing lands of the arid steppes 
many sheep, cattle, and horses are raised. 
The nomadic herdsmen still 
retain many of the customs of 
the shepherds and herders of Bible times, 
who dwelt farther south in Asia. This is 
the home of the Cossacks, a people of Tartar 



%.?<v^. •?-•:-■■ y:V 

Fig. 41'J. — Harvesting wheat with camels in southeastern Russia. 

descent noted for their skill as horsemen 
and for their fierce bravery. 

Some parts of Russia contain mineral de- 
posits of great value. In the Ural Moun- 

... . tains, for example, 

Mining . . L 

are gold, silver, 

copper, and platinum, besides 
some precious stones and graph- 
ite, or " black lead," used in 
lead pencils. Coal and iron are 
mined in several parts of Russia 
(Fig. 362), and each year the 
amount is increasing. As in 
Great Britain, some of the iron 
ore is so near coal and limestone 
that it is easily smelted. 

Russia ranks next to the 
United States in the production 
of petroleum. This oil is found 
in several places, especiallv 
about Baku on the Caspian Sea. 
Large quantities are consumed as 
fuel for steamers on the Caspian 
and Volga ; and, as in California, 
the oil is used in locomotives. 

Numerous factories have recently been 
started in Russia, but most of 
the manufacturing is still done 
by hand, in the homes of the workmen. 


Fig. 413. — A Russian peasant girl harvesting wheat by hand. 



What a contrast to the United States and to 
Great Britain ! Distilling and brewing, 
cotton manufacturing and sugar refining, are 
the principal forms of manufacturing car- 
ried on in factories ; flour mills, woolen and 

Fig. 414. — A Graco-Russian church in Moscow. 

linen factories, and iron works rank next in 
importance. What raw products of Russia 
encourage these industries? 

For a long time the principal cities of 
Russia were situated far in the interior. 
Principal cities This clearly shows how little 
l. Moscow and Russia was in touch with other 
Nizhni Novgorod countries. For example, Mos- 
cow, the second city in size, and once the 
capital of the empire, is located almost in 
the center of the realm, as Madrid is in 
Spain. The point was well chosen, because 
rivers, which could easily be connected by 
canals, diverge from this section in all di- 
rections. By the introduction of railways 
the advantage of this central location was 
so increased that Moscow is now the leading 

railway center of Russia as Madrid is of 
Spain, and for the same reason. State this 
reason (p. 293). Unlike Madrid, the land 
round about the city is fertile and densely 
populated. All these advantages have made 
Moscow one of the chief manu- 
facturing centers of the empire. 

Moscow is adorned with royal palaces, 
government buildings, and churches (Fig. 
414). It is the holy city of Russia, being 
the center of the Graeco-Russian Church. 
The University of Moscow, the largest in 
the empire, is attended by about four 
thousand students. 

East of Moscow, on the Volga River, 
is Nizhni Novgorod, renowned for its 
yearly fairs. For centuries a great trade 
center has been needed, somewhere in this 
vicinity, for the exchange of Asiatic and 
Russian products. This city has such 
excellent water connections that it has 
served as that center. On the map (Fig. 
358) point out these connections. The 
fairs, held in August and September, are 
the greatest in Europe, and attract as 
many as two hundred thousand strangers 
each year. In a single season goods are ex- 
changed to the value of nearly $200,000,000, 
and prices are fixed on crops and other 
•materials for the coming year. 

While the two cities just de- 
scribed are very old, their position 
in the interior is not 2. Petrograd 
favorable for com- and Riga 
merce with distant nations. It was this 
fact that led Peter the Great, in 1703, 
to found Petrograd at the head of 
the Gulf of Finland. The site chosen is 
very marshy, and the climate is cold, 
foggy, and unhealthful. Moreover, the 
arm of the sea on which the city is 
located is so shallow that a ship canal 
twenty miles in length has been necessary 
in order to connect it with the deeper . 
water farther west. In addition, the har 
bor is ice-bound for more than four montt 
each year. 

Yet, in spite of all these disadvantages, 
Petrograd is the largest city in Rus- 
sia, and the fifth in size in Europe. This 
growth is partly due to the need of a sea 




port in this section, and partly to the fact 
that the city is the capital of a great em- 
pire. More goods are shipped from this 
point than from any other Baltic port. 
Riga, to the southwest, has about half as 
much shipping. 

Petrograd is a well-planned city, having 

3. Odessa 

Fig. 415. — A Russian sleigh in Petrograd. 

especially wide streets, splendid public 
buildings, and fine residences. 

Odessa, another important seaport, was 
founded a little over a century ago, when 
Russia gained possession of the 
northwestern coast of the 
Black Sea. Besides being the chief outlet 
for the vast grain trade of southern Russia, 
and the principal port on the Black Sea, 
Odessa is an important flour-milling center, 
like Minneapolis. 

Thus far the Russians have not found it 
possible to obtain possession of Constanti- 
4. Warsaw nople, although they have, no 
and Lodz, in doubt, felt many a yearning in 
Poland that direction. Why? They 

have, however, extended their territory in 
other directions. For example, they have 
gained much land in central Europe. At 
one time there was a powerful kingdom 
here, called Poland, but this was divided 

among Russia, Austria, and Germany. Rus- 
sia obtained the largest share, and in this 
portion are situated Warsaw and Lodz, 
two of the leading cities in the empire. 
The former is a center for the railways that 
connect Russia with western Europe, and 
the latter is an important manufacturing 
city. Much coal and iron are 
mined in this vicinity. 

Finland, whose capital is Hel- 
singfors, although a part of the 

Russian Empire, has 

j. . i Finland 
a measure of inde- 
pendence. It has a parliament 
which makes its laws, but the Czar 
has the right of veto upon them. 
Unlike the Russians, most of whom 
belong to the Grsco-Russian Church, 
the Finns are mainly Protestants, 
belonging to the Lutheran Church. 
They are a nation of highly edu- 
cated people. But it has been the 
policy of the Russian government 
to destroy their existence as a 
nation. On account of mistreat- 
ment from the Russians, many 
Finns and Poles have migrated to 
the United States. 

1. Show how large Russia is. 
2. What about its harbors? 3. De- 
scribe its surface. 4. What can . 
you say about the temperature? _ . 
5. The rainfall? 6. Into what cli- v 
matic belts can the country be divided ? 7. What 
different races are found among the Russians, 
and how many languages are spoken by them? 
8. Why have they not advanced further ? 9. What 
is the condition of the government? 10. Tell 
about lumbering and fishing. 11. What are the 
agricultural products? 12. The mineral products? 

13. What is the condition of manufacturing ? 

14. Locate and state the principal facts about 
Moscow and Xizhni Novgorod. 15. Petrograd and 
Riga. 16. Odessa. 17. Warsaw and Lodz. 18. Fin- 

1. Compare the area of the Caspian Sea with that 
of Lake Superior. 2. Read about how the inhabit- 
ants of Moscow burned their houses 
in 1812 rather than give shelter to 8S 
Xapoleon's army. What followed ? 3. What must 
be some of the difficulties connected with building 
good wagon roads in southern Russia ? 4. What 
did Kosciusko, the Pole, do to make his name mem- 
orable to Americans? 5. Have you read the story 
of Thaddeus of Warsaw? If so, what can vou tell 



about it ? 6. Read how Peter the Great wandered 
through European countries, as a common work- 
man, in order to learn Western customs. 7. Make 
a sketch map of Russia, with principal rivers and 
cities. 8. Compare Russia with the United States 
in area and population (Appendix, pp. 424 and 
426); also in degrees of latitude contained. 

VIII. German Empire 

1. Compare the latitude of Berlin with that of 
Loudon (Fig. 358). 2. Of New York. 3. Estimate 
m „ , the greatest length of Germany from 

east to west (Fig. 416) ; from north 
to south. 4. How does it compare in size with the 
British Isles ? With Russia? 5. What parts of the 
boundary are natural? 6. Point out the principal 
rivers. In what direction do they flow ? 7. Is most 
of the surface plain or mountainous (Fig. 359) ? 
Where are the mountains ? 8. What facts do you 
notice about the coast line ?• 9. Is the North Sea, 
or the Baltic, the more desirable place for seaports? 

The position of the German Empire is 
strikingly different from that of Great 
Position, and Britain. Only about one third 
its advantages of its boundary is water, while 
it borders upon seven independent countries, 
besides Luxemburg (p. 283). What are 
their names ? 

The location of the British Isles is favor- 
able for world commerce, because densely 
populated Europe lies near at hand on one 
side, while the New World lies across the 
ocean on the other side. Germany also has 
great advantages in her location. Because 
it is so central, most of the markets of the 
continent are at her very doors, while two 
of her principal ports, Hamburg and Bre- 
men, face Great Britain and the west. 
Name some of the large European cities 
(Fig. 358) that can be quickly reached from 
Germany. In these days of railways, Ger- 
many's central position is superior to that 
of England for European trade. 

It has required a long struggle to bring 

under one rule the various 
Formation of , e K • within t] bound . 

the empire; * l " . 

present area al T oi the German Empire, 
and popula- For centuries there were many 
t l0n separate states in central Europe 

with a German-speaking population; and, 
although they were loosely held together 
by a confederation, they were often at war 
with one another. Their condition was, 
in some respects, similar to our own just 
after the Revolutionary War. During 
the War of 1866, Prussia and Austria, the 
principal kingdoms of the German Confed- 
eration, fought for leadership. Prussia 
proved successful, and Austria withdrew 
from the union. In 1871, under the lead 
of Prussia, the German Empire, with its 
present boundaries, was established. 

It contains nearly two hundred and nine 
thousand square miles, being a little larger 
than France, and twice the size of Colorado. 
But it has nearly sixty-five million inhabit- 
ants, or about eighty-one times as many 
as Colorado, and twenty-five million more 
than France. 

All together there are twenty-six states 

within this empire, some of them being 

kingdoms, some duchies, and _ 

" i j. rr,. Government 

some merely free towns. 1 he 

smallest is the Free Town of Bremen, which 
includes only ninety-nine square miles, and 
two hundred and ninety-eight thousand in- 
habitants. The largest is Prussia, whose 
area is more than half that of the entire 
empire, and whose population is about five 
eighths that of all Germany. 

These states are united under a central 
authority, more closely than our states. In 
place of a President they have an Emperor, 
the King of Prussia being by law the Em- 
peror of Germany ; and their form of govern- 
ment is a limited monarchy. The power 
of the German Emperor is, however, much 
greater than that of the British King, 
though far less absolute than that of the 
Russian Czar. 

In a war with France, in 1870, the Ger- 
mans defeated the French, and seized some 
French territory west of the why the 
Rhine, called Alsace-Lorraine, boundary is so 
in which Metz and Strassburg Regular 
are situated. Much of Germany's irregular 
frontier has been determined in a similar 


#oWalmr// M"*"!* 

' El D I 



p * 



,< , B reme 




:n mnd( I s 

'/ Brun 


Scale of Miles 



T7 a .WJ 



'«a% i eL Nar ? ,b »e X 1 


'fir •**» >*n /"^L 



| Vienna ■- 

Od en burg 

yGratz ~ /"^Budapest! 

£0 100 nuu 3 

atica with over i,qoo,ooq Berlin 

atiea with 200,000 to Naples 

Cities with lco,ooo to 200,000 Venice 

Smaller places Erfurt 

Capitals with less tUan 100,000 -BERNE 

Capitals of Countries® Other Cities O 

) L AS. 


) Kaschaut 


/h u 








•'* Kavenna( 










ptniltoN,XJ ■* ^\ 9 " 







a *"juca/ 

irjJD/Ir^ii ^ a t £ .j a 


Willi. il .E.g,».li,,C.,. N.r, 

FIG. 416. 



way. Mountains form the southern bound- 
ary, to a great extent, and water the north- 
ern ; but the eastern and western limits, 
largely decided by war, do not follow any 
natural barrier. Draw an outline map of 
Germany, to show this boundary line. 

In order to hold her present boundaries, 
Germany must be prepared to defend them 
Preparation for a t any time. This need calls 
defense of the many citizens to an occupation 
country which we have not thus far con- 

sidered; namely, that of preparing for war. 

man navy calls for many men besides. All these 
men are, for the time being, withdrawn from the 
industries, so that t lie nation loses the fruits of their 
labor for that period. Is this an advantage to a 
nation ? 

Strong forts are built near the boundary, as at 
Cologne, Metz, and Strassburg on the French side, 
and Konigsberg and Posen near Russia. Forts are 
also numerous in the neighborhood of the great 
interior cities, and at other important points. The 
cost of these strongholds, with the vast sums of 
money required to keep up the army and navy, 
makes a heavy drain upon the nation. 

Germany is not. unlike other leading European 
nations in these respects. As already 
stated (p. 275), the British, having 
no close neighbors, rely mainly upon 
their powerful navy for defense. 
Every one of the Great Powers de- 
mands the service of many men, and 
expends large sums of money either 
for the army, or navy, or both. In 
fact, preparation for war is one of the 
great occupations of Europe to-day. 


1. The high- 

Fig. 41S. — The building in Berlin where the German Parliament meets 

Each of the great European nations is jeal- 
ously watching the others; and since no one 
of them knows how soon a dispute may arise 
with its neighbor, each keeps a large and 
thoroughly prepared army. Until perma- 
nent peace is established it will probably be 
necessary for each nation whether at war or 
in peace to maintain a large standing army. 

For such reasons, all able-bodied young men in 
Germany are required to devote usually two full 
years, and parts of several following years, to active 
military training. Most of them enter the service 
at about the age of twenty ; and as some five 
hundred thousand men fit for military service reach 
that age every year, one can gain an idea as to what 
such preparation costs. 

During times of peace, the German army contains 
nearly six hundred thousand soldiers; and the Ger- 

Germany includes two quite 
different kinds of land. The 
southern section 
is mainly a re- 
gion of ancient 
mountains, worn 
clown to low relief like the 
mountains of Great Britain 
and New England. It is, in 
fact, a somewhat irregular 
plateau, from one to two thousand feet in 
height, with some ranges rising high enough 
to be called mountains (Fig. 419). Only 
in the extreme south, on the edge of the 
Alps, is a great altitude reached. Here 
one peak rises nearly ten thousand feet 
above sea level. 

Northern Germany, on the other hand, is 
a lowland whose elevation is rarely more 
than six hundred feet. This 2. The low- 
lowland, mainly in Prussia, lands 
broadens toward the east until it merges 
into the plains of Russia. In the neighbor- 
hood of Holland this plain is very low and 
flat (Fig. 420) ; but in most places its sur- 
face is rolling, owing partly to the irregular 
deposits left by the Great Glacier. 



Fig. 419. — A view in the Black Forest, one of the low mountain regions 

Most of 

3. Drainage 

the drainage of Germai^ is 
into the North and Baltic 
seas. Name and trace the 
courses of four large rivers 
which flow northward. What river has 
some of its head-waters in the highland 
region of southern Germany, then crosses 
Austria and finally enters the Black Sea? 

Note the number of degrees 
of latitude included in Germany. 
Climate One might expect a 

1. Temperature" warmer climate in 
the south than in the north ; but 
on account of its elevation, the 
southern plateau is about as cold 
in winter as the northern low- 
land. In summer, on the other 
hand, the southern part, being 
nearer the interior of the conti- 
nent, is warmer than the north- 
ern. There are some low, partly 
inclosed valleys in the south, how- 
ever, where the climate in winter 
as well as in summer is warmer 
than that of the northern plains. 

The influence of the warm waters of the ocean is 
very well shown along the coast. For example, the 
ports of the North Sea, being most open to the ocean, 
are almost always free from ice ; but the Baltic ports, 
being cut off so completely from the open ocean, are 
frozen over during a part of the winter. The farther 
east they lie, the longer their trade is interrupted by 
the ice. What must be some of the results of this 

Fig. 420. — A view on the low level plain of north Germany. 



2. Rainfall 

There is ample rainfall for agriculture in 
all parts of the empire. It is true that 
there is less rain than in east- 
ern United States ; but in the 
cooler summer climate of Germany not so 
much is needed by plants, because there is 
less evaporation. In the United States, 
east of the Mississippi, there is an average 
annual rainfall of about forty inches ; but 

The good sense of the German people is well 
shown by the way they treat their woodlands. In- 
stead of wastefully destroying them 

by fire and the ax, — as has been *■ c f eofthe 
,- . , forests 

done in so many parts of our coun- 
try, — the Germans have developed an excellent sys- 
tem of forest culture. Trees are planted in place 
of those that are cut for timber, and they are given 
proper care, so that the woods continue to be abun- 
dant. In this way the forest is made to yield a 
profit every year, just as a farm does. Germany pro- 
duces a large part of the lumber she 
uses, and also exports a great deal. 

It is partly the example of the 
Germans that has led our own 
country, at last, to begin to pay 
attention to the care of our forests. 
Our government has set aside many 
large forest reservations (p. 126), 
and schools of forestry have been 
started at the universities, where 
young men are trained for the pro- 
fession of Forestry. 

Fig. 421. — Vineyards on the steep slope of the Rhine Valley near Bingen. 
The land is terraced here and the small patches of vineyard are inclosed 
within walls of rock. 

in Germany there are only twenty-eight 
inches in the west, and twenty inches in 
the east, near the Russian border. 

There are several low mountain areas in 
Germany where the soil is too poor for 
Lumbering farming, but where the slopes 
1. Location are not to ° steep, or cold, for 
| and extent of forest growth. Indeed, the Ger- 
the forests man WQrd fo] . ^^ (waM) j g 

a part of some of the mountain names. 
as in Schwartzwald, which means Black 
Forest (Fig. 419). Forests also cover 
some of the lowlands where the soil is 
poor. All together about one fourth of 
the surface of the empire is covered with 

On the whole, Germany has 
not a fertile soil ; but the farm 
products are very Agriculture 
extensive, be- i. i ts impor- 
cause the people tance 
are both industrious and in- 
telligent, and their method of 
cultivating the soil is excellent. 
What countries may well be 
contrasted with Germany in 
this respect ? More than one 
third of the German people 
depend for their living upon agriculture, 
the leading industry of the nation. 

Germany is one of the most important 
grain-producing countries of Europe; but 
here rye takes the place of 
wheat as the principal grain. 
Potatoes, introduced from America, are 
raised in such quantities that, like rye, they 
form one of the principal foods. These 
two crops are extensively cultivated, both 
because they are cheap foods, and because 
they flourish in a light soil and a cool 
summer climate. Sugar beets, hay, oats, 
and barley are other important crops of the 
northern plains, while in the valley of the 
Rhine, and in other warm, sheltered valleys 

2. Farm crops 



3. Live stock 

of the south, hops, tobacco, and grapes are 
raised in large quantities (Fig. 421). 

Since much of the lowland is too sandy for 
cultivation, and much of the highland too 
rugged, it is not surprising that 
one sixth of all the surface is 
natural pasture. Cattle for beef and for dairy 
purposes are kept in nearly all parts of the 
empire, but especially in the damper cli- 
mate of the west. Largely because wool can 
be imported so cheaply, the raising of sheep 
in Germany is becoming of less importance. 
Swine raising, on the other hand, is increas- 
ing because of the cheap feed supplied by 
the refuse from the beet-sugar factories. 

Although Germany raises a great quantity 
of food, her population, like that of England, 
is so dense that she cannot produce all that 
she needs. Much wheat and meat must 
therefore be imported. 

Next to the United Kingdom, Germany 
is the greatest mining country of Europe; 
. and, as in Great Britain, her 

" most valuable minerals, coal 

and iron, often occur in the same region. 
Germany reminds us of our own country in 
the wide distribution of her coal beds. The 
coal fields that were found in northeastern 
France and Belgium (Fig. 362) extend into 
Germany in the neighborhood of Aachen; 
and from this point eastward to the Russian 
border there are several important coal 

Among the other valuable mineral products are 
lead, copper, silver, zinc, and salt. Nearly half the 
silver mined in Europe comes from German}'; and 
Belgium and Germany together produce more zinc 
than all the rest of the world. There are immense 
salt mines, as at Stassfurt, from which ai - e obtained 
not only table salt, but products used in the manu- 
facture of soap, in dyeing, bleaching, glass making, 
and calico printing. 

The Germans make use of thoroughly scientific 
methods in their mining work ; and from them other 
nations have learned many of the methods used in 
reducing ores to metal. 

From the above facts we may expect to 
find Germany an important manufacturing 
country, with her manufacturing centers 

well distributed. Explain why. About a 
third of the people are engaged in manu- 
facturing, and in recent Manufacturing 
years Germany has advanced i, itsimpor- 
very rapidly in this industry. tance 
Among the European countries she now 
ranks next to the United Kingdom in the 
quantity and excellence of her goods. 

Fig. 422. — Storks in Strassburg, where they build 
their nests on the chimney tops. 

The position of the coal and iron mines 
accounts for the location of the principal 
centers for iron manufacturing. 2 . Leading 

The busiest section is along centers of manu- 

the Rhine, in the vicinity of facturin g 
Cologne ; and this region may well be 
compared with northern England in the 
extent of its industries. A second center is 
round about Dresden and Chemnitz ; and 
a third is at Breslau in the southeastern 
corner of the empire. 

The map (Fig. 416) shows no cities 
south of Breslau ; yet this is a busy 



3. Leading 
kinds of manu- 

(1) Textile and 

iron goods 

manufacturing region. Cities are lacking 
here because the people carry on the manu- 
facturing mainly in their own . homes, 
instead of in factories. There- M fore, al 
though villages stretch for 
miles along the valleys, 
there are no large towns. 

As in several other coun- 
tries so far studied, the 
textile indus- 
tries are best 
near the coal 
fields. There- 
fore the sections men- 
tioned above are noted 
for cotton, woolen, and 
silk factories, as well as 
for iron. All the cotton 
ami silk, and much of 
the wool, for these 
'textile industries has 
to come from abroad. 
But the people south 
of Breslau make use 
largely of raw ma- 
terials raised near by, spinning and weav- 
ing flax and wool and making lace. 

(3) Beverages 

(4) Beet sugar 

Fig. 423. — A German peasant girl spinning wool. 

W^^^^ mmK 









1 B LJ 




| Fig. 124. 

— A 

Tillage in 

the Hartz Mi 
of wood in 

ontaiDS, where 
their homes. 


people carve articles 

The extensive forests partly account for a third 
occupation in many sections; namely, the manufac- 
ture of furniture, paper, and other 

materials made of wood. Woodcarv- < 2) L umher ™* 
... , . ,, lumber products 
nig is an important industry in the 

Black Forest and other parts of 

The manufacture of spirituous 
liquors is another prominent Ger- 
man industry. A 
portion of 

the immense potato crop, 
and also some of the 
beets, are made into 
spirits. But beer, in the 
manufacture of which 
barley and hops are used, 
is made in much greater 
quantities. From the 
grapes of southern Ger- 
many much wine is pro- 
duced, though not nearly 
so much as in France. 

Germany is also a 
great sugar-manufac- 
t u r i n g 

Until a few )'ears 
ago nearly all sugar 
was obtained from 
sugar cane ; but this was changed when 
German chemists found a means of obtain- 
ing sugar from beets. By im- 
proving the process, and by 
developing the beets until 
they contained more sugar, 
the industries of sugar-beet 
raising, and the refining of 
beet-root sugar, have been 
made possible. This industry 
has now spread to many coun- 
tries, including the United 

Each year this kind of sugar has 
been proving a greater rival to sugar 
cane, until now a large part of the 
sugar used in Europe, and much of 
that consumed in North America, is 
obtained from sugar beets. One 
important reason why this industry 
has thrived is that sugar beets grow 
in a cool temperate climate, where 
population is dense and markets are 



(2) Education 

numerous. How is the case different with sugar 
cane ? Formerly Germany had to rely upon foreign- 
ers for sugar ; but with the growth of this industry, 
beet sugar has not only supplied all the needs at 
home, but has even become one of the leading Ger- 
man exports. 

In the last half century no other European 
Germany's country has grown as rapidly as 

rapid advance Germany. There has been a 

1. Nature of large increase in population, a 
the advance g re at advance in industry, and 
a corresponding gain in wealth. 

One cause for this advance is the strong 
central government established in 1871. 

2. Reasons for This caused the people to for- 
it get the petty jealousies that 
(1) The govern- had long checked the growth 

of industries, and led them to 
unite to develop the resources of the em- 

The government's treatment of education 
has also been of great importance. Every 
German child is forced by law 
to attend school; and care- 
ful attention is given to the study of the 
industries, foreign products, foreign lan- 
guages, etc. In the higher commercial and 
technical schools young men are given ex- 
cellent training for business, while in many 
other countries there is little or no oppor- 
tunity for such education. 

The value of scientific work is fully 
recognized and encouraged by the govern- 
ment ; and the wonderful development of 
the sugar industry, the mines, and the 
factories since 1871 proves that this has 
been a wise policy. Not many years ago 
much of the manufacturing was done by 
hand; but now factories are found on every 
side, and Germany is one of the three lead- 
ing manufacturing nations of the world. 
Name the other two. 

Great advance has been made in trans- 
portation. The rivers and harbors have been 
(3) Improve- made more useful; canals have 
ment in tr«n.t- been extended over much . of. 
portation the country . an( j German 

steamship lines have been established to 

various parts of the world. There is now 
an excellent system of railways, reaching 
to all parts of the empire, and connecting 
Germany with other European countries. 
The piercing of the Alps by tunnels, thus 
improving the connection with the Mediter- 
ranean, has also been of advantage. 

The establishment of colonies has been a 
fourth important aid to Germany's growth. 
The empire now controls ex- 
tensive areas in the island of (4) f% abli f h - 
_ ment of colo- 

New Guinea, north of Aus- nies; andinter- 

tralia, and in both East and est of German 
West Africa, as well as smaller 
colonies elsewhere (Fig. 417). These have 
had influence on Germany, both because 
they have furnished homes for emigrants 
from crowded parts of the home country, 
and because they have brought much trade 
to Germany. 

Many more Germans have emigrated to 
various parts of the New World. Over 
five million have come to the United States 
within the last seventy-five years, while the 
British Isles have sent us about seven mil- 
lion. Many of the German emigrants to 
these other countries have kept up trade 
with their fatherland, and have thereby in- 
creased the commerce of Germany. 

Naturally, in a country making such rapid 
advances, the cities have grown also, as has 
been the case in the United Principal cities 
States. In the twenty years i._ Their rapid 
between 1870 and 1890, for growth 
example, Berlin had a more rapid growth 
than New York, and added as many new 
residents as Chicago. In 1875 Boston had 
almost a hundred thousand more people 
than Hamburg; but now Hamburg has over 
two hundred and sixty-one thousand more 
than Boston. These and other German 
cities are still rapidly increasing in size. 

The position of Berlin, on the small 
Spree River (Fig. 425) on the North Gi 
man plain, midway between the 2. Berlin 
coast and the highlands, may (l) it" locatht, 
not at first seem a very favorable, one. 
However, the Oder, a large river, and soiih 



of the tributaries of the Elbe approach so 
near each other in this section that they 
have easily been connected by canal. Thus, 

Fig. 425. — Berlin and vicinity. 

Berlin has water connection with both 
Hamburg and Stettin, two important 
seaports, and with all parts of these two 
river systems. This is a very important 

aid in bringing fuel, food, and raw 
materials for manufacture, and in taking 
away manufactured articles. 

Observe also (Fig. 
416) that Berlin lies on 
the direct route from 
Hamburg to Breslau, 
and from Stettin to 
Leipzig, and that other 
large cities surround it. 
It is, moreover, on the 
route of several of the 
chief European railways, 
and is therefore one of 
the leading railway cen- 
ters of the continent. 

With such excellent 
connections, by water 
and by rail, (2) its impor- 
Berlin has tance 
become one of the prin- 
cipal manufacturing 
cities of the empire. 
Fully half the residents 
are supported by manu- 
facturing, which includes 
brewing, the making of 
fancy articles, clothing, 
machinery, etc. Besides 
being the capital of 
Prussia and of the Ger- 
man Empire, Berlin is 
the center of German 
banking. It is noted 
for its art and music, 
and for its great univer- 
sity, the largest in the 
empire. There are a 
number of suburbs, one 
being Potsdam (Fig. 
425), the German "Ver- 
sailles," in which are 
located several royal 

Among the cities not far „ _ '. 
j. n t • t ., 3. Interior 

irom Berlin is Leipzig, the cities near 

fifth in size in the empire. It Berlin 

is situated at the junction of (1) Leipzig 



two small streams, at a point where roads 
from the highland meet those from the low- 
land. Formerly it was at the crossing of 
important wagon roads, and now it has be- 
come a railway center. Owing to its 
favorable position, Leipzig is, next to 
Berlin, the most important trade center of 
Germany. One of its leading articles of 
commerce is fur. It is the seat of a noted 
university, and a center for 
the German book trade. 

Dresden, southeast of Leip- 
zig, is noted for its art museum 
(Fig. 426), which 

(2) Dresden \ ° . J l 

rivals the Louvre 
of Paris. The beautiful 
Dresden china is made in this 
vicinity, and in recent years 
much manufacturing has de- 
veloped ; for Dresden is situ- 
ated on the navigable Elbe and 
has coal near at hand. It 
is, moreover, the capital of 
Saxony, the most densely 
settled German state. 

bronze, gold, silver, glass painting, and 
porcelain manufacturing. 

North of Munich, on the road to Berlin, 
is Nuremberg. This quaint city was 
famous in former centuries for its art and 
architecture, and many of its treasures are 
still carefully preserved. At present it is 
an important center for the manufacture of 

(3) Chemnitz 
Halle, and 

Chemnitz, near by, has impor- 
tant textile industries. Halle and 
Magdeburg, far- 
ther to the north- 
west, and in the center of the chief 
beet-growing section, are extensively 
engaged in the manufacture of sugar. 

Breslau, a city not much smaller than Leipzig, 
is on the Oder, a navigable river. It has the advan- 

(4) Breslau tage of hem S near a vel 7 rich coal 

and iron field, and is, therefore, a 
great manufacturing center. Its situation, near the 
Russian frontier, makes it an important market for 
eastern and central Europe. 

In the highland of South Germany is 
Munich, the capital of the kingdom of 
4. Munich and Bavaria. Although so far to 
Nuremberg t ] le sout h, and so distant from 

coal, Munich is the third city in size in the 
realm. It is on the trade routes from Ger- 
many to Italy and to Austria, and is accord- 
ingly an important railway center. Much 
of its renown is due to its art collections 
and its art industries, such as work in 

S. Seaports 

Fig. WO. — The Dresden Art Museum which contains many treasures of art. 

Hamburg, which is growing so rapidly 
in population, is the second city in Germany 
and the most important sea- 
port on the continent. The 
reasons for this are clear when it is known 
that the estuary of the Elbe (Fig. 425) 
makes an excellent harbor, usually free from 
ice, and that Germany has an extensive 
foreign trade. Name some articles from 
the United States that probably enter thi: 
port. What water connections has Ham- 
burg' with the interior ? 

Bremen and Stettin also admit large vessels, 
and are the chief rivals of Hamburg ; but they to- 
gether have less than one half as much commerce as 
Hamburg. In what respects is the situation of 
Hamburg more favorable to commerce than that of 
Bremen and Stettin? Name other Baltic ports be- 
sides Stettin. Which is a natural outlet for wheat 
from Russian Poland? Estimate the distance saved 



to the Baltic ports by the cutting of the Kaiser 
Wilhelm canal, south of Denmark, which is sixty- 
one miles in length. What city is at the eastern 
end of this canal? 

On ascending the Rhine into Germany 
we come to the great manufacturing region, 
6. Cities along already mentioned (p. 312). 
the Rhine River What cities are found there ? 
(1) Cologne Cologne, the largest, with 
a population of over half a 

anil vicinity 

million, is on the river bank. 

It is a great 

Fig. 427. 

-The Cologne Cathedral, one of the most 
famous churches in Europe. 

shipping point, since railways cross the 
river, and boats from London and other 
places are able to ascend to this point. 

Near Cologne are Eliierfeld and Barmen, which 
have textile manufactories; Essen, which is famous 
for the Krupp steel works ; Krefeld, which is an 
important silk-manufacturing town; and Aachen 

(Aix-la-Chapelle in French) 'which manufactures 
woolen cloth. 

Just beyond the chief bend in the Rhine 
is Frankfurt, on a navigable tributary, 
the Main. The easiest route 
from the Rhine Valley to the 
Danube lies along this tributary ; and, 
since the railway from the German plain to 
the upper Rhine passes Frankfurt, this city 
is a center of important trade routes. For 
this reason it is one of the chief trading 
and banking centers in Germany. It has 
long been prominent, and was the capital 
of the old German Confederation (p. 308). 

The Rhine, the most important river in 
Germany, is often compared with the Hud- 
son. In both rivers there are The Rhine 
sections that are shut in by River com- 
high, rocky cliffs, well wooded pared with 
to the top. The Rhine, how- the Hudson 
ever, is much narrower than ll In scener y 
the Hudson, so that these walls seem loftier; 
and since the stream is more winding, they 
often stand out boldly, as if in the very 
path of boats, to bar their further progress. 

When one journeys along the more beautiful por- 
tion of the Rhine, a fine old castle often comes into 
view, as a turn in the river course reveals an espe- 
cially bold cliff. Sometimes several such reminders 
of the past may be seen from a single point on the 
river. Many of these are in ruins, but now and then 
one is seen that is still kept up as a residence. The 
Hudson lacks such castles, although there are many 
magnificent residences along its lower course. 

There are many terraced vineyards on the sloping 
hillsides bordering the Rhine (Fig. 421), and like- 
wise many a quaint village built on a narrow strip 
of flood-plain between the river and the cliff (Fig. 
420). Since the Rhine receives more large tribu- 
taries than the Hudson, there are more wild glens 
on the sides, and more broad, wooded valleys, which 
open up charming views from the river. The open- 
ings in the valley walls, where these tributaries enter, 
are favorite sites for towns. 

In regard to the distribution of cities 
along its banks, the Rhine 
offers still further contrast to 
the Hudson. The latter has 
a large population at only two 
points ; namely, near its mouth, where there 

2. In distribu- 
tion of popula- 
tion along its 



Fig. 428. — Some of the quaint houses in the ancient city of Frankfurt. 

are millions of people, and about one hun 
dred and fifty miles above the mouth, where 
Albany, Troy, and Cohoes are 
situated. Between Yonkers, 
just above New York City, 
and Albany, there is not a 
city with thirty thousand in- 
habitants. The Rhine, on the 
other hand, while having no 
enormous collection of people 
at any one point, has many pop- 
ulous cities along its course. 
Name several. What have 
you already learned about 
Rotterdam at its mouth ? 
How does it compare with 
New York City in size? 

population ? 3. State the chief facts about the 
government. 4. Why is the boundary line so 

1. What is the position of Ger- 

Review ,n , an y Y E *^5 n . ita 

Questions advantages. 2. W hat 

about the formation 

of the empire ; its present area and 

Fiu. i'2'J. — The Rhiue, with a village, a vineyard, and an old castle 
on the right. 



irregular? 5. Show how preparation for war 
has played a part in German History. 6. De- 
scribe the highlands. 7. The lowlands. 8. The 
drainage. 9. Tell what you can about the tem- 
perature ; the rainfall. 10. What is the condition 
of lumbering? 11. What are the leading agricul- 
tural products ? 12. What are the principal mineral 
products ? 13. State the importance of manufac- 
turing ; and locate the leading manufacturing 
centers. 11. Name the principal kinds of manu- 
facturing. 15. How has Germany advanced in 
recent years? Give some reasons for it. 10. What 
can you tell about the rapid growth of the cities? 
17. State the principal facts about Berlin. 18. Leip- 
zig. 19. Dresden. 20. Chemnitz, Halle, and Magde- 
burg. 21. Breslau. 22. Munich and Nuremberg. 

disadvantages? What relation has this to emigra- 
tion? 4. What is the size of our standing army? 
Why so small? 5. What seaports of Europe most 
nearly approach Hamburg in size? 6. How might 
the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal possibly prove an injury 
to Hamburg? 7. Show that Germany resembles 
Cireat Britain in her industries, while differing 
greatly from Russia and Norway. 8. Find out 
something about Goethe ; Schiller ; Humboldt; Em- 
peror William the First ; Bismarck ; Von Moltke ; 
Wagner; Schumann. 

IX. Switzerland (Fig. 390) 

1. What countries surround Switzerland (Fig. 
358)? 2. What mountains extend along the bounda- 
ries of Switzer- 
land? 3. Which Map Study 
of the boundaries is least 
mountainous? 4. What large 
rivers rise among the Alps ? 
In what direction does each 
flow ? 5. There are many lakes 
among the Alps (Fig. 416). 
What does their abundance 
suggest? 6. How does the 
area of Switzerland compare 
with that of your own state? 

Fig. 430. — Snow-covered mountains with a glacier extendiu 
o£ the Alpine valleys. 

23. The seaports. 24. The cities along the Rhine. 

25. Name and locate the principal cities of Germany. 

26. Compare the Rhine River with the Hudson in 
scenery, i 
its course. 

from them down one 

In distribution of population along 


1. Find in an atlas in what parts of the empire tho 
larger states, such as Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, etc., 
are situated. 2. People often assert 
that the peace of Europe is preserved 
by careful preparation for war; in what sense can 
this be true? 3. What must be some of the benefits 
of two years of active training in the army, aside 
from preparation for war? What are some of the 

This is a very moun- 
tainous country (Figs. 
430 and 434), surface 
for the Jura features 
Mountains are on the 
northwestern border, 
while the Alps occupy 
the southern half. Be- 
tween these two moun- 
tain systems, which ex- 
tend northeast and south- 
west, is a low, hilly 
plateau, from one to two 
thousand feet in altitude. About one third 
of Switzerland is included in the plateau 

It is evident that the climate of this 
mountainous country must be cool, and 
that there must be great differ- climate 
ences in temperature according l Tempera . 
to the altitude. At the base of ture 
the Alps, chestnut and walnut trees grow; 
higher up, these give place to the beech, 
maple, and other trees of the cool temperate 



2. Rainfall and 
the formation of 

snow falls ; 
tain sides 
gathers in 

zones ; and still higher is a belt of ever- 
greens. Above these come dwarfed trees, 
shrubs, and grass ; and higher still, at an 
average elevation of about nine thousand 
feet, the snow line is reached. 

The lofty Alps, rising in the path of the 
prevailing west winds, cause Switzerland 
to be one of the wettest coun- 
tries on the continent. On 
the higher mountains much 
and, sliding down the raoun- 
in the form of avalanches, it 
the valleys to produce streams 
of ice, or glaciers (Fig. 430). These move 
slowly down the valleys until they reach a 
point, below the snow line, where the ice 
melts. The Rhone and other rivers are 
supplied with water by the melting of the 
Alpine glaciers. 

In so rugged a country one would hardly 
expect a large population ; yet Switzerland 
People and is almost as densely settled 
government as France, and much more so 
than the state of New York. 

People who dwell among mountains develop a 
spirit of independence, as is illustrated by the story 
of William Tell. Thus we find that, as early as 
1291, an agreement was made among a few of the 
small Swiss states, or cantons, to unite for protec- 
tion. Many a time since then other nations have 
tried to conquer the Swiss; but, aided by the diffi- 
cult approaches to their country, and by the moun- 
tain strongholds to which they could retreat, the 
Swiss have been able to maintain their freedom. 
Yet the area of the entire country is only one third 
that of Pennsylvania. Their twenty-two cantons, 
united somewhat as are our states, now form a 
republic whose independence the Great Powers of 
Europe have agreed to maintain. 

Although the Swiss have a stable govern- 
ment, they lack a common language. The 
country is most open toward 
the north, for there the plateau 
of Switzerland merges into that of Germany. 
Naturally, therefore, the influence of Ger- 
many has spread into Switzerland, and 
German-speaking people are most numer- 
ous, making up over one half of the 
population. The approach from France 


is much more difficult, and the French 
population forms less than one fourth of 
the whole, while the remainder speak 

Owing to the mountainous condition, 
only one acre in nine is fit for the plow. 
Yet agriculture is the princi- 
pal industry. On the lower 
lands grain, potatoes, grapes, and the mul- 


Fig. 431. — A Swiss peasant girl in native costume. 

berry tree are raised, as in the neighboring 
countries ; and on the lower mountain slopes 
dairy farming is important, as might be ex- 
jDected. Here cattle and goats are raised, 
being driven to higher pastures as the 
snows melt from the mountain sides. 
The population is so dense, however, that 
much food must be imported ; but cheese 
and condensed milk, made from farm prod- 
ucts, are exported. 

Switzerland is very poor in mineral de- 



Fig. 432. — Cattle on the slopes of the Alps. 

posits, and there is very little coal. Such 
a Scarcity of raw materials would suggest 
Mining and that there is little manufac- 
manufacturing turing ; but this is not the 
case, for in spite of the abseuce of coal, 
ore deposits, and cotton, the Swiss have 
developed extensive manufacturing. Like 
the New Englanders, they make light arti- 
cles mainly, such as jewelry and textile 
goods, especially silk. They 
also do much wood carving;. 
There are several reasons 
why manufacturing is so 
highly de- 
veloped. Al- 
though coal is 
wanting, there 
is abundant 
water power, supplied by 
the swift mountain streams, 
which are fed by the melt- 
ing snows. The Swiss are 
taking a leading place in 
the use of such power, by 
means of electricity. 

They are unusually skill- 
ful mechanics, too, a fact 
that is proved 
by the remark- 
able wood carving for which 
they have long been noted. 

The Swiss are further 
favored by their central 

position; 3. central 

for they location 
are surrounded by 
densely populated coun- 
tries which supply raw 
materials and furnish a 
market for manufac- 
tured goods. 

Finally, their roads 
and railways are re- 
markably 4. Roads and 
developed, railways 

One might think that 
it would be very diffi- 
cult to transport goods 
in such a country. In fact it would be, if 
the Swiss had not taken special pains to 
overcome the difficulties ; but the very fact 
that nature has made transportation so 
difficult, has led the people to build the 
best of highways. No country in the world 
has better roads than Switzerland. 

Railroads pierce the mountains in several direc- 
tions, connecting Switzerland with foreign countries. 

Reasons for so 
much manu- 

1. Water 

8. Skill 

Fig. 433. — The St. Gothard Railway on the south side of the Alps. Here are 
seen three tracks one ahove the other, for at this point the railway enters 
the mountain, swings in two great circles, coming out each time at a 
higher level. 



One of the most important is the St. Gothard Rail- 
way, which connects Switzerland with Italy by the 
St. Gothard Tunnel. This is one of the longest tun- 
nels in the world, and is a marvel of engineering 
skill. Before reaching the main tunnel, in traveling 
north, several smaller ones are entered, through 
which the train winds in a circular course. A passen- 
ger twice comes out of the mountain almost directly 
over the point where he entered it. There, far below 
him, he can see the two places at which the train 
entered (Fig. 433). Such winding tunnels are neces- 
sary, because the grade is so steep that a train could 
not be drawn directly up a straight track. The 
main tunnel, which is nine and one fourth miles 
long, is quite straight. 
The Simplon Tunnel, 
even longer than the 
St. Gothard, now pierces 
the Alps a short dis- 
tance farther west. 

Zurich, the larg- 
est city in Switzer- 
Leading land, is 

cities situated 

on Lake Zurich. It 
is an important rail- 
way center, being 
connected with Italy 
by the St. Gothard 
Railway, while other 
railways bring it in 
touch with France, 
Germany, and Aus- 
tria. These rail- 
roads are especially important in bringing 
foods, as well as silk and other raw mate- 
rials, for manufacture. Therefore Zurich is 
the center of one of the principal manufac- 
turing' districts. It is noted for the manu- 
facture of silks, cotton, and machinery. 

Basel, the second largest city in Swit- 
zerland, is the busiest railway center in the 
country. It is on the main line of the St. 
Gothard Railway, and on the Rhine at the 
point where it enters Germany from Switzer- 
land. Why is its position, near both France 
and Germany, favorable to manufacturing ? 

Geneva, situated on the lower end of 
Lake Geneva, near where the Rhone enters 
France, is the third city of the Republic, 
and a noted educational center. It is on a 


very ancient and important trade route from 
the Mediterranean to Germany (p. 290), and 
has excellent railway connections. Then 
is much manufacturing, among the impor 
taut articles made being jewelry and scien 
tific instruments. 

Berne, the capital, is centrally located ; 
but it is a small city because it is not favor- 
ably situated for commerce. 

Many of the Swiss cities and towns are beautifully 
situated upon lakes, and within sight of mountain 

Fig. 434. 

-The snow-capped Alps as seen from Mouut Pilatus, with Lake Lucerne 
in the foreground. 

peaks always covered with snow. Lucerne, for 
example, is surrounded by grand and varied scenery. 
The city is located upon Lake gc and 

Lucerne, and lofty mountains rise t our j g «. a 
close at hand (Fig. 434). Mounts 
Rigi and Pilatus are near by, and from their summits 
one obtains magnificent views of the lake, over four 
thousand feet below, bordered by green meadows 
and numerous villages. In several directions, as 
far as the eye can reach, are the snow-covered 
crests of stupendous, jagged mountains. 

On account of such scenery Switzerland is the 
most noted summer resort of Europe ; and the 
entertainment of visitors is one of the leading 
occupations of the Swiss people. There are so 
many hotels and fine roads, that one can easily go 
almost anywhere. It is possible even to reach the 
tops of several of the mountains by rail. Every 
summer many Americans cross the ocean to enjoy 
the Swiss scenery. 




1. Describe the surface of Switzerland. 2. The 
climate. 3. State the chief facts about the people 
and the government. 4. What about 
the languages ? 5. State the princi- 
pal facts about agriculture. 6. About 
mining and manufacturing. 7. (jive several reasons 
■why manufacturing is so well developed. 8. Locate 
and state the main facts about Zurich. 9. Basel. 
10. Geneva and Berne. 11. Why is Switzerland so 
attractive to tourists ? 

1. How may the lakes filter and regulate the riv- 
ers? 2. What reasons are there for giving particular 
Q . attention to the study of English 

" and other foreign languages in the 

Swiss schools? 3. Why has Switzerland, unlike 

4Aj. — A team in Naples consisting of a horse, a cow, 
and a donkey. 

many European countries, not come into pos- 
session of colonies? 4. Find the meaning of " refer- 
endum "and "popular initiative "in Swiss legislation. 
5. Switzerland has long been selected as a place of 
refuge for persecuted people and political refugees 
from other nations. Why ? 6. Read that portion of 
the story of William Tell which is supposed to have 
occurred about Lake Lucerne. 7. Find out where 
Louis Agassiz was born: where he later lived; and 
■what he did to prove his theory of the Great Ice 

X. Italy (Fig. 416) 

1. The shape of Italy reminds you of what object 
(Fig. 416)? 2. How does its latitude compare with 
M R . , that of Spain? 3. What neighbor- 

ing islands belong to it ? 4. Point 
out the principal river. 5. How are the lofty moun- 

tains in the north likely to affect the climate farther 
south? 6. What countries border Italy? 7. What 
seas border it? 8. How does its position seem to be 
favorable for commerce? 

The area of Italy, including the islands of 
Sicily and Sardinia, is only a little greater 
than that of Colorado ; but its its area and 
population is over thirty-four population 
million. It is the smallest of the six Great 
Powers, but is the most densely settled of 
any except the United Kingdom. Name 
the other Great Powers. 

The position of Italy is a very 
favorable one. It lies in the midst 
of the Mediterranean, importance of 
whose shores are its position 
densely populated. What country 
in Africa lies nearest to Italy (Fig. 
495) ? Estimate the distance to 
it. How far is it from Italy to the 
Suez Canal (Fig. 455) ? 

It has been said that Italy is 
"the very heart of the Mediter- 
ranean lands, and plays a great 
part as a link in the chain of com- 
munication between northwestern 
Europe and the Far East." For 
example, mails from London to 
India are carried by water to the 
western coast of continental Europe, 
and then go overland to Brindisi, 
and thence by steamer. From this 
it is plain that Italy's central position is an 
advantage for trade with Africa and Asia, 
as well as with southern Europe. 

The inhabitants of Italy are a mixture of 
many peoples. In early times, the central 
position of the peninsula was People and 
of importance in aiding Rome government 
to control the lands bordering on the 
Mediterranean Sea. At that time people 
from the surrounding lands of Europe, Asia, 
and Africa were brought to the peninsula, 
often as slaves captured in war. Later, 
when the power of the Roman Empire was 
weakened, hordes of barbarians invaded 
Italy from central Europe. 

For centuries after this, Italy was broken 




up into a number of independent states. 
In 1860, however, several of these states 
united to form the Kingdom of Italy. 
Later others were added, until in 1870, or 
about the time that the German Empire 
was formed (p. 308), the present king- 
dom was established, with Rome as its 
capital. Like most of the European coun- 
tries, Italy is governed by a 
limited, or constitutional, 

Throughout most of its ex- 
tent, the Italian peninsula is 
Surface mountainous. In 

features the north are the 

Alps, some of whose highest 
peaks are on the boundary 
between Italy and Switzer- 
land. The Alpine ranges 
curve around in northwestern 
Italy and join the Apennines, 
which extend the entire length 
of the peninsula and form its 
very backbone. The principal 
lowlands, therefore, are the 
narrow coastal plains and the 
broad Po Valley. There are 
also many small, fertile valleys 
among the mountains. 

We think of Italy as a 
sunny land of flowers, al- 
Climate though Milan and 

Venice are in nearly the same 
latitude as Montreal. One 
reason for the pleasant Italian climate is 
that the lofty Alps form a wall which cuts 
off the cold north winds. Another reason 
is that the temperature is greatly influenced 
by the Mediterranean Sea, whose waters do 
not freeze even in winter. On these 
accounts the Italian winters are mild; 
and in the extreme south the temperature 
seldom falls to the freezing point. 

Much of Italy lias an abundance of rain ; 

but everywhere, except in the north, the 

n r. * „ greater part comes in winter. 
2. Rainfall £ ^ . 

Ine summer drought is due to 
the fact that the horse-latitude belt moves 

northward in summer and covers Italy 
(p. 209); therefore at that season the 
climate of southern Italy resembles that of 
southern Spain. 

Such a climate, together with a fertile 
soil, helps to explain why Agriculture 
agriculture is the principal 
industry of Italy, 

Fig. 43li. — Lago di Garcia, one of the Italian lakes on the southern side 
of the Alps. Here are found groves of lemou trees along the shores of 

the lake. 

1. Tempera- 

The most extensive farming district is 
the fertile plain of the Po Vallej-. There 
is an abundance of rain here ; ± Extent of 
yet the people depend upon irrigation, with 
irrigation more than in most reasons 
other parts of Europe. There ai - e several 
reasons for this. In the first place, the 
tributaries of the Po, fed by the rains, snows, 
and glaciers of the mountains, furnish a 
steady supply of water to the gently sloping 
land. Besides this, the rivers frequently 
flow through lakes — some of them among 
the most beautiful in the world (Fig. 436) 
— which act as great reservoirs for water 
supply. This tends further to furnish a 
regular supply. 



In the second place, better crops can be 
raised by irrigation than without it, partly 
because the flooding of the land fertilizes 
the soil, and partly because with irrigation 
there can be no drought. By the aid of 
irrigation, from four to ten crops may be 
raised in a year. 

Among the products are many that thrive 
in semi-tropical climates, as well as others 
2. Agricultural that are common in northern 
products Europe. Where irrigation is 

so easy, the extensive cultivation of rice is 

3. Important 
drawback to 

Fig. 437. — A herd of goats in the streets of Naples. They 
door, and milked whenever the customers wish to 

possible. This is an important crop in 
northern Italy ; but corn and wheat are 
raised in still greater quantities. Grapes 
are grown to such an extent that Italy 
ranks first among the wine-producing 
countries of the world ; and so man}' silk 
worms are reared that raw silk is the most 
valuable export. Among the other im- 
portant products are eggs, which are ex- 
ported in large quantities ; also olives, 
oranges, lemons, flax, hemp, and wool. 

On some of the slopes forests are grown, but most 
of the natural forest was cut off long ago. Among 
the useful trees is the chestnut, which is planted in 
groves for the nuts, that serve as an important food. 
The Italian chestnut is much larger than ours, and 

is ground up into a kind of meal, as wheat is ground 
into flour. 

Among the mountains there is much natural 
pasture, to which herds of sheep and goats are driven 
in summer. Many goats are raised in Italy for their 
milk, and they are even driven into the cities, and 
milked at the doors of the customers (Fig. 437). 

One great drawback to the proper development 
of agriculture in Italy is the presence of broad, 
marshy tracts infested with mosqui- 
toes, whose bite causes malaria. 
This is especially true in the south- 
ern half of the country, and there, 
even with fertile soil and a warm climate, large 
tracts of land have had to be abandoned. One sixth 
of the population suffers 
from malaria, and there are 
thousands of deaths from 
that disease every year. It 
is not to be wondered at 
that the Italian government 
is attempting to stamp out 
this dread disease. 

The fishing industry 
is important. Among 
the peculiar Fishing and 
products of mining 
the sea are precious coral 
and sponges. You will 
remember that we found 
sponge fishing impor- 
tant also among the 
Bahama Islands east of 

In Italy there is a 
general lack of valuable mineral deposits. 
Except in the island of Elba there is almost 
no iron ; and no coal of value is found in 
the kingdom. Indeed coal, wheat, and cot- 
ton are the leading imports. There is a little 
zinc and copper ore ; but one of the most 
important mineral products is the sulphur 
of Sicily. Another mineral product is the 
pure white Carrara marble, of such rare 
beauty that it is prized the world over. 

As in Switzerland, water power supplies 
the place of coal to some extent, often being 
used to produce electricity. Manufacturing 
There is, therefore, more man- 
ufacturing than one might infer from the 
lack of fuel. While much raw silk is pro- 

are driven from door to 
buy the milk. 



duced, and there is some silk manufacturing, 
a large part of the raw silk is sent to France, 
Switzerland, and elsewhere, to be made into 
cloth. There are also factories for woolen, 
cotton, and flax weaving, and for other 

Most European countries take pride in their fine 
art museums; but Italy far surpasses them all. It 
is the very storehouse of art, whether architecture, 

harbors, we may expect to find numerou 

large cities along the coast, as in Great 

Britain. But it is different _ . . . .. 

. Pnncipal cities 

in the interior, tor in so small j n the south 

and mountainous a country, j Naples and 

with no coal and iron, there vicinity 

is less reason to expect large (l) Beauty of 

cities there. its location 

The most populous city is Naples, in 

Fig. 438. — Vesuvius in eruption (18U2). A great column of steam and ash rises above the volcano; while 
streams of liquid rock, or lava, are flowing down its slopes. 

painting, or sculpture be considered. Because of 
the artistic tastes of the Italians, many of their 
manufactured articles are of an artistic nature. 
Among their manufactures are glass work, lace 
making, earthenware manufacture, the making of 
statuary, wood carving, coral carving, and straw 
plaiting. In what other country have we found 
that the artistic taste of the people greatly affects 
their manufactures (p. 285) ? 

Estimate the average width of the Italian 
peninsula. Since it has many excellent 

the southern part of the peninsula. The 
semicircular Bay of Naples, on which it is 
situated, presents a most magnificent sight. 
On the north side, near the head of the 
bay, is the city itself, rising, street above 
street, upon the slopes of some low hills. 
Toward the east is Mount Vesuvius (Fig. 
438), with the crests of the Apennines in 
the distance. And on the south side of 
the bay is a steep, rocky coast, behind 


which are numerous villages, partly hidden 
among groves of orange, lemon, and olive 
trees. All around the bay is a succession 
of towns and villages. 

This is one of the most densely settled 
regions in Europe. There are several rea- 
(2) Seasons for sons ^ ov ^is. One is the fact 
the dense popu- that the land here is especially 
laUouhere fertile, having been made so 

by the decay of the volcanic ashes that have 

Fig. 439. — A street in Pompeii. Even the tops of the ho 
beneath volcanic ash which was erupted from Vesuv 
background; in the year 79. 

been thrown out of Vesuvius. The climate 
is also favorable to the growth of crops, 
and therefore the region around the bay 
supports a dense agricultural population. 
The harbor, too, is good, so that there is 
\ more shipping here than in any other Italian 
I port, with the single exception of Genoa. 

The reason for so large a city, and for so many 
towns and villages in this agricultural region, is found 
partly in the peculiar character of the Italians. They 
feel a dread of isolated homes, such as are common 
in the fanning district of the United States. Instead, 
therefore, of living in scattered houses on farms, they 
crowd into the villages and cities. They do this, too, 
even though they must travel along distance to their 
fields of work, or must suffer now and then from ex- 
treme want. 

Within plain sight of Naples stands 
Mount Vesuvius, a cone of lava and ashes 
nearly a mile in height, from (3) MountVesu . 
whose crater volumes of steam vius; its history 
constantly pour forth. At the and attractions 
time of Christ the slopes of this mountain 
were dotted with productive farms, while 
thriving towns spread over the country at 
its base. But in the year 79 a terrible 
eruption took place which completely buried 
Pompeii, Herculaneum, and 
many villages, beneath showers 
of ashes and streams of vol- 
canic mud. Since then Vesu- 
vius has been in eruption many 
times, the last violent outbreak 
occurring in 1906. 

During the last century the buried 
city of Pompeii has been uncovered 
at great labor and cost. By these 
excavations much has been learned 
about the buildings and customs of 
the people who lived here at the 
time of Christ. One can walk along 
these deserted streets (Fig. 439), 
and wander among the ruined homes 
from which the people were driven 
forth on that terrible day, nearly 
two thousand years ago. 

At present, tourists are able to go 
to the summit of Vesuvius almost 
any day. There they see one of the 
most awful sights in the world, 
when they cautiously approach to 
the very edge of the crater — an 
opening perhaps a quarter of a mile across — and peer 
down into the abyss. Sometimes reports like the 
thunderings of cannon come from far below, and 
lumps of white-hot lava, several feet in diameter, are 
hurled upward. At times lava lumps are thrown 
above the mouth of the opening and fall here and 
there outside, making one's visit full of excitement. 

The principal city south of Naples is Pa- 
lermo, the capital of Sicily. It is situated 
in the midst of extensive vine- 
yards and fruit groves. What ' a ermo 
fruits would you expect to find there ? 

The site of Rome was well chosen. It 
lies near the center of the 
Mediterranean and near the i 
center of the Italian peninsula of its location 

uses were buried 
ius (seen in the 




as well. In that part of Italy the fertile 
coastal plains are broad, and are crossed by 
the Tiber, the largest river of the country 
except the Po. In that vicinity, also, the 

Fig. 440. 

-St. Peter's Cathedral (on the left) and the Vatican 
(on the right) in Rome. 

Apennines reach their greatest height, which 
insures abundant water supply for the Tiber 
and for irrigation on the plains. Moreover, 
the valley of the Tiber offers one of the 
most convenient routes across the peninsula. 
These are some of the advan- 
tages that attracted to ancient 
Rome a population of fully a 
million, and caused the sur- 
rounding country to be thickly 
settled and carefully tilled. 

Now, however, the city contains 
about half as many inhabitants, 

2. Influence while the neighbor- 
of malaria ing plains, for miles 
around, though beautiful pasture 
land, have scarcely a tree or a house 
upon them. Because of the dread 
malaria, people shun this region, 
and at present much of the country 
is used only for grazing. As sum- 
mer approaches, even the herdsmen flee with their 
cattle and sheep to the mountains. 

Although agriculture and commerce do 

3. Its attrac- n °t flourish near Rome, fine 
tions residences, public buildings, 

art galleries, and notable ruins are numerous 
in the city. The dome of St. Peter's — the 
largest and most famous church in the world 
— towers above everything else; and the 
Vatican, where the Pope re-'i 
sides, is the most noted palace 
in Christendom (Fig. 440). 
In the Vatican are some of the 
finest and most beautiful of 
Michael Angelo's paintings. 

The ruins of ancient Rome, 
which rival in interest these 
works of later days, cover so 
many acres that the city is 
almost as much a tomb as a 
living citj r . One of the most 
notable relics of the past is 
the Colosseum (Fig. 441), i 
huge, oval-shaped aniphi 
theater, open to the sky, with 
seats for forty or fifty thou 
sand persons. In the days 
of the Roman Empire it was 
used to witness life-and-death struggles 
between men, and between men and wild 

Forum is another extensive ruin 
the city limits. It was the great 


The Colosseum, one of the ruins of ancient Rome. 

public square, on a lowland among some 
low hills ; but its monuments, arches, and 
other ornaments became covered with rub- 
bish during the centuries that followed the 
fall of the Roman Empire. The excavation 



of this famous spot has not yet been com- 
pleted, whole buildings, as well as smaller 
objects, having been buried in 
that locality. 

With the exception of Rome 
and Naples the large cities of 
Principal cities the Italian penin- 
in the north sula are in the 

1. Florence northern part. 
The first one north of Kome 
is Florence, on the western 
base of the Apennines, at a 
junction of roads across the 
mountains. Straw plaiting, 
mosaic work, and silk manufac- 
turing are important Floren- 
tine industries. Florence is 
famous for its art galleries, 
which are among the best in 
the world. 

Milan, the leading city of 
northern Italy, owes its im- 

2. Milan portance to its 
and Turin location at the 

crossing of routes of travel and commerce : 
one of these runs east and west in the Po 
Valley, the other north and south across 
the Alps. Turin has flourished for a 
similar reason. From very early times 

populated valley. The railways recently 
built across the Alps (p. 321) have greatly 

Fig. 443. — One of the canals of Venice with a gondola floating upon it 

these cities have been important trade 
centers because of their position at the 
crossing of trade routes in a fertile, densely 

Fig. 442. — The Milan Cathedral. 

increased their importance. They are busy 
manufacturing centers, making silk goods, 
cutlery, and other articles. 

Milan possesses a magnificent cathedral (Fig. 
412), built of white marbb, and adorned with more 
than a hurlred spires and fully four 
thousand statues. On the wall of a 
former monastery at Milan is Da Vinci's 
famous painting, " The Last Supper," 
copies of which are seen in many of 
oui homes. 

Genoa, although separated 
from the Po Valley by the low 
northern Apen- „ _ 

. . r , 3. Genoa 

nines, is the natural 

seaport for Milan and Turin. 

Since it is a port of outlet for 

so fertile a region, and is now 

connected with central Europe 

by railway (p. 322), this city 

is the most important seaport 

in Italy. 

The principal port on the Adriatic Sea is 

Venice, one of the most interesting of 

European cities. When hordes of barba- 



rians were invading Italy, some of the 
inhabitants retreated to a number of small, 
4 Venice marshy islands in a lagoon, 

(l) Its location protected from the sea waves 
and former im- by low sand bars. The de- 
portance sceixlants of these people 

developed into a hardy, independent race, 
largely through contact with the sea. 
Their very position forced them to become 
sailors ; and the site of their city was favor- 
able for commerce between central Europe 
and Asia. Protected from attack by land, 
Venice rose in power, and with power came 

Fig. 444. — The citadel of the Republic of San Marino. 

wealth. Many beautiful houses, churches, 
palaces, and museums still remain to remind 
us of the ancient splendor of Venice. 

The 'city is built upon more than a hundred 
small islands, about two and a half miles from the 
mainland, with which it is now connected by rail- 
way. Canals take the place of streets. There are 
one hundred and fifty canals, the main one, or 
Grand Canal, being bordered by fine 
residences built of white marble, 
whose doorsteps lead down into the 
water. Nearly four hundred bridges join the dif- 
ferent islands, and there are many narrow foot- 
paths; but since the chief thoroughfares are canals, 
gondola!: (Fig. 44:)) take the place of wagons, car- 
riages, and street cars. No doubt, thousands of 
children in that city have never seen a horse. 

San Marino, although surrounded by lands that 
belong to the Kingdom of Italy, is, 
like Andorra (p. 291), a tiny, inde- 
pendent republic. It is the oldest 

(2) How the 
city is built 

San Marino 
and Malta 

and smallest republic in the world, and owes its 
independence partly to the fact that the city is on a 
high, steep hill (Fig. 444) and, therefore, was difficult 
to capture. 

South of Sicily is the small island of Malta 
(Fig. 358), which, like Gibraltar, belongs to Great 
Britain, and is strongly fortified. 

1. Give facts about the area and population of 
Italy. 2. Explain the importance of its position. 

3. Tell about the people, and the _ . 
government. 4. Describe the sur- n .. 
face features. 5. The climate. 

6. Why is irrigation especially common in Italy? 

7. Name the agricultural products. 8. How does 
malaria interfere with agriculture ? 9. State the 
principal facts about fishing and mining. 10. Manu- 
facturing. 11. Describe the beauty of the location 
of Naples. 12. State the reasons for the dense pop- 
ulation here. 13. Tell about Mount Vesuvius ; its 
history and attraction. 14. Locate Palermo. 

15. State the advantages of the location of Rome. 

16. What about malaria in its vicinity? 17. What 
are its present attractions? 18. Locate and state 
the principal facts about Florence. 19. Milan and 
Turin. 20. Genoa. 21. Venice. 22. San Marino 
and Malta. 

1. Why should Italy have been much more im- 
portant in former times than now ? 2. What col- 
onies has Italy in eastern Africa _ 
(Fig. 495) ? Suggest reasons why * 

Italy has so few colonies. 3. What must have been 
the influence upon Genoa and Venice of the dis- 
covery of the ocean route to India? Why? 

4. What must have been the influence of the Suez 
Canal? Why? 5. Mention advantages and dis- 
advantages of life in Venice. 6. Mention some of 
the uses of sulphur. 7. Make a post card collection 
of the different famous pictures of the Madonna. 

8. Find out about the Catacombs of Rome ; the 
Appian Road ; the Aqueducts. 9. Ask some lawyer 
to tell you what influence Roman law has had upon 
our own law. 10. Find some facts about Cassar, 
Cicero, Dante, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michael 
Angelo. 11. Where was Columbus born ? 

XI. Austria-Hungary (Fig. 416) 

1. Compare Austria-Hungary with Germany in 
area. 2. In population. 3. In number of large 
cities. In which country, therefore, . 

would you expect to find the greater 
development? 4. How much of the boundary is 
formed by water (Fig. 41(3) ? 5. What countries 
border this empire? (>. What portions are inoun- 1 
tainous? 7. What, about the variety of climate? 
8. What sections do not belong to the Danube 
basin ? 





Austria- Hungary is one of the most moun- 
tainous countries in Europe. It includes the 
Surface eastern half of the Alps (Fig. 

features -445), besides several other- 

ranges. These mountains form a circle in- 
closing a broad level area (Fig. 359), called 
the Hungarian plain (Fig. 447), through 
which the Danube River flows. The en- 
circling mountains are broken at only two 
points, — once near Vienna, where the Dan- 
ube enters the Hungarian plain, and again 
on the southeastern boundary, where that 
river leaves it. 

In so mountainous a country there are 
naturally many different kinds of climate. 
Everywhere except on the 
higher mountains, however, 
the temperature is favorable for the growth 
of grains and other crops of temperate 
latitudes. That is, the summers are warm 
and the winters are cold ; but the difference 
between summer and winter is much greater 
than in England. Why? 

The rainfall of the lowlands, which aver- 
ages little over twenty inches, is barely 
enough for agriculture, and there are, there- 
fore, occasional summer droughts in some 

There are many different kinds of people 
in this country, with very different customs 
People and languages. For instance, 

1. The mixture about a fourth of the popula- 
of races tion, mainly in Austria, are of 

German stock. Magj-ars, descendants of 
Mongolian invaders, form over half of the 
population of Hungary. But races related 
to the Slavs of Russia are more numerous 
than either of these. There are also many 
Italians, as well as other peoples. German 
is the official language, and is spoken by 
the educated classes ; but at least a dozen 
languages are spoken in the empire, and 
even two or three in a single town. 

To be sure, a similar statement might be made 
in regard to the United States; for we also have a 
great variety of lauguages. But no matter from 
what part of the earth our citizens have come, they 
soon change their former customs, and become gen- 
uine Americans in spirit. The principal exception 

is the Chinese. The many peoples of Austria-Hun- 
gary resemble the Chinese in their tendency to re- 
main apart. Their religions, lauguages, and customs 
are so different that it is difficult for them to agree. 
Therefore they are often jealous and suspicious of 
one another. 

One reason for this mixture of peoples is 
the rugged country, with many inclosed 
valleys, in which the people 2. Reason for 
have developed different cus- such a mixture 
toms. A second is that the empire has 
been increased in size by conquest. For 

Fig. 445. — An Austriau village with mountaius in 
the background. 

example, note the country nearest Russia, 
north of the Carpathian Mountains. Here 
the boundary line cuts across a plain, in- 
stead of following mountains, as it does 
for a large part of its length. This plain 
is a part of the ancient Kingdom of Poland, 
which once stretched from the Baltic Sea 
to the Carpathian Mountains. When Po- 
land was conquered and divided among 
Russia, Germany, and Austria (p. 307), 
this, the smallest portion, was Austria's 

A third reason for such a mixture of 
races is found in the central position of 



the empire. On that account people have 
entered it from various directions, and 

Fig. 446. — A family of gypsies and their house, 
iu Austria. 

remained there. Thus it happens that 
Italians have pushed in from the south- 
west, Germans from the north- 
west, Russian Slavs from the 
north, and Magyars from the 

It has been a difficult matter 
to bring all these people under 

„ . one government. 

Government 6 

.Nevertheless, in 
1867, the Austrian Empire 
and the Kingdom of Hungary 
were united, under Emperor 
Francis Joseph, to form the 
Empire of Austria-Hungary. 
Each of the countries has its 
own constitution, makes its 
own laws, and is independent 
of the other in most respects 

terest, such as the army and navy, foreig 
affairs, and finance. 

Many of the mountain slopes are forest- 
covered, and wild animals are still found in 
the remoter parts. Since nearly Lumbering and 
a third of the empire is wooded, agriculture 
lumbering forms one of the important in- 

Where the woods have been cleared awa; 
from the mountain slopes, there are pastures 
for sheep and goats. Cattle are also raised, 
especially on the lowlands. 

Near the Adriatic, and in the warmer 
valleys, there are many vineyards ; and the 
mulberry tree is raised to furnish food for 
the silkworm, as in Italy (p. 325) and south- 
ern France (p. 285). Flax, hemp, potatoes, 
sugar beets, and tobacco are other im 
portant crops. But the grains, especially 
wheat, rye, barley, oats, and corn, are th 
staple agricultural products of both Austria 
and Hungary. The broad plains of the 
Danube (Fig. 447) form one of the leading 
wheat-producing regions of Europe. So 
much wheat is raised that a large amount 
is exported. 

There is much mineral wealth in the 
mountains, including deposits 

of salt, gold, silver, lead, rner- 


cury, and copper. There are also precious 

Fio. 447. — The broad, level Hungarian Plain, on which vast quantities of 
wheat are raised. 

But they 
work together in matters of common in- 

stones, such as the Hungarian opal, which 
is celebrated for its beauty. The excellent 



quality of the clays has made possible the 
manufacture of fine porcelain ware ; and the 
mineral quartz supplies the material for 
the Bohemian glass blowers, who make 
some of the finest glassware in the world. 
This glass is beautifully colored by adding 
small quantities of mineral substances, such 
as silver, copper, and cobalt, which arc 
mined in the country. 

Iron ore is widely distributed ; and Aus- 
tria-Hungary ranks fourth among the coal- 
producing countries of Europe (Fig. 362). 
Some of the best deposits are in the north- 
west, near PRAGUE, which explains why 
that city is extensively en- 
gaged in iron manufacturing. 
Petroleum is also found in 
this empire. 

There is much less manu- 
facturing in Austria-Hungary 
Manufacturing than in Great 

1. its extent, Britain, Ger- 
and kinds many, or France. 
Yet there are numerous cotton, 
woolen, flour, and paper mills, 
iron manufactories, and beet- 
sugar refineries. There is also 
much silk weaving. The chief 
manufacturing region is in 
the northwest, near German}-, 
while the principal agricul- 
tural sections are in the central and eastern 

While there lias been much progress in 
manufacturing in recent years, one reason 

2. Reasons for for S0 little is fo,lnd in the 

so little manu- lack of education among the 
factoring people. Much of the manu- 

facturing is still done by hand, or by very 
simple machines. 

Another reason for so little manufactur- 
ing is that conveniences for transportation 
are so poor. Since the Danube cuts through 
the mountains on both the east and the west 
side of the empire, the most natural trade 
routes lead either down this river into the 
Black Sea, or else northward and westward 
into Germany, and thence down the Elbe or 

Rhine valleys. The fact that the Danube is 
navigable from Germany to its mouth adds 
greatly to the value of these routes. But 
goods taken in either direction must pass 
through foreign ports. What disadvantage 
do you see in that fact ? 

The outlets by sea are still less convenient. 
Although Austria- Hungary is next in size 
to Russia among European nations, it has 
but little seacoast. Estimate its length. 
And, what is still worse, the coast is very 
difficult to reach from the interior on ac- 
count of rugged mountains that rise from 
the very seashore. Largely for this reason 

view in Vienna showing some of the fine public buildings. 

the ocean commerce of the empire is much 
less than that of other large European coun- 
tries. By far the greater part of the foreign 
trade is carried on through German ports. 
One can readily understand, therefore, why 
Austria-Hungary has comparatively little 
manufacturing, and no large colonies. 

While there are man} 7 small cities in this 
empire, there are surprisingly few large 
ones. The two largest, Vi- Principal cities 
ENNA, the capital of Austria, 
and Budapest, the capital of Hungary, 
are on the Danube River and not on the 
seacoast. The reasons for this have just 
been suggested. State them. 

Vienna, which is larger than Philadel- 
phia, is the greatest city in Austria-Hun- 



gary and the fourth in size in Europe. The 

main reason for its size is the fact that it is 

the capital of a great empire, 
1. Vienna j • i A i i • 

and is located on a large river 

in the central part of Europe. Moreover, 
it is situated at an opening between moun- 
tains, through which, from the earliest times, 
the best routes have passed from western 
Europe to Asia, and from northern Europe 
to the Mediterranean. The railways 
which lead from St. Petersburg to Rome, 
and from Berlin and Paris to Constan- 
tinople, converge toward this point, mak- 
ing the city a great railway and trade 

Vienna is a beautiful city, with many fine public 
buildings (Fig. 448), including the palace of the 
emperor and some noted museums. The well- 
known University of Vienna is also located here. 
As in most large cities, there is much manufactur- 
ing of various kinds. 

Budapest, consisting of two towns (Buda 
and Pest), on opposite banks of the Danube, 
is the seat of the Hungarian 
government and the home of 
the Emperor for a part of each year. The 
city lies on the edge of the fertile wheat- 
raising plains of the Danube, and, like Odessa 
on the Black Sea, is engaged in flour manu- 
facture and grain shipment. 

Prague, the third city of Austria- 
Hungary, is situated on the navigable 
Elbe, which has been an im- 
portant trade route since early 
times. Located in the midst of a rich 
mineral region, it is a noted manufacturing 

Trieste is the largest Austrian seaport. 
Although separated from the main part of 
4. Trieste and the country by mountain 
Fiume ranges, it is connected with the 

interior by a railway. The pass which this 
railway follows in crossing the mountains 
was the route of entrance to the Danube 
Valley, even as far back as the time of the 
Roman Empire. Fiume, southeast of Tri- 
este, has an excellent harbor, but has little 
trade and is a small town. 

On the boundary between Austria and Switzer- 
land is Liechtenstein, a very small _ . . 
independent country united with 
Austria-Hungary by a customs treaty. 

1. Describe the surface features of this empire. 

2. The climate. 3. Tell about the . 
mixture of races here. 4. Give rea- n 
sons for such a mixture. 5. What " 

is the nature of the government? 6. State the 
principal facts about lumbering and agriculture. 
7. Mining. 8. The extent and kinds of manufac- 
turing. 9. Give reasons why there is so little manu- 
facturing. 10. Locate and give the principal 
facts about Vienna. 11. Budapest. 12. Prague. 
13. Trieste and Fiume. 14. What and where is 

1. What is the relative importance of the Danube 
and the Rhine rivers? 2. Find some Bohemian 
glass, to see how beautiful it is. _ 

3. In an atlas look up Austria-Hun- Su Sg estl0ns 
gary to find the portions which are called Tyrol, 
Moravia, Bohemia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Tran- 
sylvania. 4. Look up some facts about the history 
of Poland. 5. Find out something about the Triple 
Alliance. 6. Read about the influence of Emperor 
Francis Joseph in holding the different parts of 
the empire together. 7. Find out something about 

XII. The Balkan Peninsula (Fig. 416) 

1. What countries border Roumania (Fig. 416)? 
2. Name the countries south of the Danube. 3. What 
does the relief map (Fig. 360) tell 
you about the surface of each? ' 

4. What can you expect as to the temperature on 
this peninsula ? Why ? As to the rainfall ? Why? 

5. Compare the number of large cities with the 
number in Germany and Italy. What conclusions 
do you draw concerning the occupations of the 
people ? 6. Compare the area of Turkey in Europe 
with that of your own state. 

This double-pointed peninsula, called the 
Balkan Peninsula, is bounded on one side by 
the Adriatic and Mediterra- Boundaries and 
nean seas, on another bv the surface 
vEgean and Black seas ; but, features 
unlike other European peninsulas, it ha 
a very long land boundary. Trace this 

Throughout almost its entire extent the 
surface of the Balkan Peninsula is moun- 
tainous, which offers an explanation of (he 
large number of separate countries here. 
How ? Many of the valleys are suited to 




agriculture, the most extensive being the 
plains of the Danube in Roumania and 

The climate varies greatly from seashore 
to interior, and from valley to mountain. 
Along the southern coast the 
winters are mild, as elsewhere 
near the Mediterranean. But in the north- 
east, near Russia, hot summers are followed 
by cold winters, when icy winds sweep down 
from the Russian steppes and the 
Danube freezes over. 

In so mountainous a land there 
is also much variation in rainfall. 
On the western slopes — for ex 
ample, near the shores of the 
Adriatic — there is an abun- 
dance of rain ; but on the east 
coast and in the interior val- 
leys, especially in Greece, there ' 
is so little rain that agriculture 
depends upon irrigation. Why 
is this true of Greece espe- 
cially (p. 262) ? 

The eastern branch of the 
Balkan Peninsula comes so close 

to Asia that it has 
been called a "bridge" 
between Europe and 
Asia. At two points, 
the Dardanelles and 
the Bosporus (Fig. 4.52), the con- 
tinents are separated only by narrow 
straits. Animals and plants have 
crossed these barriers so easily, that there is 
a mixture of European and Asiatic species 
in that part of Europe. 

This region has also been a bridge for the 
passage of many peoples. Romans, various 
tribes of Slavs, and finally the Mohammedan 
Turks from Asia, have brought the Balkan 
Peninsula under their rule. Wherever 
the Turks went, they brought ruin ; and for 
four centuries, while the rest of Europe 
was advancing, they held this region in 
such control that almost all progress was 
checked. In the recent Balkan war, how- 
ever, many of its people have thrown off 

Closeness to 
Asia ; effects 
on plants, 
animals, and 

the Turkish yoke, so that the peninsula is 
now divided among several nations, and 
Turkey in Europe is only a small part of 
what it was a hundred j 7 ears ago. 

Aside from Turkey, the separate countries 
that have been formed are Albania, Mon- 
tenegro, Servia, Roumania, Countries now 
Bulgaria, and Greece. Each of occupying the 
these is now entirely hide- peninsula 
pendent. Albania is a new state. It was 
formed in 1913 from territory taken from 

The tiny country of Montenegro, which is 
smaller than the state of Connecticut, has main- 
tained its independence largely 

because of its situation "° 

among the mountains. The country is 
of slight importance; its soil 
is so poor that there is little 
agriculture ; there is less man- 
ufacturing, and not a single 
railway. The principal occupa- 
tion is cattle raising. Cet- 
tix.te, the capital, has a popula- 
tion of less than five thousand. 

Bordering on southern 
Hungary, Servia shares 
some of the Servia 
advantages 1. Agriculture 

of that country. Since 
much of its surface is rug- 
ged and heavily forested, 
only a small portion is culti- 
vated. Among the leading 
products are corn, wheat, 
and other grains, reminding us of Hungary. 
There is also much fruit, especially grapes 
and plums, which, when dried, are sold as 
raisins and prunes. Many cattle, sheep, 
and pigs are raised for export, the pigs be- 
ing allowed to roam in the oak and beech 
forests. Why there ? 

The industries of Servia are only partly developed. 
For example, although coal, iron, lead, silver, gold, 
and other metals are known to 
exist, there is very little mining; '< 
nor is there much manufacturing. 
It will require more time to recover 
from the centuries of Turkish misrule. 

The capital of the kingdom is Belgrade, a city 

Fig. 449. — A Greek peasant 
in native costume. 

tries and chief 



finely situated upon the Danube, and owing its im- 
portance partly to easy transportation on that river. 

Fig. 450. — A Roumanian peasant in native 

These two countries have much in com- 
mon, although the Danube separates them 
Roumania and for a long distance. They to- 
Bulgaria gether control its lower course, 

1. Agriculture a fact of much importance to 
Austria-Hungary. Why ? 

Broad plains, suited to agriculture, bor- 
der the Danube in both countries, though 
the plains are far more extensive in Rou- 
mania than in Bulgaria. Naturally, there- 
fore, there is much farming. In both 
countries wheat and other grains are among 
the chief crops. The warmer climate of 
Bulgaria, south of the Balkan Mountains, 
permits the culture of products that cannot 
be raised in Roumania ; for example, the 
mulberry for the silkworm, and roses for 
the valuable perfume, attar of roses. 

Many sheep, as well as other live stock, 
are raised in each country ; in fact, herding 
is almost the sole industry on the barren 
steppes of eastern Roumania. 

There are large tracts of forest in each country ; 
but there is more in Bulgaria, owing to its rugged 

surface, than in Roumania. Each country has 

valuable mineral deposits ; but, as in Servia, there 

is little mining. Nor is there much 

manufacturing, except such hand 2. Other indus- 

work as the manufacture of Turkish tries ' als0 chief 


With such slight development of the resources, 

there are few large cities. By far the largest is 

Bucharest, the capital of Roumania. Find the 

capital of Bulgaria. 

The Turks, who are Mohammedans, have 
ideas and customs that are very unlike those 

Turkey in 

of other Europeans. They are 
unprogressive, and are unwill- Europe 
ing to grant rights to the tm character of 
many Christians who live in the people, and 
Turkey. Their ruler, or Sul- of g° vernment 
tan, until recently has had absolute power, 
which he has often used very cruelly ; and 
the government has been the worst in Eu- 

Constantinople, the capital of the Otto- 
man Empire, as Turkey is often called, has 
been famous for many centu- 2. Chief city 
ries. Being situated on the (l) its location 
beautiful, river-like outlet of the Black 
Sea, called the Bosporus (Fig. 452), it 
commands the channel through which the 
commerce of the Black Sea must pass. This 
is a natural site for a city; for it is the 

Fig. 451. — A Turkish woman in Constantinople. 

point where the crossing can best be made 
from Europe to Asia. 

The site of Constantinople is so favorable for a 



city tliat it was the seat of a Greek colony even 
liefore the days of Christ. Later the Roman Em- 
peror Constantine named the city 
(2) Its history ^ himself (Constantine and polls, 
ami present . v ,.,,,. 

importance meaning city), and made it the capi- 

tal of the Roman Empire. For cen- 
turies it was rioted as one of the richest and most 
prosperous cities of Europe. 

After being captured by the Turks, however, it 
lost much of its beauty; but some of the ancient 
ilendor still remains (Fig. 452). There are palaces, 

Iii this division Greece came into posses- 
sion again of the many islands that were 
formerly under her government. Servia, 
although failing to secure a seaport on the 
Adriatic, gained control over new territory 
almost equaling her former area. Bulgaria 
is now about as large as the state of Penn- 
sylvania. It gained considerable territory 
Lying along the Black Sea. Montenegro 

Fig. 452. — Constantinople and the Bosporus. The lancl on the other side of the strait is in Asia. 

mosques, and other interesting and costly buildings; 
but side by side with them are the dwellings of the 
common people, who live in the most squalid pov- 
erty. The houses, street scenes, people, and customs 
remind one of Asia rather than of Europe. How 
does it rank in size with other large European cities? 
With the large cities of the United States ? (See 
table, Appendix, p. 426.) 

Dissatisfaction with the Turkish Govern- 
ment finally led (1912) to war. On the one 
side was Turkey and on the other four of the 
Balkan states — Bulgaria, Servia, Montene- 
gro, and Greece. These states were called 
the Balkan Allies. In this war the allies 
were successful and took from Turkey most 
of her territory in Europe. Part of this 
territory was formed into a new state about 
the size of Vermont, called Albania. The 
rest of the territory was divided among the 
allies so that each state increased its size to 
a considerable extent. 

obtained some territory from Bulgaria but 
is still the smallest state on the Balkan 

The settlement of the Balkan question 
promises improved conditions in the Balkan 
countries. The governments of the coun- 
tries seem now to be firmly established, the 
industry and commerce are developing, and 
the people seem contented. 

The new state of Albania extends from 
the boundary of Greece to the boundary 
of Montenegro and lies close 
along the Adriatic Sea. It 
has a pleasant climate with plenty of rain- 
fall. The soil is fertile and suited to 
agriculture. Cereals, fruits, and tobacco 
are the principal products. Cattle and 
sheep are raised. The principal town is 

The southern end of the Balkan Peninsula 



is occupied by Greece. Owing to many 
short mountain ranges, extending in dif- 
Greece ferent directions, the surface 

1. Surface and of Greece is quite rugged, and 
climate large sections are unfit for 

farming. Yet there are many small, fertile 
valleys. The coast line is very irregular, 
with numerous peninsulas, islands, deep 
bays, and fine harbors, formed by the sink- 
ing of the irregular land. 

The Mediterranean causes a warm, pleas- 
ant climate, as in southern Italy. In Greece, 

Fig. 453. — A Greek ship, used 700 years before Christ. Besides sails, loug 
oars were used for driving the boat through the water. 

however, as in Italy, the rainfall, which is 
moderate in winter, is so light in summer 
that irrigation is necessary for agriculture. 
It was in this small peninsula that the 
marvelous civilization of ancient Hellas, or 
„ . . Greece, was developed. While 

2. Advantages ' . -,,.,, 

that the ancient the conditions amid which the 
Greeks enjoyed Greeks lived may not seem to 
have been very favorable, they were far 
better than they at first appear. The sea 
and mountains protected them from foreign 
enemies ; and at the same time the sea, by 
means of the many fine harbors- and pro- 
tected inlets, so connected the people that 
it was easy for them to carry on peaceful 

In other parts of the world strong nations 
have developed under such conditions as 
these. It was true, for instance, in Scandi- 
navia, in the British Isles, and in the Span- 
ish and Italian peninsulas. It is also true 
in the Japanese Islands, the home of the 
most highly developed Asiatics. 

Because of their ability to navigate the 
inland seas, the Greeks, in very early times 
(Fig. 453), kept closely in 3. E ariyhis- 
touch with the people from tory of Greece 
whom they had separated, and who still 
dwelt opposite them, on the 
coast of Asia. They improved 
upon the arts and customs of 
their mother country, and in 
time became the greatest power 
in the then known world. In 
those ancient days they devel- 
oped a civilization which, in 
spite of all our progress, still 
excels our own in very im- 
portant respects. 

They cruised about the shores 
of the Mediterranean and be- 
came explorers at a time when 
most of Europe was occupied by 
savages or barbarians. They 
entered into trade relations with 
their neighbors, taught them 
Greek arts, and established 
many colonies. Among these 
were some colonies in Italy, through which 
the Greeks exerted a strong influence upon 
the Romans. 

Rome finally conquered Greece, and 
became the leading country of the world, 
spreading her civilization far 4. its later 
over Europe. It must be "story 
remembered, though, that much of this 
civilization was really derived from the 
Greeks. After the decline of the Roman 
Empire, other people from the north in- 
vaded Greece ; and finally the Turks 
entered the country and carried ruin to 
this, as to other parts of the Balkan Penin- 
sula. Greece is now independent, and is a 
limited monarchy- 




In this little country there are few natural 
resources. There is no coal, and therefore 
5. Principal little manufacturing. There 
industries j s S ome mining, as of iron ore, 

lead, and zinc; but the principal occupations 
are herding and farming. Large numbers 
of sheep and goats are raised ; and the chief 
farm products are grain, tobacco, olives, and 

and in securing bath sponges from the 
shallow sea bottom among the Greek is- 

Athens, the capital and most important 
city, with about a hundred and sixty-seven 
thousand inhabitants, is situ- 
ated inland six miles from its 
port, Pir.-eus. The principal streets of the 

6. Leading city 

Fig. 454. — The Acropolis at Athens. 

fruits. Among the latter is the small 
variety of grape known as the currant. 
Currants, together with raisin grapes, are 
cultivated in large quantities on the steep 
hillsides ; after being gathered they are 
spread out to dry, and are marketed as dried 

The neighborhood of the sea has led the 
Greeks to continue their seafaring life, and 
they still carry on an extensive foreign 
trade. Many are also engaged in fishing. 

present city are quite modern ; but ruins of 
ancient Athens are still numerous. The 
most noted buildings, and some of the finest 
temples of ancient Greece, stood upon the 
Acropolis (Fig. -454:), a level-topped rocky 
hill with steep sides. This stronghold was 
the natural center of settlements on the sur- 
rounding plain. 

The many islands in the neighborhood of Greece 
are either mountain crests or volcanic cones. Now 
and then we hear of an earthquake shock in this 



Islands near 

island region, or archipelago, showing that the 
mountains are still growing. The largest island 
near Greece is Crete (Fig. 358), 
which, like the smaller islands, is 
inhabited mainly by Greeks. It is 
now controlled by the Greeks. The inhabitants are 
engaged in industries similar to those of Greece. 

1. Describe the boundaries and surface of the 
Balkan Peninsula. 2. The climate. 3. How close 
is this peninsula to Asia, and what 
/;'" '' have been some of the effects of this 

" location on plants, animals, and 

people? 4. What countries now occupy this penin- 
sula? Locate each. 5. Tell what you can about 
Montenegro. 6. About agriculture in Servia. 7. What 
are the other industries? 8. Name and locate 
the chief city. 9. What are the agricultural prod- 
ucts of Roumania and Bulgaria? 10. What are the 
other industries ? 11. The chief cities? 12. What 
can you tell about the character of the people 
and government of Turkey in Europe? 13. What 
are the industries? 14. Why is the location of its 
chief city so favorable ? 15. State the history and 
present importance of this city. 16. Why have the 
Balkan Allies driven the Turks out of Europe? 

17. Describe the surface and climate of Greece. 

18. Show what advantages the ancient Greeks en- 
joyed. 19. Give facts in the early history of Greece. 
20. In its later history. 21. What are the principal 
industries? 22. Tell about the leading city. 
23. W T hat about the islands near Greece ? 

1. What reasons can you suggest for the fact 
that these eastern countries are in a constant state 
,, ,. of unrest? 2. Turkey is sometimes 

referred to as the " sick man of Eu- 
rope." Why? 3. How was Greece well situated 
for the trade of the ancient world ? 4. Learn some 
facts about Homer, Plato, and other noted Greeks. 
5. Read about the defense of the Pass of Ther- 
mopylae. 6. What reasons can you suggest for the 
fact that ancient Greece was divided into several 
independent states, not unlike our own, but lacking 
a federal union? 7. Name the principal cities in 
the Balkan Peninsula, and locate each. 

1. Compare the climate of western Europe with 

that of the west coast of North America (p. 211). 

.-, . 2. Make the same comparison for 

General review . * 

questions and the eastera P arts of the tw ° colltl - 

comparisons nents - 3 - What European coun- 

with North tries were covered, either wholly 

America or * n P art; ! D .Y an > ce sheet in the 

Glacial Period (Fig. 303) ? 4. Does 

Europe or North America have the advantage in 

regard to irregular coast line ? How is it an advan- 

tage ? 5. Name and locate the principal mountain 
ranges in each continent. Which continent has the 
advantage as to the direction of the ranges ? Why 
(p. 261) ? 6. Name and locate the principal rivers 
in each continent. Which are the largest in each 
case? 7. Draw an outline map of Europe, insert- 
ing the boundaries and names of the countries. 

8. How do our larger Western States compare in 
area with France and Germany? In population? 

9. Which are the two or three most progressive 
countries of Europe ? Give reasons. 10. What is 
the prevailing kind of government in Europe? In 
North America? 11. Which European country 
has the best location for world commerce ? Why ? 
12. Which is best situated for continental com- 
merce? Why (p. 308)? 13. Which country of 
North America has the most favorable position for 
trade? How? 14. Compare in population the five 
largest European cities with the five largest in North 
America (Appendix, p. 426). 15. State the main 
advantages of the position of each of these ten 
cities. 16. Name and locate the five largest sea- 
ports of Europe (Fig. 358). 17. How do they com- 
pare in population with New York, Philadelphia, 
Boston, Baltimore, and San Francisco? 18. Name 
and locate the five largest interior cities, and com- 
pare their population with that of Chicago, St. Louis, 
Cleveland, Buffalo, and Cincinnati. 19. What cities 
of Europe and North America are near the 46th par- 
allel of latitude ? The 50th? The 60th? 20. Name 
some agricultural products common to both Europe 
and the United States. 21. Name others that are 
found in the United States, but not in Europe. Why 
this difference? 22. Name the chief wheat-produc- 
ing countries of Europe. 23. In what countries of 
Europe is raw silk produced? Why do we not raise 
silkworms (p. 286)? 24. In what countries are sugar 
beets extensively produced ? 25. In what countries 
is most lumber obtained ? 26. Make a list of the 
European countries which have extensive coal de- 
posits. 27. Which countries have little or none? 
What is the effect on the industries in each case ? 

28. Which countries have little or no mining? 

29. Which countries have important manufactur- 
ing industries? Which have very little manufac- 
turing? Give reasons for this difference. 30. With 
which group would the United States be classed with 
regard to mining and manufacturing? 31. Which 
of the European nations have you seen represented 
on our streets? 32. Write a paper stating some of 
the advantages that we enjoy over European coun- 
tries. 33. State some of the advantages that they 
enjoy over us. 34. Which one of the European 
countries would you prefer to visit? Why? 



I. Asia 

1. Compare the greatest length and breadth of 
Asia with that of North America (Fig. 9). 2. Com- 
pare its area with that of other con- 
tinents. (For Areas, see Appendix, 
p. 424.) 3. Where are the mountains? 4. The 
plains? 5. Draw an outline map of Asia, adding 
the names and boundaries of the countries. 6. Find 

Map Study 

three large inland seas and lakes. Which have no 
outlets? 7. Find the area of China, India, Siberia. 
Compare each with the United States in area. 
8. What facts concerning the climate do you dis- 
cover from the map? 9. What does the general 
absence of railways tell about the development of 
the people ? In what parts have there probably been 
most progress? 10. Name some of the large islands 
near Asia. Name some of the largest islands be- 
tween Asia and Australia (Fig. 517). 

Fig. 457. — Relief map of Eurasia. 



i. General Facts 

Asia, the largest of the continents, in- 
cludes almost one third of the land of the 
Size and globe. Its immense area is 

position shown by the fact that it 

reaches from near the equator to a point, 
halfway between the Arctic Circle and the 
north pole. How many degrees of latitude 
is that ? How many miles ? In what 





. v~w23iKp3 


■ r 3^: 


Fig. 458. — Fujiyama, a very perfect volcanic cone in Japan. 

zones, therefore, does Asia lie ? Is the 
same true of any other continent ? 

Find the Isthmus of Suez, which connects 
Asia with Africa. At one point Asia 
reaches within fifty miles of North America. 
Find that place. What is the name of the 
strait separating these two continents 
(Fig. 2) ? The distance from the Suez 
Canal to Bering Strait is six thousand 
miles. There are so many degrees of longi- 
tude included in this distance, that, accord- 
ing to our plan for standard time, one would 
need to change his watch ten different times 
in traveling over it. How many changes 
are necessary in crossing the United States 
(Fig. 290) ? 

Asia resembles Europe in the irregular 

arrangement of its mountains „ , 

(Fig. 457). While many of features 

them extend east and west, i Direction 

there are others running nearly and character of 

north and south. Point out the mountains 
examples of each. 

The growth of the mountains and plateaus hai 
caused many islands and peninsulas, with gulfs and 
seas between. The mountains in many parts of 
Asia are still slowly rising ; and as 
the rocks move and break, earth- 
quake shocks are common. There 
are also many volcanoes (Fig. 458) ; 
in fact, the islands east and south- 
east of Asia form the most active 
volcanic and earthquake region in 
the world. 

Northern and western Asia 
form a vast plain, and there 
are other smaller 2 p^,^ 

plains and low lowlands and 

plateaus ; but a hi g u « ld s 
large part of the continent 
consists of mountains and 
high plateaus. Indeed, more 
than one twelfth of Asia, 
mainly in the central part o: 
the continent, has an eleva 
tion above ten thousand feet. 
Here are found the Hima- 
layas (meaning abode of 
snow), whose loftiest peak, 
Mount Everest (29,000 feet), is the highest 
in the world. Locate it. Here, too, ari 
other ranges with peaks rising above valleys 
whose bottoms lie eleven thousand feet 
above sea level, or higher than most moun- 
tains. Between the mountains are table 
lands, like that of Tibet, which has an 
elevation of from ten thousand to fifteen 
thousand feet, some portions being as high 
as the loftiest peaks of the Alps. 

The mountains and high plateaus of , 
central Asia are the source of many large 

rivers. Why ? Note how „ _ . 

J ., „ 3. The rivers 

many rise on the margin of 

this central highland and flow east, south 

and north, to the sea. Name and trace 






each of the large rivers (Fig. 456). 
Through what countries do they flow? 
which of these rivers are probably least 
useful ? Why ? 

In so vast a land, with such differences 
in elevation, there are many different cli- 
mates. Tropical heat is found in southern 
Asia, and here dense forests 
grow in the belt of calms 
(Fig. 475), and in those places where ocean 
winds blow over the land. Where winds do 
not blow from the ocean, however, the cli- 
mate is very dry and there are broad 
deserts (Fig. 459.) Most of western Asia 
is arid for this reason. Much of central 


is the largest continent, the continental climate is 
best developed here. Thus where the Arctic Circle 
crosses the Lena River, the average temperature in 
July is 60° and in January 60° below zero, a differ- 
ence of 120° between summer and winter. This is 
the lowest winter temperature known in the world, 
and this point is therefore sometimes called the cold 
pole of the earth. 

Since northern Asia is really a continua- 
tion of Europe, the wild plants 
and animals, as well as the 
farm products, resemble those 
of Europe. 

Plants and 

1. How those 
of northern Asia 
resemble those 
of Europe 

The cold northern part of Siberia, 
like northern Europe and America, 
is a vast expanse of frozen ground, or tundra. 


Fig. 459. — A caravan on the desert of Persia. 

Asia is also arid, since the lofty mountains 
surrounding the central plateau cause most 
of the vapor to condense on their seaward 

A large part of Asia has a temperate, and 
some of it even a frigid, climate, as in Xorth 
America and Europe. For example, the 
climate at Peking resembles that of the 
northeastern part of the United States ; 
and the climate of the plains of central 
Siberia resembles that of the plains of Min- 
nesota and Dakota. 

Such a climate, with warm summers and very 
cold winters, is called continental ; and since Asia 

ward the south the tundra grades into the forest ; low 
stunted trees appear first, followed by true forests of 
evergreens, birches, poplars, etc. Farther south 
where the rainfall is light and where, in the warmer 
climate, evaporation is more rapid, the soil is too dry in 
summer for forests. This is the region of the steppes, 
which are covered with luxuriant grass in the north, 
but which grade into the barren desert farther south. 
In southern Asia, on the other hand, from Arabia 
to China, the plants and animals resemble those of 
Africa rather than of Europe and g g ow ana 
northern Asia. One reason for this 
is that southern Asia has a tropical 
climate, like Africa ; another is that 
a mountain and desert barrier sepa- 
rates northern from southern Asia, 
rier on Figure 457. 

why those of 
southern Asia 
resemble those 
of Africa 

Trace this bar- 


The M.N.COnBuFFALo. 



Fig. 400. — Some ol the wild animals oi Asia. 



As in Africa, this arid portion, which includes 
Arabia, Persia, and central Asia, is the home of the 
camel (Fig. 460), while the elephant and rhinoceros 
(Fig. 460) live on the savannas and in the tropical 
jungles. Southern Asia is also the home of the 
fierce tiger and numerous species of monkeys and 
apes (Fig. 460). 

It was in Asia, probably the seat of the 
oldest civilization of mankind, that men 
3 d bt t ^ rs * l earnec '- to make use of 
Asia for domes- some of the animals and plants 

ticated plants tnat are now s0 va l ua ble. No 
and animals , , , , 

one knows who it was that 
first tamed the wild animals, 
such as the horse, dog, and 
sheep, which now are used all 
over the world. Nor is it 
known who first cultivated 
the wheat and many other 
useful plants ; but it is certain 
that the people of Asia knew 
their value long before Euro- 
peans became civilized. Cen- 
turies before the time of Christ 
the people of India grew cotton 
and wove it into cloth ; and 
they kept sheep, horses, cattle, 
and goats. Tea and oranges 
were introduced into Europe 
from China, and the lemon 
tree came from India. 

The extent to which the Asiatic 
people have learned to make use of 
animals is shown by 
domes^ated 3 ° the followi »g facts: On the frozen 
animals in Asia tundras where no large domesticated 
animals thrive, the reindeer not only 
supplies milk, meat, and hides, but is also used as 
a work animal. The camel, whose original home 
seems to have been Asia, makes it possible for 
niHii to live even in the desert (Figs. 451) and 489). 
Elephants are domesticated and made to work in 
the dense tropical forests (Figs. 461 and 480) ; 
and the buffalo is used as a work animal in hot, damp 
lands where horses find the climate trying (Fig. 481). 
Among the lofty plateaus and mountains, where the 
air is so rare, and the slopes so steep, that other work 
animals cannot be used, the yak is domesticated. 
Upon the steppes, where herds of cattle, sheep, and 
goals are kept, the horse is so necessary to the herder 
that the men almost live in the saddle. Indeed, the 
word Cossack, applied to Russians who dwell on the 

steppes, means horseman, 
also have swine, poultry, 
domestic animals. 

The Asiatic people 
dogs, cats, and other 

More than half the human race, or over 
eight hundred and fifty million persons, live 
in Asia. But in spite of this p eop i e 
vast number, most of the con- x Theirnum . 
tinent is sparsely settled. The ber, and their 
mountain slopes, the cold pla- location 
teaus, the steppes, deserts, forests, and tun- 
dras support but few inhabitants (Fig. 462). 
Nearly seven eighths of the Asiatic people 

Flu. 461. — The elephant drawing a load of cocoanuts in Ceylon. 

dwell near the coast, especially on the river 
flood plains and deltas of the south and 
east. Almost every foot of land there is 
cultivated, and soil for gardens is even car- 
ried to boats on the rivers. 

Three fourths of the Asiatic people be- 
long to the Yellow division „ „ 

t Zi. i, r ooo\ 2 ' The races t0 

oi the human race (p. 2.61). which they be- 

while the remaining fourth are lon .g.. and theil 
chiefly whites. 

There are great differences in religion be< 
tween these people and Europeans. Al- 
though the Christian religion started iv 
southwestern Asia, and spread freely along 
the Mediterranean, it made little headway 



across the desert and mountain lands to 
the east. One difficulty was that there 
were still older, well-established religions 
in southern and eastern Asia. At present 
two thirds of the Asiatic people are either 
Brahmans or Buddhists (p. 233), as their 
ancestors have been for many centuries. 
Many others are of the Mohammedan faith, 

of the Euphrates River, and of the Indian 
and Chinese rivers, had a fertile soil and an 
abundance of water for irrigation. More- 
over, these fertile spots were protected from 
invasion by ocean, desert, and mountain 
barriers, so that the inhabitants were able 
to cultivate the arts of peace. Other cen 
ters, protected from the attacks of wander 


Fig. 462. 

which .had its start in Asia, long after Christ 
(p. 234). This religion has not only taken 
the place of the Jewish and Christian reli- 
gions in most of western Asia, where they 
started, but has spread far to the eastward. 
Some of the natives even of the Philippine 
Islands are Mohammedans. 

One reason why the people of Asia made 

8. Reasons for *" cl1 early progress toward 

their early prog- civilization is the favorable 

situation of certain parts of 

the continent. For example, the flood plains 

ing hordes, are found among the shut-in 
valleys of the lofty mountains ; and here, 
also, it was possible for people to advance 
in civilization. 

Another reason for their progress is the 
fact that they have always had great ability. 
That this is true is indicated by r the rapid 
advance that has been made in Japan and 
India in recent years. 

In spite of their early prog- 
ress and their great ability, ha^^so 
the Asiatic people have long far behind 



stood still, or have been falling behind, 
while Europeans were making rapid ad- 
vances in civilization. 

There are two reasons for this that are 
specially important. One is the fact that 
the Asiatic people have been so cut off from 
the rest of the world that they have been 
unable to learn from others. While Euro- 
peans were exploring the world in all direc- 
tions, and while they were founding colonies 
and carrying on profitable com- 
merce with foreigners, the 
people of Asia did little or 
nothing in these directions. 

A second reason is that they 
have not wanted to learn from 
other people. Many Asiatics, 
like the Chinese, for example, 
have felt that their civilization 
was the best, and have there- 
fore even refused to learn from 
others. No wonder that, under 
these conditions, the Asiatics 
have stood still, while Euro- 
peans have made rapid advance. 

However, these people can 
improve rapidly, if they will. 
5. Signs of And there are 

future progress many s jg ns fc ]j at 

they are now determined to do 
it. The Japanese and the 
people of India have already 
made great progress, and the 
Chinese are beginning to do 
so. It seems probable that the 
people of Asia, in general, will rapidly ap- 
proach the same level of civilization that 
the Europeans have reached. 

2. The Turkish, or Ottoman, Empire 

Although Constantinople, the capital of 
the Turkish Empire, is in Europe, Turkey 
controls more than ten times as much land 
in Asia as in Europe. 

Turkey in Asia, although now of little 
Whyofspe- importance among nations, is 
cial interest of peculiar interest to us. It 

is within this country that many of the places 
mentioned in the Bible are located (Fig. 
4G5) ; and here Christ was born, as well 
as the prophet Mohammed. It was from 
this center, also, that much of the ancient 
civilization spread along the shores of the 

A large part of Turkey in Asia is table- 
land, crossed by short moun- Surface and 
tain ranges. There are also a climate 

Fig. 463— Per 
their haud 

^ian women making a rug by hand. These people are so 
that they have not learned to use modern machinery; but 
work is very artistic and beautiful. 

number of extinct volcanoes, such as Mount 

There is little rainfall except along the 
coast of the Mediterranean and Black seas. 
The country is, therefore, mainly arid or 
desert ; the streams are usually short and 
shallow; and there are numerous salt lakes. 
Point out the two principal rivers (Fig. 455). 

Thus the climate is very unfavorable ; but 
the location of the region is also How its posi- 
unfavorable, and in part ex- tion has been a 
plains its lack of development, disadvantage 
Asia Minor, the peninsula between the Medi- 



terranean and Black seas, was the pathway 
for the ancient caravan trade between 
Europe and Asia. While this brought 
much commerce, it also led to many inva- 
sions, and the region has had a very un- 
fortunate history. 

More than five centuries before Christ the country 
was conquered by the Persians; two centuries later 
it came under the control of the Greeks ; and later 
still, it became a part of the Roman Empire. With 
the decline of the Roman Empire came invasions 

1. The Holy 

(1) Its area, 
surface, and 

Fig. 4li4. — Native spinning wheels in Palestine, using the same methods as in the 

days of Christ. 

by wandering Turks, Tartars, and others. It was 
over this highway that the Mohammedan Turks 
entered southwestern Europe, carrying destruction 
wherever they went. 

Some of the mountain slopes are covered 
with forest ; but most of the country is 
Its industries, open, and suited mainly to 
products, and herding, though there is some 
chief cities agriculture. In the valleys 
wheat, grapes, olives, figs, oranges, and cot- 
ton are raised, usually by the aid of irriga- 
tion. Both the herding and farming are 
carried on in much the same way as in the 
time of Christ. The valuable minerals are 
scarcely worked at all ; and there is very lit- 
tle manufacturing except that clone by hand 
(Fig. 464). Some of this work, however, 

like the Turkish rugs already mentioned 
(p. 337), is very beautiful. 

Smyrna is the most important seaport 
Locate it. Find Trebizond, an importan 
port on the Black Sea. 

There are two parts of Turkej' in Asia 
that merit special study on Tw0 especially 
account of their history ; important 
namely, (1) the Holy Land, parts of Tur- 
and (2) the valley of the Eu- ke y in Asia 
phrates and Tigris rivers, or Mesopotamia. 
Estimate the length 
and average breadth of 
this noted 
little re- 
gion at the 
east end of 
the Medi- 
terranean Sea(Fig.465). 
How does it compare 
with Connecticut in 
area ? 

Back of a straight 
coast, with no good 
harbors, lies a narrow 
coastal plain. Beyond 
this are two low moun- 
tain ranges, between 
which lies the remark- 
able depression in whose 
bottom the Dead Sea is 
situated. . While the village of Hebron 
(Fig. 465), on the western mountain range, 
is about three thousand feet above sea level, 
the surface of the Dead Sea, a few miles 
to the east, is over thirteen hundred feet 
below sea level. This is, in fact, the deep- 
est depression on the lands of the world. 

Although fed by the river Jordan, which flows 
out of a fresh-water lake, called the Sea of Galilee 
(Fig. 46G), the water of the Dead Sea is so salt that 
no fishes can live in it. The salt that it contains 
makes this water so dense that a person cannot even 
sink in it. The fact that the Dead Sea is so salt 
shows how arid the climate is. Otherwise its basin 
would be filled with water, which, by overflowing, 
would soon carry off the salt and make a fresh-water 
lake. The Jordan Valley and Dead Sea lie no far- 
ther south than southern Alabama; yet, partly be- 

Longitude £ut 

FIG. 465. 



cause the region is so low and inclosed, its climate 
is almost tropical. 

Before its possession by the Jews, this 
reo-ion was divided into small countries, 

... T , , often under 

(2) Important 

events that hap- the rule 01 

penedhere j. ne j r mo re 

advanced and powerful 
neighbors in northeast- 
ern Africa, the Egyp- 
tians. Then the Jews 
entered this "promised 
land " and created a 
kingdom winch rose to 
its highest power under 
King Solomon. It was 
here that many of the 
events in the Old Testa- 
ment took place, in- 
cluding the advance in 
religion from the wor- 
ship of many gods to the belief in one all- 
powerful God. Persians, Egyptians, and 
Romans later ruled over Palestine ; and it 
was during the control of the latter people 

some of the places marked on the map 
(Fig. 465;? 

At that time, as we learn from the Bible, 
the region was highly developed. Wheat 

Fig. 467. — Bethlehem, where Christ was horn. 

that Christ was bom at Bethlehem 
(Fig. 467). What events in the life of 
Christ can you mention that occurred at 

Fig. 466. —Tiberias and the Sea of Galilee in the Holy Land. 

was raised upon the uplands, and olives, 

figs, and grapes in the valleys, ... _, 
B ' & f J (3) Former 

while herds of sheep were products and 
pastured on the plateaus and commerce of 

,, Palestine 

mountains. Re- 
call events from the Bible that 
indicate these occupations. 

Palestine lay on the great 
caravan route which, leading 
from Egypt to the distant 
East, ran northward, as far 
as Damascus (Fig. 455), in 
order to avoid the Syrian 
desert. Throngs of people, 
therefore, passed this way. 
Jerusalem (Fig. 468), the 
capital, was a large city, situ- 
ated upon a lofty elevation 
that made it an important 

Palestine is now visited by many 
Christians, and also by Moham- 
medan pilgrims who 
believe that Moham- 
med ascended to heaven from Jeru- 
salem. Very little but ruins is to be 
seen, for much of the country, once "flowing with 
milk and honey," is now deserted. 

(4) Present at- 
tractions, and 
method of travel 



The usual mode of trayel is by mule or camel, as 
in olden times. A short railway now climbs the 
mountains from Jaffa, on the seacoast, to Jerusalem, 
and another has been begun following the old cara- 
van route past Nazareth and the Sea of Galilee to 
Damascus. Trace these two lines. 

This region, which includes the fertile 
valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, 
2 Mesopota- ^ as sun °ered the same fate as 
mia the rest of Turkey in Asia. 

(1) Its ancient It was formerly a country of 
history great resources, crossed by a 

network of irrigation canals, and was called 

3. Arabia, Persia, and Afghanistan 

The Arabian peninsula is a plateau, sev 
eral thousand feet in elevation, Arabia, 
with a fringe of mountains 1. surface an 
(Figs. 456 and 457), especially climate 
in the south and west. What waters 
border Arabia? 

The climate is hot along the coast, but 
cooler on the plateau and among the moun- 
tains. A large part of the interior is desert, 
and almost everywhere the rainfall is light. 
Why (p. 211)? 

Fig. 4fi8. — A view of Jerusalem as it appears to-day. 

in the Bible " a garden of the Lord." But 
it has been overrun by the Arabs and Turks, 
until it is now almost a waste. Babylon 
and Nineveh, once great cities, and the seats 
of a wonderful civilization, are now marked 
only by mounds of ruins. The site of the 
Tower of Babel is believed to be at Babylon, 
and the ruins of the palace of Nebuchadnez- 
zar are still to be seen. 

Under such conditions there can be little com- 
merce, though steamboats can go up the Tigris as 
(2) Its present far as Bagdad. This city, situated 
importance on the caravan route to the East, 

was of much importance in ancient times. Some of 
its former importance may be brought back by the 
building of a railway from Smyrna to the Red Sea. 

Since the coast line is